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THIETY YEAES 

OF 

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT 

VOL. I. 



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LONDON 






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THIRTY YEAES 

OF 

COLONIAL GOVERNMENT 

A SELECTION FROM THE DESPATCHES AND 
LETTERS OF THE RIGHT HON. 

SIR GEOEGE FERGUSON BOWEN, G.C.H.G. 

HON. D.C.L. OXON., HON. LL.D. CANTAB. 

GOVERNOR SUCCESSIVELY OF 
QUEENSLAND, NEW ZEALAND, VICTORIA, MAURITIUS, AND HONG KONG 

EDITED BY 

STANLEY LANE-POOLE 

$litb portrait 
TWO VOLUMES -VOL. I. 



LONDON 
LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO. 

AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16 th STREET 

1889 

All ria/itx reserved 









^RA^ 

NOV 24 1966 
fes/TvoMO$g 



CONTENTS 

OF 
THE FIRST VOLUME. 

PAET I. 

PREFATORY MEMOIR. 

CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Introductory Importance of the Colonies Altered state of public 
opinion on this subject Views of Adam Smith Mr. W. E. 
Forster Lord Eosebery Imperial Federation Colonies 
governed by Sir G. Bowen . 3 

CHAPTER II. 

Sir G. Bowen's early years Oxford The Ionian Islands Publi- 
cations on Greece, &c. Travels in Eastern Europe Vienna 
in 1848 War in Hungary Lord Stratford de Redcliffe 
Appointed Secretary of Government at Corfu Marriage Lord 
Palmerston and Modern Greek Mr. Disraeli on Eastern 
Questions 14 

CHAPTER III. 

Promotion to G.C.M.G. To Queensland To New Zealand To 
Victoria On leave in Italy King Victor Emmanuel Pius IX. 
Garibaldi King Humbert Leo XIII. The Vatican and 
Ireland Italian Politics . ,. 30 

CHAPTER IV. 

On leave in England and America Entertained at a public 
dinner in London with H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in the 
chair Varieties of life in England, Canada, and the United 



VI 



THIRTY YEARS OF COLONIAL GOVERNMENT 

PAGE 

States-Lord Dufferin President Grant American Politics 
The Mormons Brighani Young-San Francisco 1 The Stars 
and Bars 'Miss Lee of Virginia Return to Melbourne 

CHAPTER V. 

Mauritius Hong Kong China Japan India ' Dufferin Bur- 
inanicus 'Sir Edwin Arnold Privy Councillor Hon. D.C.L. 
Oxford Hon. LL.D. Cambridge- Retirement Malta . . 68 



PABT II. 
THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND: 1859-1868. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Sir G. Bowen appointed first Governor of Queensland Letter 
from Sir E. Bulwer Lytton Enthusiastic reception at Brisbane 
Addresses and Replies Report to the Secretary of State and 
his Reply 79 

CHAPTER VII. 

Organisation of the Public Departments Letters to Sir E. Bulwer 
Lytton To the Duke of Newcastle Tour on the Darling 
Downs Rapid but solid progress of settlement . . . 105 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The first Parliament The first Elections The Franchise 
Results of Vote by Ballot and Manhood Suffrage Meeting of 
the Parliament Speech of the Governor, and Addresses of 
both Houses Addresses to the Queen and Her Majesty's Reply 
The ' Times ' on Queensland 130 

CHAPTER IX. 

The work of the first Session The Governor's Prorogation Speech 
--The Land Legislation Letters from the Duke of Newcastle 
and Sir E. Bulwer Lytton 163 

CHAPTER X. 

progress of Queensland Official Tours Speech on Education 
Visit to the Northern districts -Colonial Forces Letters to 



CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME vii 



the Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Cobden, Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, Sir 
Roundell PalmerMr. Gladstone Australian Federation Pax 
Britannica 178 

CHAPTER XL 

The northward expansion of Queensland Exploring Expeditions 
Governor's voyage to Cape York and back Foundation of a 
new settlement Public dinner at Rockhampton Foreigners 
settled in Queensland Letters to Mr. Cardwell . . . 212 

CHAPTER XII. 

Dissolution of the first Parliament Reasons for it The second 
Parliament The first Railways Letter to Mr. Gladstone The 
' Times ' and ' Edinburgh Review ' on Queensland Testimony 
of the Colonial Press 234 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Governor's term of office extended Financial crisis The 
Governor successfully resists the proposed issue of inconvertible 
legal tender Notes Approval of Her Majesty's Government 
Opinion of Lord Norton Promotion to New Zealand Farewell 
Addresses from the Queensland Parliament and other public 
bodies Demonstrations of respect and esteem on the Go- 
vernor's departure 250 



PAET III, 
NEW ZEALAND : 1868-1878. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Condition of New Zealand on the arrival of Sir George Bowen 
Addresses of welcome The Fenian movement Visit to a Maori 
camp The Auckland Goldfields Captain Cook . . . 27?3 

CHAPTER XV. 

Visits to the Maoris Meetings at Waitangi and in the Waikato 
Tamati Waka Nene Analogy between the Maoris and the 
Scotch Highlanders The so-called Maori King Tauranga 
The Gate Pah The East Coast Napier Bishops Selwyn and 
Patteson Shipwreck of the Anglican Bishops .... 290 



viii THIRTY YEARS OF COLONIAL GOVERNMENT 
CHAPTER XVI. 

PAGB 

Renewal of the Maori War Titokowaru and Te Kooti Massacre 
at Poverty Bay Policy of the Governor He proceeds to Wan- 
ganui, and addresses the assembled Clans, who take up arms 
for the Queen Defeat of the Rebels Capture of Ngatapa 
Trial of the Maori Prisoners The Governor's comments on 
the state of affairs, and practical suggestions .... 327 

CHAPTER XVII. 

The War becomes a Guerilla Governor continues his Official 
Tours Last Survivor of the Maoris who had seen Captain Cook 
Visits of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh Expedition to the 
Hot Lakes Quotation from ' Greater Britain ' . . . 359 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Further visits to the Maoris Kaipara The Northern Clans 
Maori Church at Ohaiawai Presentation of Swords of Honour 
Letters to Lord Kimberley Lord Dufferin and Lord Kim- 
berley 377 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Final close of the Ten Years' War The Governor's ride through 
the interior of the North Island from Wellington to Auckland 
Submission of the former Rebels Albert Victor Pomare 
Letter to Sir T. M. Biddulph Maori Members in the Colonial 
Parliament 404 

CHAPTER XX. 

Official Tours in the South Island Canterbury John Godley 
The ' Canterbury Pilgrims ' Otago Hokitika Southern Alps 
Fjords of New Zealand Milford Sound Lake Wakatipu . 430 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Promotion to Victoria The New Zealand University Foundation 
of the ' Bowen Prize 'The Governor's Speech at the com- 
mencement of Railways in the North Island Farewell Visits 
Approval of Her Majesty's Government .... 445 



PART I. 
PREFATORY MEMOIR 



VOL. 1. 



CHAPTEE I. 

INTRODUCTORY IMPORTANCE OP THE COLONIES ALTERED 
STATE OF PUBLIC OPINION ON THIS SUBJECT VIEWS OF 
ADAM SMITH MR. W. E. FORSTER LORD ROSEBERY IMPE- 
RIAL FEDERATION COLONIES GOVERNED BY SIR G. BOWEK. 

THERE are few subjects in the arena of political 
debate upon which the minds of the majority of 
Englishmen have so completely changed in recent 
years as that of the relations of the Colonies towards 
the mother-country. There was a time when the 
so-called Manchester school of politicians, together 
with many of their allies among the Statesmen of the 
day, could talk complacently of the final separation 
of Canada, Australasia, and South Africa, from a 
parent who seemed anxious to rid herself of her 
encumbrances. What is still stranger, similar ideas 
were then prevalent even among the bureaucracy of 
the Colonial Office. From the Autobiography of Sir 
Henry Taylor, 1 long one of the most prominent and 
influential members of that Department, it appears 
that he was strongly in favour of getting rid of the 
greater Colonies, and that Sir Frederic Rogers (now 
Lord Blachford), then the Permanent Under-Secretary 
of State, wrote to him, 'I go very far with you in the 
desire to shake off all responsibly governed Colonies ; 
and as to North America, I think if we abandon one, 

1 Vol. II. chap. 17. 



4 PREFATOKY MEMOIR 

we had better abandon all.' Nay more, we find Sir 
H. Taylor writing (in February 1864) to the Colonial 
Minister, the Duke of Newcastle ; ' As to our American 
possessions, I have long held, and often expressed, 
the opinion that they are a sort of damnosa hcereditas ; 
and when your Grace and the Prince of Wales were 
employing yourselves so successfully in conciliating 
the Colonists, I thought you were drawing closer ties 
which might better be slackened.' 

The time when such sentiments could be openly 
professed is gone for ever. The politicians and officials 
once hostile or indifferent to the Colonies now feel that, 
in the altered state of public opinion, they must (as 
one of the most prominent among them recently 
admitted) ' assume a virtue, if they have it not.' The 
distant provinces of the British Empire are no longer 
in their struggling infancy : they have grown, and are 
still growing, in wealth and population, so fast that 
they have already left behind them, in most elements 
of material prosperity and importance, the secondary 
kingdoms of Europe. The rapid development of 
steam communication has brought our most remote 
provinces practically nearer to us than the Hebrides 
were a hundred years ago ; and the old country has 
begun to realise that distance is not disintegration, 
and that a great colonial city twelve thousand miles 
away is as much British as if it were situated in 
Yorkshire or in Midlothian. Those of us whose work 
lies in Canada or Australia are so frequently revisit- 
ing the ever- welcoming white cliffs, that we who stay 
at home readily forget the space of ocean which parts 
us from the scene of their labours ; and there is a 
general feeling of kinship and common loyalty among 



IMPORTANCE OF THE COLONIES 5 

us all, wherever our place may be in the Empire, 
which hardly existed a generation ago. England 
has at last awoke to the sense of her own greatness. 

Many causes have contributed to this awakening. 
Not the least of these has been the example of our 
powerful neighbours in Europe, who have taught us 
that what we used to undervalue is to them above all 
things to be desired. ' The nations of Europe,' said 
the late Mr. W. E. Forster, in 1885, 'begin to find 
out how important it is for England to have great 
possessions in different parts of the world, and try to 
have their share in such possessions.' Germany and 
France in recent years have striven at immense cost 
to establish themselves on such spots of the globe as 
still remain open to colonisation. Tongking, the New 
Hebrides, New Guinea, East and West Africa, Mada- 
gascar, are names which testify to the colonising am- 
bition of these powers ; and Italy, the newest of Euro- 
pean kingdoms, has not waited long before making 
an effort in the same direction. Emulation is the soul 
of enterprise, and these endeavours of foreign nations 
have keenly aroused the pride and interest of Great 
Britain in her far-off provinces. 

Even if the example of our neighbours had not 
stirred us, other reasons led towards the same happy 
result. The Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, 
and the Colonial Conference of 1887, have exercised 
a salutary influence on the public mind. Moreover, 
the statistics of recent years have proved beyond 
doubt that the maxim that ' trade follows the flag ' 
is true ; and we have learnt that in the fierce and 
ever-increasing competition of commerce our colonial 
kinsmen are our best customers. And if this be 



PREFATORY MEMOIR 

thought a somewhat sordid, however necessary, con- 
sideration, let us remember that our Colonies have 
shown themselves one with us not in commercial 
interests only, but in national spirit. They have 
heartily responded to the enthusiasm which the idea 
of a United Empire has aroused in England, which is 
still to every colonist his ' home ' ; and they showed 
their eagerness to share in the dangers as well as in 
the glories of the mother-country when they sent their 
volunteers to help us in our war in the Soudan ; when 
they contributed with their customary generosity to 
the relief of Indian famines ; and responded in many 
other ways to calls for assistance, often but indistinctly 
heard across half the globe. ' But as relates to the 
great question of the future, it would be impossible 
to use more impressive language than that of Sir 
Edward Bulwer Lytton, 1 while Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, in a speech worthy of himself and of the 
subject, delivered on the occasion of a celebration in 
London of the foundation of the Australian Colonies. 
"You, gentlemen of Australia,"said the brilliant orator, 
" took with you from this country no bitter or angry 
resolutions, no associations of the reigns of the Stuarts ; 
but, on the contrary, you carried with you the feelings 
of affection for a free country, and the tie has been all 
the stronger because it has been more gently felt. The 
time will come when these new Colonies will be great 
States ; when they will find it easier to raise fleets and 
armies than they now find it to raise a police ; when 
they will have in their harbours forests of masts and 
navies of their own. It may so happen that in that 
distant day England may be in danger, that the great 

1 Afterwards the first Lord Lytton. 



MR. W. E. FORSXER IMPERIAL FEDERATION 7 

despotic and military powers of Europe may then 
rise up against the venerable mother of many free 
Commonwealths. If that day should ever arrive I 
believe that her children will not be unmindful of 
her, and that to her rescue, across the wide ocean, 
ships will come thick and fast, among which there 
will be but one cry, " While Australia lasts, England 
shall not perish." ' l 

Lord Lytton did not live to see the general 
awakening of the national spirit which now presses 
more and more eagerly towards the realisation of 
some such settled scheme of unification as is conveyed 
in the words Imperial Federation, words which have 
stirred the imagination and roused the sympathies 
and enlisted the energies and thought of many of 
the leading Statesmen in all parts of the Empire. 
Mr. W. E. Forster, whose closing years were much 
occupied with this great subject, defined this Fede- 
ration to be ' such a union of the mother-country 
with the Colonies as w r ill keep the British Empire One 
State in relation to other States, through the agency 
of (1) an organisation for common defence, and (2) a 
joint foreign policy.' So the Earl of Eosebery, who 
succeeded Mr. Forster as President of the Imperial 
Federation League, said in a recent speech : ' The 
cause which we call Imperial Federation is worthy of 
the devotion of the individual lives of the people of 
this country. . . . Ever since I traversed those great 
regions which own the sway of the British Crown 
outside these islands, I have felt that it was a cause 
which merited all the enthusiasm and energy that 
man could give to it. It is a cause for which any 

1 Quarterly Review, 1863, art. 'Australian Colonies.' 



8 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

one might be content to live : it is a cause for which 
any one might be content to die.' 

In one of the latest letters which Mr. Forster ever 
wrote (in August, 1885), he exhorted his friend Sir 
George Bowen to throw into the scale of Imperial 
Federation ' the weight of his unmatched experience 
in colonial administration.' This prompting was 
in accordance with all that the veteran Proconsul 
had felt during his long career; but coming when 
it did, almost as a voice from the grave of the 
departed Statesman, it moved him deeply. Since 
then, at many public meetings, and especially before 
the Eoyal Colonial Institute, he has set forth his 
views on the nature and limitations of the future 
Federation to which so many people, both in England 
and in the ' Greater Britain,' look forward with patri- 
otic hope. This is the main reason for the present 
work. Many public men have given ..their opinion 
that, in view of the present increasing interest and ap- 
preciation of the Imperial relations of Great Britain, 
it would be useful to lay before the British people an 
outline of the work of Colonial government, illustrated 
by despatches and letters, and reaching over many 
years and a wide extent of the Empire, together with 
a summary of the official career of one who may 
justly be regarded as the type of a Colonial Governor. 
Five of our chief Colonies have seen Sir George Bowen 
in the highest command ; for more than a quarter of 
a century he has aimed at binding our kindred across 
the seas closer to the Crown and the mother-country ; 
and the record of his official work cannot but throw 
light upon the varied phases of colonial government, 
and upon s6me -.of the problems- which still await 



OPINIONS OF ADAM SMITH AND PROF. SEELEY 9 

complete solution. Above all, this book will have 
achieved its chief object if it helps to promote the 
movement towards Imperial Federation. The diffi- 
culties which surround this grandest of colonial pro- 
blems are manifold : but assuredly they ought not to 
be beyond the powers of British statesmanship. l 

In the pregnant words of Adam Smith : ' There 
is not the least probability that the British constitu- 
tion would be hurt by the union of Great Britain 
with her Colonies. That constitution, on the con- 
trary, would be completed by it, and seems to be 
imperfect without it. The Assembly which delibe- 
rates and decides concerning the affairs of every part 
of the Empire ought certainly to have represen- 
tatives from every part of it. That this union, 
however, could be easily effectuated, or that diffi- 
culties, and great difficulties, might not occur in the 
execution, I do not pretend. I have yet heard of 
none, however, which appear unsurmountable. The 
principal, perhaps, arise, not from the nature of 
things, but from the prejudices and opinions of the 
people both on this and on the other side of the 
Atlantic.' 2 

In the same spirit, Professor Seeley observes : 
' The old colonial system is gone. But in place of it 
no clear and reasoned system has been adopted. 
The wrong theory is given up, but what is the right 
theory ? There is only one alternative. As the 
Colonies are not, in the old phrase, possessions of 

1 The question of Imperial Federation, and of the relations of the 
mother-country and the 'Greater Britain,' are ably discussed in Mr. 
Fronde's Oceana, chap. 21. 

2 Wealth of Nations, Book IV. chap. 7. 



10 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

England, they must be a part of England ; and we 
must adopt this view in earnest. We must cease 
altogether to say that England is an island off the 
north-western coast of Europe, that it has an area of 
120,000 square miles, and a population of thirty odd 
millions. We must cease to think that emigrants, 
when they go to the Colonies, leave England, or are 
lost to England. We must cease to think that the 
history of England is the history of the Parliament 
that sits at Westminster, and that affairs which are 
not discussed there cannot belong to English history. 
When we have accustomed ourselves to contemplate 
the whole Empire together, and to call it all England, 
we shall see that here, too, is a United States. Here, 
too, is a great homogeneous people, one in blood, 
language, religion, and laws, but dispersed over a 
boundless space. We shall see that, though it is 
held together by strong moral ties, it has little that 
can be called a constitution, no system that seems 
capable of resisting any severe shock. But if we 
are disposed to doubt whether any system can be 
devised capable of holding together communities so 
distant from each other, then is the time to recollect 
the history of the United States of America. For 
they have such a system. They have solved this 
problem. They have shown that, in the present age 
of the world, political unions may exist on a vaster 
scale than was possible in former times. No doubt 
our problem has difficulties of its own, immense 
difficulties. But the greatest of these difficulties is 
one that we make ourselves. It is the false precon- 
ception which we bring to the question, that the 
problem is insoluble, that no such thing ever was 



IMPERIAL FEDERATION 11 

done, or ever will be done ; it is our misinterpre- 
tation of the American Eevolution. From that 
Eevolution we infer that all distant Colonies, sooner 
or later, secede from the mother-country. We 
ought to infer only that they secede when they are 
held under the old colonial system.' l 

' Those persons,' said Sir George Bowen, in his 
address at the Eoyal Colonial Institute in 1886, 2 ' who 
still insist that the Federation of the British Empire 
is impossible, even hereafter and in the fulness of 
time, would do well to ponder on the striking prece- 
dents of Germany and America. The federal Con- 
stitution of the United States was long despaired of 
by its strongest advocates, and was not carried until 
1789, thirteen years after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence in 1776. Again, ten short years before 
the proclamation, in 1871, of the federal Empire 
of Germany, before the victory of Sadowa and 
the capitulation of Sedan that Empire which now 
throws its gigantic shadow across Europe was gene- 
rally regarded as a dream of a few patriotic enthu- 
siasts. Finally, thousands of those who recently 
witnessed the opening by the Queen-Empress of the 
Imperial Exhibition (as it may justly be called), 
which owes so much to the Prince of Wales, the 
President of this Institute, hoped and prayed that 
this grand national spectacle may prove a fore- 
shadowing of permanent union and of future Im- 
perial Federation. Thus we should be brought 
nearer to the prophetic vision of Burke, when " the 

1 Expansion of England, p. 158. 

2 Republished in a pamphlet form by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, 
<fc Co., Second Edition, 1889. 



12 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

spirit of the English Constitution, infused through 
the mighty mass, shall pervade, vivify, unite, and 
invigorate every part of the Empire." ' 

A preliminary glance at the sphere in which the 
work of Sir George Bowen has been carried on will 
help towards the realisation of what is meant by ' the 
Greater Britain.' The Ionian Isles, Queensland, New 
Zealand, Victoria, Mauritius, Hong Kong, Malta the 
varied scenes of his public life comprise a large por- 
tion of our Colonial Empire, and severally illustrate 
many of the salient points of our Imperial rule. Corfu 
and Malta, of which the former marked the commence- 
ment of his career of colonial administration thirty- 
five years ago, while the latter was but last year 
(1888) the theatre of his latest appearance in that 
field are both striking landmarks in England's 
route to India, China, and Australia by way of the 
Mediterranean. Mauritius, which Thiers called the 
' Malta of the Indian Ocean,' is an essential link in 
our alternative chain of communications with our 
Eastern dominions by way of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Queensland, the latest formed, and Victoria, 
long the most wealthy and prosperous of the Austra- 
lian provinces, afford typical illustrations of the enor- 
mous extent, of the rapid progress, and of the consti- 
tutional system of government on the parent model, 
which characterise the British Empire in Australia. 
In New Zealand we see the ' Great Britain of the 
South ' ; but with glaciers and snowy peaks resem- 
bling those of Switzerland; with geysers and hot 

1 Cf. Virgil, 2En. VI. 726. 

S/iirilns intiis alit, totamquc inf usa per artns 
Mcns agitat molem, et mag no sc corpore miscet. 



COLONIES GOVERNED BY SIB G. BO WEN 13 

lakes worthy of Iceland ; and with arms of the 
sea winding among lofty mountains and precipices, 
surpassing the fjords of Norway. And here we are 
brought into contact with the Maoris, the noblest 
race of savages that has ever been absorbed by 
civilisation. Finally, Hong Kong, at once a great 
emporium of trade and a commanding naval and 
military station, brings more especially into promi- 
nence one of the principal factors in our national 
greatness, the commercial as distinct from the Impe- 
rial and Colonial element in the British Empire. As 
our main stronghold in a quarter of the globe which 
contains one-fourth of the entire human race, but 
which long resisted all intercourse with the western 
world, and as the channel through which passes the 
vast trade of the teeming millions of China and 
Japan, the Crown Colony of Hong Kong illustrates, 
perhaps to a fuller degree than any other British de- 
pendency, the commercial instinct which has so power- 
fully pervaded and strengthened the expansion of 
England. 

Thus it will be seen at the outset that a comprehen- 
sive view of those portions of the Queen's dominions 
with which Sir George Bowen has been officially con- 
nected tends to bring before the mind many of the 
most important considerations and problems affecting 
the past and future history and progress of the British 
Empire. Before, however, entering upon the detailed 
record of his administration of these varied seats of 
colonising and commercial enterprise, it may be useful 
to set down the chief incidents of his life in brief 
outline. 



14 PllEFATOllY MKMOllt 



CHAPTER II. 
SIR G. BOWEN'S EARLY YEARS OXFORD THE IONIAN ISLANDS 

PUBLICATIONS ON GREECE, ETC. TRAVELS IN EASTERN 

EUROPE VIENNA IN 1848 WAR IN HUNGARY LORD STRAT- 
FORD DE REDCLIFFE APPOINTED SECRETARY OF GOVERNMENT 
AT CORFU MARRIAGE LORD PALMERSTON AND MODERN 
GREEK MR. DISRAELI ON EASTERN QUESTIONS. 

GEORGE FERGUSON BOWEX, though descended from 
an old Pembrokeshire family (Ap-Owen), was born in 
Ireland in 1821. He is the eldest son of the late Eev. 
Hdward Bowen, rector of Taughboyne in Donegal, 
and is brother of the present Dean of Raphoe. He is 
wont to state that the earliest public event which he 
remembers was the battle of Navarino in 1827, which 
led to the independence of Greece, and to ascribe 
partly to that fact his active sympathy throughout life 
with the progress and welfare of the modern Greeks. 
His education was the good old-fashioned training 
of an English public school and university Charter- 
house, and Trinity College, Oxford, where he gained 
an open scholarship in 1840, at the side of the late 
lit. Hon. Montague Bernard, of the present Bishop 
(Jones) of St. David's, and of Henry Coleridge, 
In-other of the Chief Justice. During his career at 
the university he formed many life-long friendships. 
Like many other men who have won success in after 
life, he \va> a prominent member of the Union, and 



EARLY YEARS OXFORD 15 

he enjoyed the rare distinction of having been twice 
elected President of that society. His long vacations 
were generally spent abroad. As a child he had lived 
with his family for two years in the south of France ; 
and this experience, matured by later rambles in 
Brittany, Germany, Italy, and Sicily, explains his 
fluency in European languages. In 1844 he took 
his degree in the first class in classical honours, 
having with him in the same class the present Deans 
of Westminster (Bradley) and Wells (Plumptre) ; and 
in the same year he was elected to an open Fellow- 
ship at Brasenose College. The political activity of 
his after life has not obliterated the stamp of his old 
Oxford days. Classical studies have always retained 
for him their early charm, and have been his solace 
amid official cares. Nor is it unreasonable to presume 
that sympathy with the history of the Greeks, the chief 
colonisers of. the ancient world, and of the Eomans, 
the first practical exponents of imperial rule ever 
mindful of the stimulating counsels of Anchises 

Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento ; 
Ha tibierunt artes, pacisque imponere morem, 
Parcere subjectis, et debellare superbos, l 

may have contributed to his appreciation of the dio-- 
hity of Colonial and Imperial administration. The 
first Lord Lytton once wrote to him : ' It requires a 
Scholar as well as a Statesman fully to appreciate 
what Bacon calls " the heroic work of Colonisation." ' 
The same remark might be extended to the apprecia- 
tion of Lord Beaconsfield's maxim that the British 
Empire should be founded on the principles alike of 
hnperium and Libertas ; that is, Imperial control in 

1 Mn. VI. 851-3. 



1G PREFATORY MEMOIR 

matters of Imperial concern, and local self-government 
in matters of local concern. 

After taking his degree, Sir G. Bowen became a 
member of Lincoln's Inn, but he never practised at 
the Bar ; his tastes and special capabilities lay else- 
where. In 1847 he was offered a post congenial to his 
Oxford training, the task of reorganising, as President, 
the Ionian University, which had been founded at 
Corfu in 1820 by an eminent scholar and philhellene, 
Frederick North, Earl of Guilford, as the chief centre 
of education for regenerate Greece. In congratulating 
him on this appointment, Dr. Liddell, the present 
Dean of Christ Church, wrote : ' for an Englishman to 
preside over the destinies of a Greek University is 
indeed a picture in the words of JEschylus l ' of great 
and hyperborean felicity.' The manner in which he 
performed his duties at Corfu on this temporary 
mission gained him the approval of. the English 
Government and the thanks of the Ionian Senate. 
During his residence there he acquired a thorough 
knowledge of both the Italian and modern Greek 
languages, and made himself acquainted with Greece 
and the Greek provinces of Turkey, through which 
he made two extensive tours on horseback. The 
knowledge which he thus acquired of these regions 
and their various peoples was embodied in a practical 
form in the ' Handbook for Greece ' which he con- 
tributed to Mr. Murray's series ; and which, like Ford's 
' Handbook for Spain,' was intended for readers at 
home as well as for travellers abroad. Prefixed to 
this volume are several essays on Greek archaeology, 
the Greek Church, and the history and language of 

1 ^Eschylug, Chocpli. 373. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS TRAVELS IN GREECE 17 

modern Greece. Another result of his quasi -Greek 
residence was his ' Ithaca in 1850,' which has been 
recognised by Mr. Gladstone and other Homeric 
scholars as a conclusive identification of that island 
with the island of Odysseus ; while his ' Mount Athos, 
Thessaly, and Epirus,' was a graphic journal of a ride, 
in 1849, from Constantinople to Corfu across the 
principal provinces of European Turkey, including 
a visit to the celebrated monastic communities of 
Mount Athos, and Meteora, and to many parts of 
Albania, of which it was truly said by Gibbon, ' a 
country within sight of Italy is less known than the 
interior of America.' l 

Several articles on these countries in the chief 
periodicals of the day were contributed by Sir George 
Bowen ; and, at a later period, after a visit to the 
Prince of Montenegro, he wrote an article for the 
' Edinburgh Eeview ' (April 1859) which first drew 
general attention in England to the peculiar position 
of that principality, which has maintained its indepen- 
dence for more than four centuries against the Turks, 
' rising, like Ararat, above the overwhelming flood of 
Mohammedan conquest.' 

In 1848 occurred one of the most remarkable 
incidents of his life. Having suffered severely from 
Greek fever, 2 he was sent, on medical advice, for 

1 This book was favourably noticed in the Edinburgh Eeview 
for January, 1855. 

2 It is curious that Sir G. Bowen has ascended the three famous 
classical mountains of ^Etna, Olympus, and Parnassus ; and that the 
man who went up J5tna with him, a Polish Count, was afterwards hanged 
by the Russians for treason ; the man who went up Olympus with him, 
an English colonel, afterwards died of fever ; and that he himself barely 
escaped the same fate after going up Parnassus. He attributed his 
recovery to the friendly care of Sir Edmund (afterwards the first Lord) 

VOL. I. C 



18 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

change of air to Austria; and in October 1848 he 
witnessed the celebrated insurrection in Vienna and 
its capture by the Imperial troops under Prince Win- 
dischgratz, and Baron Jellachich, the Ban of Croatia, 
who led to the rescue of the House of Hapsburg 
his wild levies from the Debatable Land between 
Christendom and Islam. They were looked upon in 
Vienna much as the Scotch Highlanders who followed 
Prince Charles Edward in 1745 were regarded in 
England. Sir G. Bowen's narrative of the events of 
which he was an eye-witness was contained in a letter 
to the Principal of Brasenose, who communicated it 
to the ' Times,' wherein it was published, with the 
editorial comment ' admirably graphic,' Extracts 
from it were reprinted in the ' Annual Eegister ' for 
1848, and a few passages may here be quoted. 

' The JUgerzeile, the beautiful street leading to the 
Prater, had been the scene of the hardest fighting of 
all, as it had been fortified by the insurgents with a 
succession of barricades, built up to the first-floor 
windows in a half-moon shape, with regular embra- 

Lyons, then British Minister at Athens, with whom he ever afterwards 
maintained a cordial friendship. A striking incident of the Crimean 
War was related to him by Lord Lyons when he visited Corfu in 
1858 in command of the Mediterranean Fleet. He had always advo- 
cated a prompt attack instead of a regular siege of Sebastopol after 
the battle of the Alma. In confirmation of this policy, he recited a 
conversation with an old friend, a Russian Admiral, who described 
in graphic language how the chief Russian Commanders had stood 
watching the advance of the Allies from Balaklava, and expecting an 
immediate occupation of the town, which was then almost wholly 
unfortified on the south side ; when suddenly the enemy was seen to 
halt and to begin his trenches and parallels instead of marching 
directly to the assault. Then Todleben threw his cap into the air, ex- 
claiming, ' Nous sommes sauv6s t We are to have a regular siege. I 
will raise defences that will be hard to take.' And how he did it 
the history of that weary siege forcibly attests. 



VIENNA IN 1848 19 

sures, and planted with cannon. This street was 
strewn with the dead bodies of men and horses ; but 
they and the pools of blood all about did not strike 
us so much as the horrid smell of roast flesh, aris- 
ing from the half-burnt bodies of insurgents killed in 
the houses fired by Congreve rockets, which we saw 
used by the Imperial troops with terrible effect. Half 
of the houses in this suburb were thus burnt down, 
while the other half were mostly riddled with shot 
and shell. On every side we could see weeping wives, 
sisters, and daughters picking literally piecemeal out 
of the ruins the mutilated bodies of their relatives. 

4 On Sunday evening, the 29th October, the city, 
dreading a bombardment from the Imperial batteries, 
agreed to surrender ; but the capitulation was vio- 
lated, when, early the next morning, the approach 
of the revolted Hungarians to raise the siege was 
signalled from the tower of St. Stephen's cathedral. 
Then came the real crisis. Most of the Imperial 
troops and guns were removed from the Leopoldstadt 
to meet the Hungarian enemy in the rear ; while 
the remainder set to work to barricade the bridge 
which connects the suburb with the city, so as to 
prevent a sortie. There was a steady fire from the 
ramparts ; and I, for the first time, literally tasted 
blood, which was dashed over my face and clothes 
when a round shot carried off the head of an artillery- 
man by my side. . . . Meanwhile the roar of cannon 
and the rattle of musketry in our rear told us that 
the Hungarians had joined battle to raise the siege ; 
while in our front, from the ramparts and the roofs 
of the houses and churches, the insurgents were firing 
signal guns and waving flags to cheer them on. It 

c 2 



20 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

was a dark, lowering autumn day, and all felt that 
there were trembling in the balance not only the fate 
of the grand old Austrian Empire, An Siegen and 
anEhrenreich? the monarchy of Charles V. and of 
Maria Theresa, and long the bulwark of Christendom 
against the Turks but with it the peace and safety 
of Europe. High above the roar of battle and the 
shouts of the combatants swung the solemn peal of 
the great bell of St. Stephen's, never before tolled 
except at the death of an Emperor, but which now 
seemed, when rung as a tocsin by the insurgents, to 
toll the knell of the Empire. . . . 

' At length the firing behind us gradually slackened 
and then died away ; and towards sunset the vic- 
torious Imperialists marched back from the field of 
battle, having utterly routed the Hungarians and 
driven three thousand of them into the Danube, which 
will roll their bodies down to Pesth fearful tidings 
of their defeat. You may fancy what cheers now 
arose from the Imperialists, and what yells of de- 
spair from the insurgents, whose offers of a con- 
ditional surrender were scornfully rejected. 

'All that night and the ensuing morning were 
devoted to the rest of the troops, wearied by the 
incessant fighting of the last week. But in the after- 
noon a fierce bombardment began from the batteries 
opposite the Burg Thor ; and as it grew dark, Jellachich 
forced his way over the ramparts, his soldiers arriv- 
ing in time to save the priceless treasures of art and 
science in the Imperial Palace, to which the rebels 
had set fire in their baffled rage and spite. ... On 

1 ' Rich in victories and honours ' : so Austria is described in Arndt's 
famous national song. Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland? 



THE WAR IN HUNGARY 21 

that dreadful night of October 31st I saw Jellachicli, 
a tall and magnificent-looking man, by the blaze of 
the burning houses and the flashing of a hundred 
cannon, lead his wild Croats to the storm, his white 
plume shining, like Henry IV's at Ivry, as the pole- 
star of the whole army. He seems to be one of 
those remarkable men who are raised up from time 
to time to sway the destinies of nations.' l 

Hardly less impressive was Sir G. Bowen's journey 
across Hungary in 1849, at the great crisis in the 
history of Eastern Europe when that country was re- 
conquered by the Austrian and Russian armies after 
a resistance of nearly two years. He witnessed the 
siege of Comorn (then held by the Magyars under 
Klapka), and noted the strange variety of tongues 
spoken by the composite Austrian army ; for the 
military orders of the day were printed in some 
twelve languages and dialects of languages German, 
Italian, Hungarian, Roumanian, Polish, Bohemian, 
Croatian, Dalmatian, Servian, &c. From Buda-Pesth 
he proceeded down the Danube to Constantinople. 
At Yidin he found Kossuth and the other chief 

1 When Sir G. Bowen again visited Vienna, forty years later, in 
May 1888, he accompanied the English Ambassador to the grand 
inaugural ceremony of the monument of Maria Theresa, erected in 
front of the Palace Gate (Burg Thor), near the very spot where, in 1848, 
he had seen planted the Imperial batteries for the bombardment of the 
insurgent city. A generation had passed away, and in that vast and 
glittering assemblage where the Emperor and Empress stood encircled 
by all that is fair and noble in Vienna, it seemed that there were few but 
he who could explain the traces of the cannon-balls still visible on the 
huge blocks of stone which form the Burg Thor. Here too Sir G. 
Bowen renewed his old acquaintance with Dr. Smolka, still President, 
as he had been in 1848, of the Austrian Chamber of Deputies. The 
cordial greeting of these two survivors of a social and political state of 
affairs which had well-nigh disappeared, was noticed with interest in 
the Press of Vienna. 



22 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

Hungarian leaders, who had fled into Turkey after 
the close of the war in Hungary. The Austrian*} 
and Eussians demanded their extradition, to which 
the Turks might have yielded had it not been 
for the energetic interposition of Sir Stratford Can- 
ning (afterwards Lord Stratford de Kedeliffe), then 
the British Ambassador at the Porte. Hearing that 
there was an Englishman on board the steamer, 
several of the refugees at Vidin came off with their 
wives and daughters, and implored him to take charge 
of a letter for the Ambassador, for, they pleaded, it 
was a matter of life or death. He consented, at some 
personal risk, to take charge of this letter, and de- 
livered it to the Ambassador, whose guest he became 
at his summer residence at Therapia on the Bosphorus. 
The result of Sir Stratford's action is well known. 
Aided by the French Ambassador, he saved the 
refugees, with vast and far-reaching consequences to 
the eastern world. 1 

In 1854 Sir George Bowen received his first 
political appointment. He was recommended to the 
Queen by the Earl of Aberdeen, then Prime Minister, 
and the Duke of Newcastle, then Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, for the post, especially important at 
that crisis, of Chief Secretary of Government (under 
the Lord High Commissioner) in the Ionian Islands, 
which were then under the British protectorate. His 
appointment shortly preceded the outbreak of the 
Crimean War in 1854 ; and during that struggle 
Corfu became the chief point d'appui and place 
d'armes of England in the Levant. The normal 
difficulties of the protectorate of the Ionian Islands 

1 See S. Lane-Poole, Life of Stratford Canning, Vol. II., chap. 22. 



SECRETARY OF GOVERNMENT AT CORFU 23 

conferred on the English Sovereign by the European 
Treaties of 1815, always ' a tough and unprofitable 
job' (as the Duke of Wellington foretold it would 
prove), were greatly increased by the excitement 
caused throughout the Greek nation by the war 
undertaken by England and France in defence of 
its hereditary foes, the Turks, and against its co- 
religionists and hereditary friends, the Eussians. 
The strong feeling in favour of national union was 
further promoted in Greece by the similar feeling 
prevalent in Italy, Germany, and elsewhere. All fair- 
minded lonians admitted that their English govern- 
ment was a just and efficient rule, and had conferred 
many material and social benefits on their country. 
But they preferred the chance of being even less well 
governed by their own countrymen to any rule what- 
soever by foreigners. The lonians argued somewhat 
in this fashion : ' We are thankful to England for 
undertaking our protection at a period when with- 
out such protection we should have fallen under the 
dominion of the Turks. But now that England has 
herself powerfully assisted, by her cannon at Pylos 
(Navarino) and by her influence in the councils of 
Europe, to create an independent Kingdom of Greece, 
we pray that we may be permitted to throw in our 
lot with our countrymen.' 

This was practically the purport of the Address 
to the Queen unanimously adopted by the Ionian 
Parliament in 1858, when Mr. Gladstone was sent 
out as ' Lord High Commissioner Extraordinary/ 
to inquire and report on this complicated question. 
Sir George Bowen strongly advocated, in official 
reports and otherwise, that (if possible, and con- 



94 rilEFATOIlY MEMOIR 

sistent with the faith of treaties), the proper course 
for England to pursue would be to give up to the 
Kingdom of Greece the southern Ionian Islands 
(Cephalonia, Ithaca, Leucadia, Zante, and Cerigo) 
which lay along the coasts of that kingdom, and 
where the population and their sympathies were 
purely Hellenic ; and to incorporate with the British 
Empire (like Malta and Gibraltar), Corfu, with, of 
course, its tiny satellite Paxo, which lay off the coast 
of the Turkish province of Albania, and where all the 
upper classes and a considerable part of the general 
population were Italian rather than Hellenic in lan- 
guage, feeling, and customs. Moreover, large sums 
of money had been spent on the fortifications of 
Corfu, whereas there were practically no strongholds 
in the southern islands. Again, he urged an argu- 
ment which, in the light of later events, is a proof 
of political foresight. He showed that Corfu had 
always been of supreme importance, both in ancient 
and modern times, as a commanding naval and mili- 
tary station, controlling the entrance to the Adriatic 
Sea. Corfu, the Corcyra of old, in the most brilliant 
period of Greek history was the greatest naval power 
in Western Greece, and the natural base of operations 
between Athens and the Greek colonies in Italy and 
Sicily. Here assembled the famous expedition of 
Athens and her allies against Syracuse, which was 
the turning point of the Peloponnesian War. Here 
was the rendezvous of the fleets of Augustus before 
the battle of Actium, and of Don John of Austria before 
the battle of Lepanto two of the most decisive 
1 ia t tics of the world. So, in Roman times, Corcyra 
became t lie chief connect ing link, with its opposite and 



IMPORTANCE OF CORFU MAURI AGE 25 

neighbouring port of Brimdusium (Brindisi) between 
Italy and Greece, the West and the East. In 1859, 
and for many years afterwards, Marseilles was the 
point of departure and arrival for mails and passengers 
to the East ; the Suez Canal had not been completed ; 
and railways did not exist in Southern Italy. But Sir 
G. Bowen foretold that the time would come when the 
overland route to Egypt and the East would resume its 
ancient channel by Brindisi, and that then the posses- 
sion by England of the beautiful and historic island of 
Corfu would mean the practical control of that route. 
The importance of such a position to England needs 
no demonstration. The ultimate result of Mr. Glad- 
stone's mission, however, was the surrender of Corfu, 
together with the southern Ionian Islands, to Greece 
in 1864. Doubtless there were grave diplomatic diffi- 
culties, arising from the jealousy of the other great 
Powers, which obstructed the course preferable for the 
interests of England. 1 

While Secretary of Government in the Ionian 
Islands, Sir George Bowen married the Countess 
Diamantina Eoma, daughter of His Highness Count 
Candiano Eoma, G.C.M.G., President of the Ionian 
Senate a nobleman of an ancient Venetian family, 
possessed of large estates in the island of Zante. 'Lady 
Bowen's name is a ' household word ' in the Colonies 
which her husband has ruled, and is held in grate- 
ful remembrance in consequence of her exertions in 
support of charitable institutions, and of the grace 

1 Moreover, much difficulty was created by the premature publica- 
tion in a London journal of a copy (purloined from the Colonial Office) 
of a despatch from the Lord High Commissioner (Sir John Young, 
afterwards Lord Lisgar), in which the above-mentioned views were 
advocated. 



26 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

with which she presided over the constant hospitalities 
of the Government Houses. 

During his wedding tour in England, Sir George 
wrote as follows : 

To a political Friend. 

London : July, 1856. 

The most interesting event of my brief stay in 
London was the interview to which I was invited by 
the Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston. As I had 
travelled so much in Greece and in the Greek pro- 
vinces of Turkey, and as my official position in the 
Ionian Isles has given me peculiar opportunities of 
observation, I was enabled to answer fully the acute 
questions put to me by him concerning Greek and 
Turkish affairs. He referred also to the famous 
Pacifico case, concerning which his policy and action 
were so powerfully attacked in Parliament in 1850, 
and were regarded unfavourably by many even of his 
political adherents. In his earlier career, when con- 
nected with Canning, the constant friend of Greece, 
he seemed inclined to Philhellenic views ; but he has 
now been long ill-disposed towards the Greeks, and 
determined, from policy rather than from personal 
feeling, and from hostility to Eussia rather than from 
friendship for Turkey, to support the Turks. I do 
not think it right to place on record, even in a private 
letter, the details of our conversation on political 
subjects ; but there can be no reason why I should 
not tell you that, after he had finished picking my 
brains on Greek politics, he turned the conversation 



LORD PALMERSTON AND MODERN GREEK 27 

to questions of Greek scholarship. He remarked, 
very truly, on the many points of similarity "between 
the ancient and the modern Greeks ; but did not go 
so far as the French Consul at Athens, who assured 
Lord Byron in 1810, that ' the Greeks are the same 
canaille as in the days of Themistocles ! ' He was 
also far in advance of most English scholars of the 
present day in agreeing with me that the modern 
Greek language is practically the same with the 
ancient language, and not a different language, as 
Italian differs from Latin. 

I pointed out, moreover, that it can be proved 
by many arguments, that the ancient Greeks must 
have pronounced the vowels and diphthongs in the 
same way as the moderns ; and that the only real 
difficulty is respecting the accents, for modern Greeks 
pronounce according to accent and not according 
to quantity. But then, as a Greek scholar once re- 
marked to me, ' the accents were first invented in 
the decline of the language, and must have been 
invented to preserve the right pronunciation. Eng- 
lishmen talk as if they were invented only to puzzle 
English schoolboys ! ' Lord Palmerston related to 
me, with much glee, the controversy which had arisen 
about the proper pronunciation of the name of his 
mare Ilione, well known on the English turf. He him- 
self pronounced it in the Greek way, Ilione, whereas 
large bets had been laid that it should be pronounced 
Ilione, and an amusing ballad had been written on the 
subject by, of all people, a Scotch judge (Lord Neave). 



28 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

I observed that we must necessarily pronounce either 
by quantity or by accent ; so Ilione, on English princi- 
ples, must be wrong : we must say either Ilione accord- 
ing to quantity, or Ilione according to accent. In reply 
to other queries, I explained that the modern Greeks 
pronounce rj, i, a, 01, v, vi, all like the Italian i, and that 
consequently ^19, we, and v//,eis, you, are pronounced 
identically. ' Ah ! they confound we and you, do 
they ? ' said Lord Palmerston ; * I fear that is not the 
only way in which modern Greeks confound meum 
and tuum ! ' 

I think this is as good a mot as even the best 
of those ascribed to Lord Palmerston ; as, for instance, 
when he advocated granting permission to marry a 
deceased wife's sister on the ground that ' a man might 
thus have two wives and only one mother-in-law ' ; or 
when he defended putting some pictures in the base- 
ment story, or cellars, of the National Gallery, on the 
principle that ars est celare artem. 

I may here mention that, in discussing the ques- 
tion of Greek pronunciation with Bishop Wilber- 
force, he told me that he recently had as a candidate 
at one of his ordinations, Mr. M., the son of an English 
merchant settled in Greece. 'I examined him my- 
self,' said the Bishop, ' in the Greek Testament, when 
he used what to me was an unknown pronunciation. 
" Oh ! Mr. M.," I cried, " where did you learn 
Greek?" "At Athens, my lord," faltered out the 
trembling candidate.' 

For other information about the modern Greek 



MR. DISRAELI ON EASTERN QUESTIONS 29 

language, I would refer you to my remarks on that. 
subject in the introduction to the 'Handbook for 
Greece.' It will be seen that the English mode of pro- 
nouncing Greek was invented by Erasmus early in the 
sixteenth century, and as a badge of Protestantism ; 
for our Universities were then divided into parties call- 
ing themselves Greeks and Trojans i.e. Catholics and 
Protestants respectively. Since that time, says honest 
old Fuller, ' We English speak Greek, and understand 
each other, which nobody else in the world can.' 

Differing widely as I do from much of Lord 
Palmerston's policy, my practical acquaintance with 
the Levant enables me to agree with Mr. Disraeli, 
who remarks in ' Tancred,' T that ' whatever difference 
of opinion may exist as to the policy pursued by the 
Foreign Minister of England with respect to the 
settlement of the Turkish Empire in 1840-1, none 
can be permitted, by those at least competent to 
decide upon such questions, as to the ability with 
which that policy was accomplished.' The policy of 
1840-1 sounded the key-note of Lord Palmerston's 
subsequent policy in the Levant. 

A propos of ' Tancred,' I may mention that 
Disraeli considered that book to contain the best 
record of his views on the Eastern questions therein 
discussed ; for when a political friend of mine, and 
supporter of his, asked him some question on the 
subject, he replied, ' You should read what I say in 
" Tancred " on that point.' 

1 Book III. chap. 6. 



30 PREFATORY MEMOIR 



CHAPTER III. 

PROMOTION TO G.C.M.O. TO QUEENSLAND TO NEW ZEALAND 
TO VICTORIA ON LEAVE IN ITALY KING VICTOR EMMANUEL 

PIUs IX. GARIBALDI KING HUMBERT -LEO XIII. THE 

VATICAN AND IRELAND ITALIAN POLITICS. 

IN recognition of his services in the Ionian Islands, 
Sir George Bowen, who had in 1856 been created a 
K.C.M.G., was appointed on the recommendation of 
the then Secretary of State for the Colonies, Sir E. 
Bulwer Lytton, to be the first Governor of the new 
Colony of Queensland in Australia. We shall show 
in subsequent chapters how he helped to raise that 
country from small beginnings to a noble growth. 
In 1860 the Queen promoted him to the Grand Cross 
of St. Michael and St. George in token of approval 
of the manner in which he had organised the new 
Colony ; and he enjoyed the rare honour of having 
the usual term of a Governor's office (six years) 
extended to eight years. At the close of 1867, on 
the recommendation of the Colonial Minister (the 
late Duke of Buckingham), he was promoted from 
Queensland to New Zealand, then the most difficult 
of our Colonial Governments ; where the Maori War, 
which had virtually lasted for ten years (1860-1870), 
was brought to a close under his auspices, and a 
durable peace was established between the contend- 
ing races. From 1873 to 1879 he was Governor of 
Victoria, long the most energetic, populous, and pro- 



ON LEAVE IN ITALY 31 

gressive of the Australian Colonies, which passed 
safely during his administration through a very severe 
political crisis and parliamentary deadlock, caused 
by a prolonged dispute between the two Houses of 
the Legislature. 

As the Secretary of State, Lord Knutsford, 
observed in Parliament in 1887, Sir George Bowen 
was absent on leave for only eighteen months in the 
aggregate during the first twenty-nine years of his 
service abroad. He left Corfu for six months in 1856, 
on his marriage tour, and he took a year's leave from 
Victoria in 1875, when his presence in England was 
required on urgent private affairs after a continued 
absence of sixteen years. On his way home from Mel- 
bourne, in 1875, he spent ten days with the Governor 
of Bombay (Sir Philip Wodehouse), visiting Poona, the 
Caves of Elephanta, &c., and then proceeded to Eng- 
land by Brindisi and Eome. In the Italian capital he 
was received cordially by Victor Emmanuel and by the 
present King and Queen, then Prince and Princess of 
Piedmont, in consequence of his having entertained 
at Melbourne the Duke of Genoa (Prince Thomas of 
Savoy, the nephew of the King, and brother of the 
Princess Margaret), when in 1873 he visited Australia 
as an officer of the Italian frigate ' Garibaldi.' l 

1 When Sir G. Bowen visited Spezzia, in the spring of 1887, the 
Duke of Genoa was there in command of an Italian ironclad, and 
showed him much courtesy and hospitality,, He also telegraphed to 
his Duchess (a Bavarian princess) to invite his friend to dinner at 
Turin when he passed through that city on his return to England. 
The Palace of the Duke of Genoa and the Opera House occupy opposite 
sides of the Royal Palace, untenanted since the King and Queen have 
resided at Eome, but famous for its armoury, probably the finest in 
Europe after that at Madrid. After dinner the Duchess invited Sir 
George to accompany her to the opera in a very striking procession, 



32 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

One of Sir George's interviews with Victor 
Emmanuel was characteristic of the Re Galantuomo. 
At 8 A.M. he found the King dressed in a shooting- 
jacket in his roughly furnished room on the ground 
floor of the Quirinal. After his usual bluff and 
hearty greeting, he made him sit down beside him on 
two common wooden chairs which, with a plain table 
and two benches for the Ministers when they attend the 
Council, formed the only furniture. The conversation 
that ensued was carried on in Italian, and was very 
frank and friendly. His Majesty remarked that he had 
followed the example of the Queen of England with 
regard to her son (the Duke of Edinburgh) in putting 
his nephew the Duke of Genoa into the Eoyal Navy, 
which he hoped would soon revive the old mari- 
time glory of Italy. He added that he was entirely 
satisfied with both his army and navy ; that he was 
aware that some foreigners w T ere of opinion that both 
those forces were maintained on too large and ex- 
pensive a scale for the revenue of the new Kingdom ; 
but that the fact was that they were required not 
only to secure the recently consolidated State in its 
proper position as one of the Great Powers of Europe, 
but also as a school of Italian nationality, in which 
the various component parts of the nation, the 
Piedmontese, Lombards, Venetians, Genoese, Tus- 
cans, Eomans, Modenese, Neapolitans, and Sicilians, 
should learn to speak and feel like one people. His 
visitor here remarked that it was delightful for 

preceded by several soldiers of the Guard bearing flambeaux, along 
the dark and silent halls of the Royal Palace, the light of the torches 
playing fitfully on the arms and banners until the Princess with her 
guest reached the full blaze of the illuminated theatre. 



KING VICTOR EMMANUEL 33 

him, as a sincere friend of Italy, to return to Eome after 
an absence of twenty years, and find the country which 
he had formerly known when divided into seven sepa- 
rate States, now united in one. ' Yes,' said the King, 
' our House of Savoy has had great good fortune.' ' Will 
your Majesty permit me to say that the House of Savoy 
has had great merit ? ' ' Ah ! ' said the King, ' we have 
been bold (siamo stati audaci). 9 Here Sir George re- 
marked : ' What says the great Italian poet Virgil, 

Audaces Fortuna ' ' JuvatJ added the King. He 

spoke with deep respect of Pope Pius IX., saying 'We 
are Italians, but we are also Catholics, and we revere the 
Pope as the head of our religion.' Eeference having 
been made to the measures then (1875) being taken 
by Prince Bismarck against the Eoman Catholic clergy 
in Prussia, the King observed with a smile, ' I fear 
Bismarck does not know how to treat priests as well 
as I do. One should treat priests much as one treats 
women (Bisogna trattare i Preti come si tratta le 
donne) ; one should treat them with perfect respect, 
courtesy, and indulgence, but one should not allow 
them to have too much money or too much political 
influence.' When Sir George observed that he sup- 
posed that Bismarck was more hot-tempered (pas- 
sionato) than Cavour, the King replied, ' Cavour also 
was passionate, but I reined him in ' making a 
gesture with his hands as if curbing a mettlesome 
horse. The conversation then turned to the Franco- 
German war and the fall of Napoleon III. The King 
lamented the imprudent conduct of M. Benedetti, the 
French Ambassador at Berlin in 1870 quel benedetto 
Benedetti, as he styled him. 'I warned my friend the 
Emperor,' continued his Majesty, ' that his army was 

VOL. I. D 



34 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

not iii a fit state to cope with the Prussian veterans 
who conquered at Sadowa ; a large portion of the 
French troops had been employed in hunting Arabs 
in Algeria, which really is little better as a prepara- 
tion for European warfare than your hunting kan- 
garoos in Australia.' At this point, the Ministers 
arrived for a Council, and Victor Emmanuel dis- 
missed his visitor with a hearty shake of the hand, 
saying, ' Mio caro amico, I thank you once more for 
your kindness to my nephew.' 

This interview with the King was followed by a 
dinner at the Quirinal. On the next day Sir George 
Bowen had interviews with the Pope and with Gari- 
baldi. The hours fixed for these only allowed just 
time enough to drive from the Vatican to the villa 
outside the walls which was then inhabited by the 
great patriot. So on his visit to Eome in 1881, it 
happened that both King Humbert and Pope Leo 
XIII. fixed the same day for receiving him, and he 
had only just time to drive direct from the Vatican 
to the Quirinal. 

Sir George Bowen had always maintained friendly 
relations alike with the Anglican and with the Eoman 
Catholic Bishops in the several Colonies over which 
he had presided. Some of these latter had mentioned 
his name favourably in their correspondence with the 
Vatican, and the consequence was his admission to 
a private interview with Pius IX. in 1875 and with 
Leo XIII. in 1881. On entering the ante-chamber 
to the former's private audience-room he was cour- 
teously received by several Cardinals and other digni- 
taries. On his remarking on the fine view over the 
city and the Campagna to the Alban and Sabine 



POPE PJUS ix. 35 

mountains from the windows of the Vatican, 'the 
most interesting palace in Europe,' a prelate who from 
the accent with which he spoke Italian seemed to 
be a foreigner, exclaimed, ' Formerly it was a palace, 
now it is a prison ' (Prima era palazzo, adesso e pri- 
gione). But this exclamation was courteously rebuked 
or excused by the Italian Cardinals and Prelates 
standing by. They seemed to feel that it was im- 
proper to introduce papal politics in the presence of 
a foreigner, whose personal feelings might befroisses, 
and who was for the moment the guest of the Holy 
Father. Sir George related that he remembered how, 
on one of his earlier visits to the Eternal City, in 1846, 
at the time of the election of Pio Nono, the walls 
were covered with huge placards bearing the words 
Grail nomi, Amnistia e Ferrovia (Pleasant words, 
amnesty and railroad), which form an anagram on 
the name of the new Pope, Giovanni Maria Masta'i- 
Ferretti (as the name of Horatio Nelson makes ' Honor 
esta Nilo')\ and alluded to His Holiness having granted 
two most popular boons, refused by his predecessor, 
a political amnesty and permission to construct rail- 
ways in the Papal States. One of the Cardinals said, 
' I hope your Excellency will repeat that to the Holy 
Father at your audience, for it will please him.' 
Accordingly, when admitted, and asked by the Pope 
the inevitable question, 'Have you been at Eome 
before ? ' his visitor repeated the reminiscence, at 
which the Pope smiled, but said merely : ' You have 
a good memory.' Pius IX. was then fully eighty 
years of age, but he was still vigorous in mind and 
body distupenda salute, as an Italian statesman said. 
He asked several questions about Australia, and 

D 2 



3 6 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

showed more acquaintance with that country than 
is possessed by most English Bishops. It is believed 
that the reports of the Eoman Catholic Bishops 
abroad to the Vatican are very complete. Leo XIII., 
Cardinals Howard, Jacobini, and many other Eoman 
dignitaries, displayed similarly accurate knowledge 
of the British Colonies. 

It was a sudden and striking change to drive in 
less than an hour from the historic Vatican, and the 
Pope and his ecclesiastical entourage, to the modern 
villa in which Garibaldi the persistent enemy of the 
temporal power of the Holy Father sat in his well- 
known ' red shirt,' surrounded by many of the rough 
soldiers who had been with him throughout those 
wonderful expeditions that had proved so fatal alike 
to thrones and altars. It need scarcely be said that 
the visitor neither told the Pope that he was going 
from him to Garibaldi, nor Garibaldi that he had 
come to him from the Pope. He was received with 
the habitually simple yet dignified courtesy of Gari- 
baldi, who thanked him for his kindness at Melbourne 
to his son Eicciotti, who had married an English- 
woman and emigrated to Australia. He mentioned 
that in 1852 he had himself visited the Australian 
waters in an Italian merchant-ship, and that he had 
ever since taken a warm interest in the progress of 
the British Colonies in Australia. 

Six years later, Sir George Bowen, while Governor 
of Mauritius, was again in Eome ; and as we shall 
not have occasion to revert to the affairs of Italy, some 
letters written during this visit may here be quoted. 
They illustrate very clearly the views of the Vatican 
on the Irish question. 



THE QUIRINAL AND THE VATICAN 37 

To an English Statesman. 

Borne : January 24, 1881. 

My dear Lord, . . . 

Writing from Borne, I may perhaps be expected 
to say something about the affairs of Italy, in which 
I believe you are much interested. I have always 
taken a warm interest in the progress of Italy, and my 
long service at Corfu made me master of Italian, 
without a thorough knowledge of which language no 
stranger can really understand the Italians. I have also 
the advantage of having entertained at Melbourne, 
while I was Governor of Victoria, the Duke of Genoa, 
the ' sailor prince ' of Italy, and brother to the reigning 
Queen. Consequently I have received the most gratify- 
ing attentions and hospitality at the Quirinal, and from 
the court generally; while through our ambassador, 
Sir Augustus Paget (my old friend and former school- 
fellow), I am personally acquainted with the leading 
statesmen of all parties. On the other hand, I used fre- 
quently to ask the Roman Catholic Bishop of Mauritius 
to dinner, and from what I hope is more than the pro- 
verbial ' lively sense of future favours,' he has repre- 
sented me to the Vatican as a sort of colonial Charle- 
magne ! So the Pope will give me a private audience 
next week, and has directed that every facility shall 
be granted me at the Vatican. I have already had 
interviews, and most interesting conversations, with 
Cardinal Nina, the late, and Cardinal Jacobini, the 
present, Secretary of State (i.e. Prime Minister of the 



38 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

Pope), who spoke to me in a very frank and friendly 
way on many subjects. In particular, they both 
asked earnestly what I thought of the Pope's letter of 
January 3rd ult. to the Roman Catholic Bishops in 
Ireland. Of course I told them that I thought it 
excellent. The Vatican probably has gone quite as 
far as it could safely go in discouraging the present 
agitation in Ireland. Cardinal Jacobin! remarked 
that the Fenians were regarded at the Vatican as a 
kind of Communists a feeling which I encouraged, 
adding that it was everywhere hoped that the 
Vatican would continue to support the cause of law 
and order in Ireland. There was one point in 
Cardinal Jacobini's remarks which will, I think, 
specially interest you. Mr. Gladstone is regarded 
by the overwhelming majority of Italians as the 
chief foreign founder of Italian nationality, and 
with almost the same sort of affectionate veneration 
as that with which the Americans regard Lafayette. 
But I am free to confess that I was not prepared, after 
certain papers which he published some years back, 
to find that Mr. Gladstone's name appears to stand so 
well also at the Vatican. And yet Cardinal Jacobini 
spoke to me of the sense entertained there of the 
conduct of the party now again in power in England 
in removing all religious inequalities and Roman 
Catholic disabilities in Ireland, and in allowing full 
liberty in the British dominions to the Jesuits and 
other religious corporations recently expelled from 
France. He gave me the impression that the Vatican 



THE KINGDOM OF ITALY 39 

feels that it owes a practical return for this conduct 
on the part of the English Government. 

I was very much struck with the statesmanlike 
views of Cardinal Jacobini. He is said to have 
more than the ability, without the equivocal per- 
sonal character and political unscrupulousness, of 
Cardinal Antonelli. Indeed I have heard him de- 
scribed here as the ' ablest and best Papal Minister 
since Consalvi.' He was for many years Nuncio in 
Germany, and is said to be the only ecclesiastic who 
ever measured swords with any success with Bis- 
marck. Moreover, he is a younger man than most 
papal functionaries, being only forty-nine, which (as 
you will recollect) Aristotle declared to be the prime 
of the intellect, as thirty-five is of the body. 

I have also established friendly relations with 
Cardinal Howard and other prominent ecclesiastics. 
Indeed my ' officious ' and personal relations with the 
Vatican are almost as cordial as with the Quirinal. 

There can, I think, be no doubt of the successful 
consolidation of the Italian kingdom and dynasty. 
Of course, there are some codini, or reactionists, 
especially among that portion of the Eoman nobility 
which sprang from the papal families. I met also 
at Lady Holland's charming parties at Naples some 
members of the old Neapolitan noblesse, who not 
unnaturally regret, but more, I fancied, in a social 
than in a political view, the loss of the local court 
and corps diplomatique. There is a similar feeling 
among a small clique also at Florence, Turin, and 



40 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

the other disestablished capitals ; but the best judges, 
native and foreign, believe that these feelings will 
pass away with the present generation. 

On the other hand, Garibaldi's extravagancies 
have destroyed his influence except with a section 
of the people. I have heard several even of the 
advanced Liberals express their regret that he had 
not been, like Victor Emmanuel, felix opportunitate 
mortis, when his great work in the unification of Italy 
had been accomplished. 

To the Same. 

Rome, February '21, 1881. 

My dear Lord, 

Since I wrote to you on the 24th ultimo, I have 
had another most interesting interview with Cardinal 
Jacobini, and I have also been favoured with a 
private audience by the Pope, who received me in 
the most gratifying manner. His Holiness began by 
saying that he had given me a special audience be- 
cause he wished to tell me that there were on record 
at the Vatican letters from the Catholic Bishops in 
the several Colonies that I had governed, and that 
they all expressed a high sense of the good offices 
which they had received from me ; and that he 
(the Pope) desired to convey to me the expression 
of his entire satisfaction and thanks (plena sod- 
disfazione e ringraziamenti). I replied (in Italian) 
that anything I had been able to do in the matter of 
which his Holiness had been pleased to speak in such 



LEO XIII. 41 

gratifying terms was simply my duty, and in the 
execution of the instructions, and in carrying out the 
general policy of the English Government. The Pope 
rejoined that he had every reason to be satisfied with 
the instructions issued by the English Government to 
the authorities in the British Colonies with respect 
to their conduct towards the Catholic ecclesiastics, 
Bishops, Vicars Apostolic, and others ; and that he 
was confident that these instructions would always 
be faithfully carried out by all the Viceroys and Go- 
vernors as they had been by me. He added that he 
had especial reason to be satisfied with what had been 
done in this way recently 6 at Calcutta and Malta.' 
I now thought that, after these compliments to my- 
self and my Government, the time had arrived for me 
to say in my turn something pleasant, so I spoke to 
the following effect : ' Santissimo Padre, it must be 
very gratifying to every Englishman to learn that 
your Holiness has been pleased to express yourself 
in terms of satisfaction with the acts of the English 
Government, and of its servants, who, I repeat, have 
simply discharged their duty by carrying out their 
instructions. On the other hand, though I have no 
special authority to speak on behalf of the English 
Government, I feel confident that every Englishman 
is deeply sensible of the valuable support afforded 
by your Holiness to the cause of law and order in 
addressing to the Catholic Bishops in Ireland the 
excellent letter of January 3rd ult., which cannot fail 
to produce results favourable to public tranquillity.' I 



42 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

observed that the Pope ' pricked up his ears ' (if one 
may use so familiar a phrase with regard to so great 
and sacred a personage) when I mentioned the word 
' Ireland,' and that he listened to my remarks with 
profound attention, keeping his eyes fixed on mine. 
After a moment's pause, he replied, in very measured 
and decisive language and tone, nearly as follows : 

' Yes, I addressed the Irish Bishops in support of 
the cause of order. Let the people of Ireland bring 
forward their grievances and complaints by way of 
petition and by legal and constitutional means ( per 
via di petizione e con mezzi legali e costituzionali), 
but the Holy See will always support public order 
and discourage all revolutionary measures (ogni 
misura rivoluzionaria ) . ' 

The Pope then spoke of other matters ; of the 
Vatican Library, of which, as a learned theologian 
and accomplished scholar, he is a munificent sup- 
porter ; and of my family, for he had kindly allowed 
me to bring my daughters with me to the audience. 
While speaking to me, he held in his hand, in a most 
gracious and paternal manner, the hand of my young- 
est daughter, a girl of twelve. He finally dismissed us 
with his blessing, laying his hand on the head of each 
of us ; and he added that he would send the Apostolic 
Benediction ' to the faithful in your island of Mauri- 
tius (a fedeli nella vostra Isola di Maurizio]' 

I have had long conversations, to the same effect 
with that sketched above, with Cardinal Jacobini, 
Cardinal Howard, and other leading functionaries of 



THE VATICAN AND IRELAND 43 

the Vatican. All that I see and hear in Eome fully 
confirms the belief that the Vatican would help us as 
far as it can in our Irish difficulties ; but the Irish 
priests are nearly all taken from, and dependent upon, 
the mass of the people ; and, while they can do a 
good deal to swell the cry against England, they have 
little power if they try to stem the tide of popular 
enmity to us. 

I did not think it right to speak to the Pope on 
a subject which is ' exercising ' the Vatican consi- 
derably, and on which His Holiness recently spoke 
strongly to a friend of mine an English Koman 
Catholic. I refer to the re-establishment of at least 
the former ' officious ' diplomatic relations, as carried 
on with the Holy See by Lord Odo Eussell, Lord Lyons, 
and other members of our corps diplomatique. The 
Pope complained to the friend to whom I allude, that 
he was often pressed indirectly to do good offices for 
England with respect to Ireland, the Colonies, and 
otherwise, and yet that the Holy See was not recog- 
nised by the English Government even in the modified 
way of former years. I should much have liked to 
have spoken to the Pope on this point, to which 
Cardinals Jacobini' and Howard had directed my 
attention, but I abstained from doing so, partly on 
account of my official position as an English Governor, 
and partly because I have reason to know that my 
friend Sir Augustus Paget is not favourable to the re- 
sumption of any diplomatic relations with the Vatican. 
He can, and does, get things done sometimes, chiefly 



44 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

through Cardinal Howard ; but Cardinal Howard 
told me, in the strongest language, that he was thus 
placed in a most invidious position ; that the Irish 
Bishops and clergy had come to suspect him, as an 
Englishman, of prejudicing the Vatican against Ire- 
land ; and that he was subjected to many slights and 
attacks in consequence. I may mention en passant 
that I frequently see here on friendly terms not only 
Cardinal Howard, but also Bishop Clifford (of Clifton), 
Bishop Yaughan (of Salford), Algernon Stanley (a 
brother of .Lord Stanley of Alderley and a recent 
convert), and other English Eoman Catholics of good 
family ; and that they all scarcely conceal their dis- 
like for some of the Irish clergy. However, this 
feeling evidently arises, in great part, from the 
want of sympathy of polished English gentlemen 
for persons whose manners often betray the peasant 
class from which they sprang. One of the most 
prominent of the Irish Prelates is Dr. Croke, now 
Eoman Catholic Archbishop of Cashel, but who was 
Bishop of Auckland while I was Governor of New 
Zealand. He dined with me in 1871 while the Duke 
of Edinburgh was my guest in that Colony ; when a 
naval officer said of him : ' By Jove, Sir George, this 
Irish Bishop has got a brogue on which you might 
hang your hat ! ' 

There is undoubtedly a strong feeling at the 
Vatican in favour of the resumption of some kind of 
diplomatic relations with England ; and this feeling is 
shared by the English here who have given attention 



KING HUMBERT 45 

to the subject; and in particular, by Sir Henry 
Layard, who is spending the winter at Eome, and 
with whom I am carefully studying Eoman art and 
antiquities. Of course I am aware of the practical 
difficulties in the way of either establishing ' official ' 
or renewing ' officious 'relations. 1 

You will smile to hear that the King appointed for 
his private interview with me the day appointed also 
for my private interview with the Pope. Cardinal 
Jacobin! had given me an order for admission that 
morning to the Pope's chapel at the Vatican, where 
a solemn service, with the Dies Tree, was performed 
on the anniversary of the death of the late Pope, 
in the presence of his successor and of the College 
of Cardinals. I had some difficulty in hurrying 
from the Vatican in time to present myself at the 
Quirinal at the hour appointed by his Majesty. I 
had a most interesting conversation with the King, who 
spoke much of the progress of Italy, and of his recent 
triumphal tour in Sicily and in the south. ' Nun ci 
manca altro eke il danaro (Nothing but money is 
wanting to us),' was his summary of the position of 
his Kingdom. You are aware that the Government 
and Parliament are about to abolish inconvertible 
paper, and to return to what the Americans call 
' hard money.' 

1 On a visit to a country house in Ireland in the autumn of 1887, 
Sir George Bowen met Monsignor Persico, whom Pope Leo XIII. 
had sent to inquire and report on Irish affairs, and had much con- 
versation with him ; saying ' I am confident, Monsignor, that your 
Eeport to the Vatican will be such that no Englishman will have to 
say with Horace, " Persicos odi, pner, apparatus.' 1 ' (Car in. I. 38.) 



46 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

His Majesty proceeded to refer to English affairs, 
and spoke of Mr. Gladstone. He said that he had 
carefully studied the course of recent parliamentary 
proceedings in England, and that he felt certain 
that Gladstone and his Ministry would triumph over 
Irish disaffection and obstruction. 1 There is evidently 
even less sympathy for the Irish agitators at the 
Quirinal than at the Vatican. I was sorry to see the 
King look worn and weary. He is known to work 
much harder than most constitutional sovereigns. 
He observed that I must have sometimes felt tired of 
my exile of above twenty years from Europe as a 
Colonial Governor, but that he supposed that, like 
himself, I found consolation in the diligent discharge 
of my duty. He added that the day was often too 
short for all he had to do in his cabinet, in visiting 
public institutions, &c., and that his only recreation 
was an occasional day's shooting or hunting. King 
Humbert is generally regarded, like his father, as a 
thoroughly honest man re galantuomo ; while la 
Perla d Italia, as the Italians delight to call Queen 
Margaret, is beloved for her grace and goodness, 
like our Princess of Wales. 

As you are doubtless aware, Eoman society is 
divided into Bianchi and Neri, i.e. adherents of the 
Kino- and of the Pope, respectively; envisions some- 
what analogous to those of the Guelplis and Gliibe- 

1 It will be recollected that this letter was written in 1881, and 
th:ii Mi-, (iladstone did not change his policy concerning Irish affairs 
till 1880. 



ITALIAN POLITICS 47 

lines in Italy in the Middle Ages, and of the Jacobites 
and Hanoverians in England during the first half 
of the eighteenth century. I need scarcely assure 
you that we are strictly neutral, and go one night 
to a Court ball among the Bianchi, and the next 
night to a ball of the Neri, among Princes Bor- 
ghese, Altieri, and the other great papal families, and 
the ambassadors accredited to the Pope. It is be- 
lieved that the Jacobite feeling will die out gradually 
in Italy, as in England. The younger Eoman princes 
are gradually succumbing to the smiles of the Queen 
and the brilliancy of the Quirinal. What a revolu- 
tion it is! When I was first at Eome in 1845, how 
little I dreamed that I should live to dine with a 
King of Italy in the old palace of the Popes ! 

There can, I think, be no question of the success 
of constitutional government in Italy. I attend fre- 
quently the debates in both Houses of the Italian 
Parliament (in which, by the way, I am always given 
a place of honour, as an English Governor a distinc- 
tion not accorded at home to English Ambassadors 
and Governors). The proceedings of the Italian 
Senate are as decorous as those of the English House 
of Lords. As an Italian Statesman remarked to me 
yesterday, Non abbiamo una Irlanda ml nostro regno.' 
The speeches of the leading members of both sides 
are practical and businesslike ; without, I think, much 
pretension to eloquence. A fortnight ago there was 
a meeting at Eome of delegates of the Eadical party 
from all parts of Italy ; avowedly in favour of universal 



48 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

suffrage, but really with republican objects. The 
Government prohibited the meeting taking place on 
the Capitol, as the promoters wished, and the whole 
thing was a ludicrous fiasco, the Eomans treating the 
entire movement with contemptuous indifference. 
The Italians are very proud of their showing them- 
selves so much more capable of steady Parliamentary 
self-government than the other chief nations of the 
Latin race the French and the Spaniards. I have 
asked several Italian Statesmen to what they ascribe 
this unquestionable superiority. They ascribe it partly 
to their historical traditions of the old Koman consti- 
tution, and still more to their long training under 
their municipalities in modern times^ I fancy that 
they are more indebted than they would like to 
admit to the strong admixture of Teutonic blood in 
modern Italy, through the Lombards, Normans, and 
other northern invaders, and through the vast number 
of northern captives imported by the old Eomans. 
The modern French are more Gauls, i.e. Celts (like 
the Irish) than Franks ; and the modern Spaniards 
more Iberians (i.e. probably Basques) than Visigoths. 
I was at a ball last night at the German embassy on 
the Capitol (the house inhabited by Niebuhr and 
Bunsen when Prussian ministers at Home), and it was 
interesting to hear this Teutonic theory strongly ad- 
vocated in the old Eoman fortress and sanctuary on 
the top of the Tarpeian Eock. 



49 



CHAPTEE IV. 

ON LEAVE IN ENGLAND AND AMERICA ENTERTAINED AT A PUBLIC 
DINNER IN LONDON WITH THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH IN THE 
CHAIR VARIETIES OF LIFE IN ENGLAND, CANADA, AND 
THE UNITED STATES LORD DUFFERIN PRESIDENT GRANT 
AMERICAN POLITICS THE MORMONS BRIGHAM YOUNG SAN 
FRANCISCO ' THE STARS AND BARS 'MISS LEE OF VIRGINIA 
RETURN TO MELBOURNE. 

To return to 1875. Sir George Bowen travelled 
from Eome direct to London, stopping only for a day 
or two at Paris, to see the British Ambassador, Lord 
Lyons, whom he had known twenty years before at 
Athens, where he began his distinguished career as 
Attache to his father, then British Minister in Greece, 
but afterwards the Admiral commanding our fleet 
during the Crimean War. On his arrival in London, 
Sir George Bowen was entertained at a public dinner 
attended by nearly three hundred leading Statesmen 
and politicians of all parties, and prominent Colonists 
from all quarters of the Empire, with the Duke of 
Edinburgh in the chair. We believe that this was the 
first occasion on which any one of the Queen's sons 
presided at an entertainment given to an individual. 1 
Lockhart, in his Life of Scott, 2 remarks that 
the range of the society in which Sir Walter mixed 

1 In the chapters on Victoria and Mauritius will be found a full 
report of this banquet, and also of that given to Sir George Bowen at 
Paris in 1881 by the French planters of Mauritius. See Vol. II. chaps. 
23 and 31. a Vol. VI. (first Edition) chap. 11. 

VOL. I. E 



50 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

on his visits to London is strikingly exemplified 
in the record of one day, when we find him break- 
fasting at the Royal Lodge in Windsor Park, and 
supping in ' honest Dan Terry's house like a squirrel- 
cage ' above the Adelphi Theatre. A single day of 
Sir George Bowen's social life puts even this versa- 
tility into the shade. It began with a reception by 
the Queen, and luncheon at Windsor Castle. The 
same evening he was present at a dinner given in 
London by the members of Trinity College, Oxford, 
of which he had been a Scholar. Lord Selborne, the 
late Lord Chancellor, who had also been a Scholar of 
Trinity, was in the chair. Later on the same night, 
Sir G. Bowen had accepted an invitation from Mr. 
Henry Irving to attend the representation of ' Faust ' 
at the Lyceum Theatre, and afterwards to a supper 
on the stage. He got back from Windsor just in 
time for the Trinity dinner, and he effected his retreat 
from the dinner just in time to see the last act of 
' Faust,' and to be received on the stage by Mr. Irving 
in the costume worn as Mephistopheles. On his ex- 
plaining why he had to leave the dinner before the 
company dispersed, a prominent politician present 
said : ' You certainly have had an eventful day. You 
lunch with the Queen, you dine with the Trinity, and 
you sup with the Devil \ ' 

This was in 1886; but similar crowded days 
occurred during his visit to England in 1875. On one 
day he was invited to dinner by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (Tait) and by the Prime Minister (Disraeli). 
The ecclesiastical invitation came first and was ac- 
cepted, so the bidding of the Premier had to be de- 
clined. Mentioning this to Mr. Robert Lowe (now 



VARIETIES OF LIFE IN LONDON AND AMERICA 51 

Lord Sherbrooke), who supposed that the Archbishop 
would of course be thrown over for the Prime Minis- 
ter, Sir George declared that he should stick to the 
prior engagement. ' How unwise ! ' said his friend. 
' What possible good can an Archbishop be to a 
Governor ? Oh ! I see how it is. You are tired of 
being a Colonial Governor and wish to become a 
Colonial Bishop \ ' 



In September 1875, Sir George Bowen, attended 
by his A.D.C. Major Pitt, K.A., left England to return 
to Victoria by way of America ; his family proceeding 
shortly after by the less fatiguing Suez route, and 
rejoining him at Melbourne. At New York he re- 
mained a week and saw some of the best American 
society ; thence he proceeded up the Hudson and by 
railway to Stockbridge in Massachusetts, a beautiful 
village with an ivy-covered church like a country 
village and church in England where he was the 
guest of Mr. Dudley Field, the eminent New York 
lawyer ; thence to Boston, where he had letters of 
introduction to Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
Eussell Lowell, and other eminent men ; and where, 
as an Oxford scholar, he was entertained by the 
President of Harvard University. A letter written 
from Washington gives some further account of this 
tour in Canada and the United States. 

To the Earl of Carnarvon. 

Washington, November 22, 1875. 

My dear Lord, 

Mr. Herbert may probably have laid before you 
the letter which I wrote to him last month, while I 

E 2 



52 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

was staying with Lord Dufferin in Canada. I had 
then seen New York, Boston (where I found the 
literary society very brilliant, the talk at Harvard 
University being better, but the dinners worse, than 
at Oxford) ; Quebec, which quite deserves its repu- 
tation for beauty and interest ; Montreal ; and Ottawa, 
that wintry Washington of Canada. I have since 
seen Toronto, Niagara, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Bich- 
mond, and Washington. To-morrow I shall start on 
my way across the continent, vid Chicago, the Salt 
Lake City, and San Francisco, and reach my post at 
Melbourne at the expiration of the twelve months' 
leave granted me after my sixteen years' continuous 
service as a Colonial Governor. 

Lord Dufferin and I have compared opinions on 
many subjects of colonial interest, not, as he said, 
without mutual advantage. I have seen all the lead- 
ing public men of Canada and the United States, and 
I have collected a mass of information and precedents 
of all kinds, which cannot fail to be of practical use 
to me hereafter. Public men in Canada are of much 
the same calibre as in Australia, but Canada is a poor 
and cold country when compared with Australia. A 
Canadian politician remarked to me, ' We spend 
half of our short summer in providing for the 
subsistence of ourselves and of our cattle durino- 

o 

our long winter.' The revenue of the single Colony 
of Victoria is equal to that of the entire Dominion 
of Canada. 

At Toronto I frequently saw my old Oxford friend 



AMERICAN POLITICS 53 

Goldwin Smith. He has married a rich Canadian 
lady, and they make their very pleasant home a 
sort of Holland House for America. The news- 
paper edited by him is the oracle of the American 
doctrinaires. His idea would seem to be to make 
Canada independent of England, and to form it into 
a sort of American Belgium, a small Parliamentary 
State, near the great American Eepublic or Empire. 
A man must have visited the United States and con- 
versed with all classes to understand how right Lord 
Dufferin was in showing that there is much more real 
and practical democracy (in the classical sense) under 
British institutions ; and how well justified Louis 
Napoleon was in stating in one of his last speeches to 
the French legislature, that the institutions of France 
under the Empire and of the American Eepublic 
were somewhat similar, with the exception that in 
France there is an hereditary President. Americans 
are rather fond of boasting that their President and 
the Emperor of Eussia are now the only two personal 
rulers among Christian potentates. As Kinglake 
(in his ' History of the Crimean War ') puts it : ' They 
alone can ring a bell and tell an aide-de-camp 
to order an army to march.' All American Presi- 
dents and State Governors, as incarnations of the 
popular will, and dictators ne quid detrimenti capiat 
respublica, are expected to veto, according to their 
personal discretion, all acts of the Federal and State 
legislatures to which they may personally object. 
Many Americans now rather distrust some of their 



54 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

legislatures owing to the corruption which they 
believe to be as prevalent as in the English Parliament 
in the days of Walpole. I may mention one illustra- 
tion. I have seen a great deal of General Bristow, 
the Secretary to the Treasury (that is, the Finance 
Minister) of the United States. I asked him if he 
thought the United States Government would return 
to ' hard money.' He replied : ' Our Congress is not 
your House of Commons : the Executive here does 
not care ten cents for its acts, and the President will 
go on as he has done, steadily vetoing all " soft money " 
Bills.' An English friend said, ' Only fancy our Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer boasting that the Queen 
would go on steadily vetoing all money bills.' The 
late Attorney-General (Mr. Evarts) told me that he 
dared not advise w r hat he thought would be the best 
course with regard to the proposed trial of Jefferson 
Davis, for the late President, Andrew Johnson, would 
have turned him out, and replaced him by a more 
compliant lawyer. The Cabinet of the President, of 
course, are not responsible advisers, and constitution- 
ally hold a status little higher than that of Permanent 
Under-Secretary in England. 

I found that the great majority of Canadians are 
averse to Goldwin Smith's idea of a Canadian Belgium. 
They are loyal to the Crow r n, but say that if their 
connexion with England should be severed, they will 
prefer incorporation with the United States. They 
feel that the age of small States is past, and they are 
determined to be either Britons or Americans. Lord 



WASHINGTON 55 

Dufferiii is generally, and most deservedly, popular 
in Canada, and his speeches have made a great im- 
pression in the United States. 

Lord Houghton and I, and the English Minister, 
Sir Edward Thornton, were invited last week to a 
very interesting dinner at Mr. Hamilton Fish's (the 
Secretary of State's). There were present, Presi- 
dent Grant and his Cabinet, with the principal 
heads of the public departments ; the Chief Justice 
of the United States (Mr. Waite) ; Mr. Bancroft (the 
historian) ; indeed most of the principal official men 
of this country. There was excellent badinage. Lord 
Houghton humorously talked so much in favour 
of polygamy, that the President said, with a grim 
smile, that he really thought he must make him 
the next Governor of Utah. At this dinner at Mr. 
Fish's, I suggested, as I frequently do in conversing 
with Americans, that Lord Stanhope is right in 
the opinion stated in his History, that if England had 
not pursued so insane a policy towards the British 
Colonies a hundred years ago, the revolution would 
never have taken place. The President and his 
Cabinet, like most other Americans, agreed that if Eng- 
land had adopted in the eighteenth century her present 
colonial policy, and, as a high functionary present 
politely remarked, ' sent out such good Governors as 
Lord Dufferin and Sir George Bowen,' we should 
possibly still be all members of one United Empire ; 
only, as the Attorney General added : ' Now that the 
great majority of the Anglo-Saxon race is on the west 



50 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

side of the Atlantic, we Americans would claim that 
the Queen should reside, at least partly, on our side.' 
All agreed also that if the Queen were to visit the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1876 at Philadelphia, she 
would receive such a triumph as the world has 
never seen. All Americans will be greatly disap- 
pointed if one of our Princes does not come over on 
this grand occasion. There is already a picture of 
George IV. in the Independence Hall at Philadelphia, 
where the famous Declaration was adopted on July 
4, 1776 ; and the President of the Exhibition Com- 
mission told Lord Houghton and me that he is trying 
to get a statue of George III. to put up in the place 
of honour in the central hall of the Exhibition. 

I sat next President Grant at the dinner to which 
I have referred, and had much interesting conversa- 
tion with him. He is a modest and unassuming man, 
and told me many curious anecdotes of his early 
career, as well as of his great campaigns. Alluding 
to the luxurious habits of the young men of the 
present time, he observed : ' My son often does not 
get up before ten o'clock ; and I told him the 
other day that when I was at his age I had to 
rise before daylight to milk a cow and clean a 
horse.' ' May I ask, sir, what your son answered ? ' 
4 Oh ! he said that " your father was not so good to 
you as you are to me." ' ' He might have replied,' I 
rejoined, ' that your father was not President of the 
United States.' It was very interesting to hear simple 
anecdotes of this kind from one of the great soldiers 



PRESIDENT GRANT 57 

of the century, and who now is also one of the 
greatest potentates in the world. 

Turning to American politics, he told me that 
his own opinion inclined to agree with those who 
think that the President ought to be elected for six 
years, and to be afterwards ineligible. However, 
most Americans think that General Grant would be 
probably elected for a third term if it were not for 
their almost superstitious reverence for the unwritten 
law of the protest of Washington against any such 
prolongation, which he declined to accept for him- 
self. There is a general feeling that Grant saved the 
Union in the late war ; that he is a man of deeds, not 
words, and that he will also steadily veto any measure 
adverse to ' hard money ' and to the secular system of 
public instruction, which is a favourite article in the 
political creed of the majority of Americans. I asked 
the President and other American Statesmen what 
they thought of the idea of a future alliance or 
confederation of the Anglo-Saxon race, such as Mr. 
W. E. Forster has often shadowed forth, and especially 
in his recent speech at Edinburgh. They all say that 
they like the idea, though of course they do not 
pledge themselves to any details ; and looking to the 
recent utterances of some of our English politicians 
and journalists, they doubt if England at present 
really desires anything of the kind. 

Lord Houghton and I were much interested in our 
visit to Eichmond and the battlefields near it, the 
bloodiest in all history. The chief men in the South 



T)8 TREFATOKY MEMOIR 

still speak of the Union Government much as the Irish 
Home Eulers speak of the English Government, while 
the Southern ladies are all as fierce rebels * as the Jaco- 
bite ladies in Scotland a hundred and fifty years ago. 
All however agree that there is no chance of another 
attempt being made to break up the Union, at least 
in the present generation. The Americans now feel 
themselves a nation and not a bundle of States. The 
war of Secession has done for their nationality what 
the war with France has done for German nationality. 
They are now less sensitive, while we are more re- 
spectful ; they are like a successful young man who 
is no longer bumptious when he feels his position in 
the world to be secure. The statue of the Confederate 
General, Stonewall Jackson, was lately set up at 
Richmond with much ceremony, and a great parade 
of English flags, and of sympathy with England. No 
doubt, as the ' Times ' said, it was very indiscreet in 
any body of Englishmen to send it over ; and their 
indiscretion, some years ago, might have led to grave 
consequences. But the Americans have now out- 
grown the sensitiveness of their national youth ; they 
know that they have waged a war in which they had, 
from first to last, and on both sides, more than two 
millions of men under arms ; they feel the great 
position which they now hold in the eyes of the world ; 

1 Sir G. Bowen was told at Washington that General Lee once met 
with a flag cf truce some Northern Generals to arrange for a cartel for 
the exchange of prisoners ; and that alluding to the term ' rebels ' as 
applied to the Confederates, he said, ' Gentlemen, I propose a toast 
which we can all accept : " The first REBEL, George Washington!" ' 



THE MODERN AMERICAN 50 

they are almost as proud of their victory in law and 
diplomacy at Geneva in the ' Alabama ' case, as of 
their warlike triumphs at Eichmond and Charleston ; 
in short, they are in good humour with themselves, 
and consequently with us. They really seem to care 
as little about a rich Englishman sending over a 
statue of Jackson to Eichmond, as we should care 
if some rich American were to set up a statue of 
Cromwell at Worcester or Naseby. 

According to my observation, the typical Yankee 
is now as nearly extinct as the typical John Bull. 
The overflowing kindness and courtesy everywhere 
accorded this year to Lord Houghton and myself, are 
meant as -demonstrations of national good will to our 
country. In Lord Houghton they had one who com- 
bined two capacities which they like and admire, 
that of an English peer, and an English man of letters ; 
and when I have remonstrated against some of the 
flattering attentions showered upon myself, I have 
been told that I am the first Colonial Governor they 
have had amongst them for a long time, and that they 
desire to show their respect and sympathy for one 
who represents alike the Queen and also that British 
Colonial Empire to which their fathers belonged. 
Colonel Scott, the ' Eailway King ' of America, insisted 
on sending me and my aide-de-camp across America 
from Philadelphia to San Francisco in a most com- 
fortable 'President's car,' containing drawing-room, 
dining-room, bedrooms, and excellent kitchen and 
attendants. In fact, it was an hotel on wheels. 



GO PREFATORY MEMOIR 

It was very interesting in the course of this tour 
in Virginia to see the many traces of the Civil War 
in the capital of the Confederate States and its 
immediate neighbourhood. The Mayor drove Lord 
Houo-hton and Sir George Bowen over the battlefields 
near Richmond, many of which then resembled an 
Australian goldfield, for they presented a surface of 
crumbling earthworks, which had been pushed on 
by the contending armies so close to each other that 
in many cases the Northern and Southern soldiers 
fought with their bayonets over the ridges of their 
trenches. The drivers of the Mayor's carriages and 
all the hack drivers of Richmond were liberated slaves 
cheery, laughing negroes, who seemed often to look 
back with sympathy to their old masters and former 
homes. In a letter which Sir George Bowen after- 
wards received from Lord Houghton, it was said : ' I 
shall never forget the party to which we were invited 
at Richmond by the Governor of Virginia, a former 
Confederate general, who had been wounded in 
battle; how much I was touched by a charming 
American lady suddenly striking up my own song, 
Strangers yet; and how, when the Governor apolo- 
gised to us for retiring early, because he had a ball 
in his back, you remarked to me that " such an arriere- 
pensee was a sufficient excuse ; " a mot which I often 
repeat in England as one of the most amusing I ever 
heard.' 

On their return to Washington, the travellers 
visited together Washington's old home at Mount 
Vernon, which resembles some of the early settlers' 
houses in Australia. On crossing the Potomac, a 
question was raised about the story related in some 



SALT LAKE CITY Gl 

of the popular biographies of Washington, viz. that 
he was so strong that he could throw a dollar across 
the Potomac, which is there far wider than the Thames 
at Westminster ; for legends have already grown up 
about him as if he had been an early Christian saint. 
Lord Chief Justice Coleridge, on his tour in America 
some years later, was escorted to Mount Vernon by 
the Attorney-General of the United States, who when 
asked if this legend was true, replied : ' Well, my Lord, 
if you have read that story, I suppose it must have 
some foundation. At all events, it is not for me to 
belittle the Father of my country ; but your Lordship 
will please to recollect that a hundred years ago the 
dollar went much further than it goes now ! ' 

From Washington Sir G. Bowen returned to 
Philadelphia, and thence crossed the continent to 
San Francisco in the ' President's car ' attached to the 
express train. He stopped for one day at Chicago, 
and for four days at Salt Lake City. 

To an English Statesman. 

Salt Lake City : December 3, 1875. 

This is a glorious place in point of scenery as fine 
as anything in Switzerland. Moreover, when I say that 
the Great Salt Lake, surrounded by its amphitheatre 
of snowy mountains, varying in height from 8,000 to 
12,000 ft,, reminds me of Lake Wakatipu in New 
Zealand, and of the mountains of Otago, I mean that 
it reminds me of some of the most magnificent 
scenery in the whole world. But after all, ' the 
proper study of mankind is man ' ; and I have 



G2 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

returned from an interview with Brigham Young, 
who received me cordially, and with an evident desire 
to make a favourable impression on a British Go- 
vernor. S 0h, I do hope,' he said, 'that the time 
will come when England, whence we receive so many 
of our brethren and sisters, will do us the justice which 
America withholds.' And speaking of the next contest 
for the Presidency, he remarked : ' What we really 
want for President of the United States is a man like 
one of your stout old English admirals, who has no 
theories, and will stand no nonsense.' I had a letter 
of introduction to the Governor of the Territory of 
Utah, a sharp lawyer from Boston, and he took me a 
drive in the afternoon. I asked him what he sup- 
posed that Brigham Young meant in his remark 
about British admirals ; when, after stroking his beard 
for some minutes in deep reflection, he replied : 4 Well, 
Sir, I reckon that Brigham has read the life of your 
Lord Nelson, and believes that your " stout old British 
admirals" (as he calls them) would not object to a 
plurality of wives so much as does our General Grant.' 
In appearance and manner Brigham Young re- 
sembles a cross between a Methodist parson and an 
American sea-captain. He has the white tie, the 
black clothes, and the unctuous manner of the first, 
and the clear cold eye, and look of habitual command 
of the other. All, however, admit that the Mormon 
prophet is a man of extraordinary personal influence 
and skill in organising labour and colonisation. His 
followers worship him much as the old Greek colonists 



THE MORMONS 63 

worshipped their (Ekists ; as the Moses, who in 1846, 
after the assassination, or, as they call it, the ' mar- 
tyrdom,' of Joseph Smith, led their Exodus across 
the American desert, through wild tribes of hostile 
Indians, over the Eocky Mountains, and through 
every species of danger and hardship, to their 
Canaan, or ' Sion,' which then formed part of Mexico, 
and lay beyond the jurisdiction of the United States. 
But the railroad, that Iron Horse more powerful than 
the American cavalry, has followed them up, and 
now there is a strong force of United States troops en- 
camped on the hill above the city, whose guns (as the 
commanding officer said to me) ' could soon make it 
hot for the Mormons, if they should resist the law.' 

The position of affairs here is very curious ; as you 
are aware, a ' Territory ' is analogous in its constitu- 
tion to a ' Crown Colony.' Although the population of 
Utah is now 150,000 (of which number 10,000 are 
' Gentiles,' i.e. non-Mormons), and although Nevada, 
California, and other former Territories have been 
erected into States when their population was much 
smaller, the Congress steadily refuses to make Utah a 
State so long as the Mormon organisation continues ; 
for if the Mormons had full powers of self-government, 
they would of course have a Mormon Governor, and 
Mormon Executive Officers, Judges, &c., and would 
pass laws establishing polygamy, and rendering their 
country uninhabitable except by Mormons. While 
Utah remains a Territory, the Governor is appointed 
by the President from Washington ; and he has an 



64 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

absolute veto on all acts of the local legislature, which 
is entirely Mormon. All the Judges and chief public 
officers are also appointed by the President, and 
use the United States troops as a posse comitatus to 
execute their decrees ; nay more, the Governor is by 
law Commander-in-Chief, and he refuses to. allow the 
Mormons to parade or be drilled with their own 
rifles. Brigham bitterly complained to me, with the 
tone and air of a pious confessor or martyr, of the 
bondage in which his people are held, as ' worse than 
that of the Israelites in the Land of Goshen.' On 
the other hand the few ' Gentiles ' in Utah say that 
their lives would not be safe if things were otherwise, 
and that in the country districts even now, apostate 
Mormons have 'disappeared' (rj^avicrB^o-av, in the 
phrase of Thucydides 1 ), under the hands of the 
6 Avenging Angels,' or ' Danites,' as the secret police 
of the ruling priesthood is called. They are said to 
have perpetrated murders and massacres in the 
disguise of Indians. 

Many people believe that this strange theocracy 
will break up on the death of Young ; but that is not 
the opinion of the Missionary Bishop of the Anglican 
Church in the United States, who has a small congre- 
gation -in Salt Lake City. He believes that the organi- 
sation has been so successful as a colonising power, 
that so many personal interests have grown up under 
it, and that it is worked by so many other able men 
besides Brigham Young, that it will not be easily de- 

1 Thucydides, III. 83. Cf. IV. 80. 



YOUNG 65 

stroyed. It is recruited every year by several thousand 
emigrants, chiefly from the labouring classes of Wales, 
Scotland, and Sweden, who find comfortable home- 
steads provided for them, while their women are (for 
peasant girls) luxuriously lodged in the houses of the 
rich Mormons. Polygamy in Utah, as in Turkey, is 
necessarily practised only by comparatively wealthy 
men. The Bishop told me, among many other curious 
facts and anecdotes, that Brigham Young often asks 
clergymen of various communions, who visit Utah, to 
preach in the ' Tabernacle,' as his large, theatre-like 
church is called ; warning them, however, that if they 
should say anything against the ' peculiar ' institution 
(polygamy), he reserved to himself the right of reply- 
ing at the end of the sermon. Mr. Newman Hall, the 
well-known Baptist Minister, was thus invited, and 
preached on the parable of the ' Eich Man and Laza- 
rus.' In the course of his sermon, he brought in an 
attack on polygamy, but wound up with the hope that 
all present, whether polygamists or monogamists, 
would meet at last in ' Abraham's bosom.' When he 
sat down, Brigham rose up, and merely said : ' My 
Mormon brethren, our reverend friend, Mr. Newman 
Hall, has forgotten in his eloquent sermon to remind 
us of one little fact, and that is that Abraham himself 
was a polygamist! 

San Francisco : December 8, 1875. 

After crossing the Eocky Mountains by railway 
at a point higher than the convent of Mount St. 
Bernard, i.e. more than 8,000 ft. above the sea, and 

YOE. i. F 



$6 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

being whirled along for two days among snowy 
peaks, we descended to the soft Italian climate and 
perpetual summer of the Pacific coast, and reached 
San Francisco, the New York of the West, Cali- 
fornia closely resembles Australia in climate, pro- 
ducts, and the general appearance of the country ; 
while San Francisco has about the same population, 
though it is not so handsomely or solidly built, as Mel- 
bourne. A box at the principal theatre was this even- 
ing placed by the Mayor at my disposal, and, on my 
entrance, ' God save the Queen ' was twice played by 
the orchestra, having been encored by the large 
audience, which received it with enthusiasm. Put 
this is only a fresh proof of the respect and courtesy 
which the Americans are prepared to extend to every 
English official. 

Nothing could be more gratifying personally, or 
more satisfactory on public grounds, than the recep- 
tion accorded in the United States to Sir G. Eowen as 
a British Governor representing the Queen in one 
of the most important provinces of the Empire. This 
good feeling continued till the last moment of his 
stay on the soil of the Great Republic ; for on em- 
barking on board the mail steamer for Australia, the 
Directors of the Company gave a lunch in the cabin 
in his honour, inviting several of the chief residents 
of San Francisco to meet him. As he stepped on 
the deck, the American flag was hoisted, but by some 
mischance the rope gave way, and the flag falling 
enveloped in its folds a young lady standing near 



THE ' STARS AXD BARS 'MISS LEE G7 

liim. Sir George advanced to, as it were, unveil the 
lady, saying, ' I am sure it will do no harm to any 
American to be enveloped in the Stars and Stripes.' 
A voice came from under the flag : 'Sir, I perceive 
you are a Britisher. What have / to do with the 
Stars and Stripes ? / am for the Stars and Bars ' (the 
flag of the Confederate States). Her rescuer for a 
moment thought that in his last moments on Ameri- 
can waters he might be a witness of what Americans 
call ' a difficulty,' that is, some sharp-shooting with 
revolvers. But a captain in the American navy, 
whose acquaintance he had recently made, stepped 
forward and said, ' Sir George Bowen, permit me to 
introduce you to Miss Lee of Virginia, the daughter 
of the famous Confederate General, Eobert Lee ; and 
now you will understand why she prefers the old 
Confederate flag, though the country is now reunited 
under the National banner.' Such was his first 
acquaintance with Miss Lee, who afterwards became 
his guest in Australia, and whom he has since met 
at Borne, London, Paris, Hong Kong, and elsewhere. 
The ' City of San Francisco ' conveyed Sir George 
on a prosperous voyage back to his government of 
Victoria. There was but one stoppage, at Honolulu, 
before Sydney was reached. Here he found in the 
British Commissioner and Consul-General, an old 
Oxford friend, Mr. James Wodehouse. From Sydney 
he proceeded, after staying there for three days with 
the Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, to Melbourne, 
where he was welcomed by his Ministers, and by the 
Mayor of Melbourne, who gave a banquet in his honour 
on his return, as he had done on his departure on 
leave of absence twelve months previously. 

y a 



68 PREFATORY MEMOIR 



CHAPTER V. 

MAURITIUS HONG KONG CHINA JAPAN - INDIA ' DUFFERIN 
BURMANICUS ' SIR EDWIN ARNOLD PRIVY COUNCILLOR 
HON. D.C.L. OXFORD HON. LL.D. CAMBRIDGE RETIREMENT 
MALTA. 

PROM 1879 to 1883 Sir George Bo wen was Governor of 
Mauritius, the beautiful island of ' Paul and Virginia,' 
where, as in Canada, English is blended with French 
colonisation ; and where he succeeded in leaving all 
races, creeds, and classes of the population in amity 
and contentment. 1 

In 1883, after more than thirty years' continuous 
service, he thought of asking permission to retire, 
when it was proposed that he should undertake the 
government of Hong Kong, ' the Malta of the Far 
East,' where serious difficulties of various kinds 
required the care of an experienced and conciliatory 
ruler. We shall show in subsequent chapters how, 
in two years, he had reconstructed the Colonial 
Legislature, and established friendly relations with 
the leading actors of all nations in the historical 
drama then playing in that quarter of the globe. In 
the beginning of 1885 he had reluctantly obtained 
leave, on medical certificate, to visit England ; but 
the embarrassments consequent on the prolonged 
Franco-Chinese hostilities and on the then threatened 

1 See Vol. II., Part V. 



'DUFFERIN BURMANICUS' 69 

war with Kussia convinced the Governor that it was 
his duty to remain at his post, at whatever risk of 
health. The Colonial Minister (Lord Derby) signified 
in an official despatch his 4 high appreciation of the 
public spirit which led him to this decision.' When 
peace was finally restored, his leave of absence was 
renewed ; and Lord Stanley of Preston, the Colonial 
Minister who had succeeded Lord Derby, addressed 
the Acting Governor in the following terms : * I have 
pleasure in availing myself of this opportunity of ex- 
pressing my sense of the energy and ability with which 
Sir George Bowen has devoted himself to the adminis- 
tration of the important government of Hong Kong.' 1 
Sir George Bowen returned from Hong Kong by 
way of British India, and was the guest at Calcutta of 
his friend from Oxford days, Lord Dufferin. He made 
the acquaintance, while the guest of the 'Viceroy, of 
many of the Indian Princes, and of the high func- 
tionaries of Government. Lord DufFerin, having 
announced at an official dinner that the Imperial 
Government had approved by telegraph his annexa- 
tion of Burma, was saluted by his guest in the old 
Eoman fashion, as Dufferin Biirmanicus ; an antici- 
pation of the title of Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, 
afterwards conferred on him by the Queen. Sir 
George afterwards made a very interesting tour in 
India, visiting Benares, Agra, Gwalior, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore, and Delhi, where he was present with 
the Viceroy at the grand review of January 1886, 
when 40,000 troops marched past. He afterwards 
proceeded through Jeypore and Eajpootana to Bom- 
bay, where he was the guest of the Governor, Lord 

1 See Vol. II., Part VI. 



70 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

Keay, as lie had been of the Lieutenant-Governor of 
the North-West Provinces, Sir Alfred Lyall, at Allah- 
abad. He enjoyed, of course, special opportunities 
of personal observation, and of learning the views of 
many of the leading men of India, both English and 
native. He refers in his pamphlet on Imperial Federa- 
tion (pages 13, 14) to the question as to how India 
should be treated in any general scheme of Federa- 
tion. ' I said above that I did not, in this paper, 
reckon India with the Colonies. That great depen- 
dency might be treated as still (so to speak) in static 
pupillari to the Imperial Crown and Legislature. 
Personally, however, I am inclined to believe that it 
should be regarded as a Crown Colony on a grand scale ; 
and that former members of the Supreme Council at 
Calcutta, including a certain proportion of native 
princes, should hereafter be delegated by that body, or 
selected by the Crown, to represent India in any new 
Imperial Council at London. It should be borne in 
mind that, with regard to the gradual communication 
of the chief rights of British* citizens to the natives of 
India, there is the example of Borne. Cicero considered 
the liberality of the Eomans in admitting foreign 
nations to the rights of Roman citizenship as the main 
cause of the rapid extension and consolidation of the 
Roman Empire. 1 From what I myself saw and 
learned, I believe that we have a just right to apply 

1 ' Iliad vero sine ulld dubitatione maxime nostrum fiuidavit 
inijtenuni, et populi Romani nomen auxit, quod princeps ille creator 
hnjiifi urbis Eomulus fcedere Sabino docuit, etiam hostibus recipi- 
ctidis augeri hanc civitatem oportere ; cujus autoritate et excinplo 
Httni/iiain est interniissa a majoribus nostris largitio et conimuni- 
,;iti ririhiti*: (Pro Balbo, c. 13.) The liberality of the Romans in 
this respect was contrasted by Dionysius with the exclusiveness of the 
Greeks (.!/. Horn. II. 17.) 



SIR EDWIN AKNOLD 71 

to the British Empire in India those noble verses 
in which the Eoman poet Claudian described the 
Imperial policy of Eome : 

Hac cst in gremium victos qiia sola recepit, 
Humanumque genus communi nomine fovit, 
Matris, non doniina, ritu ; civesqiw vocavit 
Quos domuit, nexuque pio longinqua revinxit.' ' 

Sir George Bo wen returned from Bombay to 
England by Suez, Cairo, Brindisi, Rome, and Florence. 
On the voyage to Suez there were in the P. & 0. 
steamer a distinguished company of Anglo Indian 
Generals and Civilians ; and also Sir Edwin Arnold, 
the accomplished author of the ' Light of Asia.' We 
subjoin the graceful verses addressed by him to Sir 
G. Bo wen : 

Lightly we talked, in our British way, 

On the dancing deck, day after day, 

Of times and peoples, and fair old sayings 

From Grecian legend and Latin lay. 

You, with the laurels of many a year 
Nobly crowning your silvered hair, 
Five times Consul, faithfully guarding 
England's majesty, far and near. 

King for the Queen in Queensland, long, 
King for the Queen Victorians among; 
Ruling New Zealand, ruling Mauritius, 
Governing pig-tails in far Hong-Kong. 

1 De Secundo Consulatu StilicJionis, V. 150-153. Claudian (ibidem, 
V. 154-9) speaks of the facilities of intercourse introduced by the 
Romans into their vast empire, partly by the maintenance of peace, 
and partly by their roads a passage which has been reduced to sober 
truth by railways and steamers in the British Empire : 
Hujus pacificis debemus moribus omnes 
Quod veluti patriis regionibus utitur hospes ; 
Quod sedem mutare licet ; quod cernere Tkulen 
Lusiis, et horrcndos quondam pcnct rare recessus ; 
tynod cuncli yens \um -m tints, 



72 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

I a poet, and scribe of the press, 

Stealing a pause from its daily stress, 

To wander once more in the Land of my boyhood, 

India, wonderful, measureless ! 

Swiftly those sea-leagues glided by, 

Shortened by friendliest company ; 

Fallentes iter we cheated old Ocean 

Of half his weary monotony. 

But you of five royal colonies chief, 

What room is left for a myrtle leaf, 

VirnullA non donande lauro! 

In your wreath of honour ? Yet here receive 

One shipmate's word of the thanks and praise 
Which England owes, and England pays 
For great work wrought for the Commonwealth 
In watchful midnights and burning days I 
Nor deem you will come to the Mother-land 
Unloved unwelcomed, though placemen stand 
Silent and foolish ! The nation knows 1 
Securus judicat populus ! And 
History writes you in letters of gold 
With those who have compassed the art to hold 
Imperial mother and lordly children 
In free affection ; their pride t' enfold 

In bond of amity. You, who see, 

Teach us that large simplicity 

Which voices of wisdom, and great dead heroes, 

And kinship, enjoin, ' One Britain be ! ' 

So resting, Good Friend 1 from toils sublime, 
Rude donatus, the latter time 
Shall burnish the gold of your heaped-up honour, 
And sunset be brighter than noon's broad prime. 

EDWIN ARNOLD. 

P. & 0. Steamer ' Siam.' In the Indian Ocean. March 16, 1886. 

Not long after his return to England in 1886, Sir 
G. Bowen was sworn in before the Queen at Windsor 
as a member of the Privy Council; an emphatic 



PRIVY COUNCILLOR To 

recognition of public services which has been granted 
to very few other Colonial Governors. Annexed is the 
letter addressed to him on this occasion by the Et. 
Hon. Edward Stanhope, then Colonial Minister. 

Colonial Office, November 26, 1886. 

My dear Sir George Bowen, 

I saw with regret the premature announcement 
in the Gazette, because I wished to be one of the very 
first to write to you and express my deep sense of 
satisfaction that your long and honoured services 
should have been recognised by Her Majesty the 
Queen. Speaking for myself, and for the Govern- 
ment with which I am connected, I should like to say 
that our sense of the value of those services, and of 
the example which you have set to the whole body of 
men engaged in the work of Colonial Government, is 
real and abiding ; and by enrolling you in the select 
list of those Governors who have been summoned to 
the Privy Council in recognition of their worth, the 
Queen gives encouragement to your successors to 
follow in your footsteps. 

Thanking you for your personal kindness and 
consideration towards myself, publicly and privately, 
I hope you may be given long years of health to 
enjoy the honours you have so justly earned. 
Believe me, dear Sir George Bowen, 
Yours very truly, 

EDWAED STANHOPE. 

It should be mentioned that, as Knights Grand 
Cross of St. Michael and St. George are entitled to 



74 PREFATORY MEMOIR 

supporters to their family arms, the Heralds' College 
assigned to Sir George Bo wen two Maori Chiefs, in 
remembrance of his having engaged their aid to 
fight for the Crown ; with the motto Imperi Porrecta 
Majestas. The lines of Horace from which this motto 

is taken, 1 

Per quas Latinum nomen et Italce 
Crevete vires, famaqtie et Imperi 
Porrecta majestas ad or turn 
Soils ab Hesperio cubili, 

are still more applicable to the British than to the 
Roman Empire. 

We must not omit to record that the Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge respectively have conferred 
on Sir George Bowen their honorary degrees of D.C.L. 
and LL.D. The Latin speeches with which he was 
presented in the Sheldonian Theatre and in the 
Senate House both referred to his literary as well as 
to his official reputation ; and he was received on 
both occasions with loud and general applause. 

Towards the close of 1886, on account partly of 
ill-health in his family, and partly in consequence of 
a desire manifested in many quarters that his experi- 
ence should be rendered available in Parliament, Sir 
George Bowen tendered the resignation of his office. 
Sir George Strahan, the Governor of Tasmania, was 
selected as his successor at Hong Kong ; but on the 
sudden death of that officer, early in 1887, it was pro- 
posed to the former, in the most gratifying manner, 
by Her Majesty's Government, that he should resume 
his government ; when he at once signified his readi- 
ness to place himself at their disposal. But the hope 

1 (Jann. IV, 1-3. 



1{ ETIUEMEXT M ALT A t ) 

of a seat in rarliainent induced him finally to ask 
permission to retire, unless his services should be 
absolutely required by an early prospect of war or 
other grave difficulties in the Far East. This per- 
mission was granted by Sir Henry Holland, now Lord 
Knutsford, who had succeeded Mr. Stanhope at the 
Colonial Office, and who wrote in the following terms 
(June 24, 1887): 'I have read with interest the re- 
capitulation of the important services which it has 
been your good fortune to be enabled to render in the 
Governments which you have successively filled ; and 
I fully concur in the expressions of appreciation and 
approval with which my immediate predecessors in 
this office have referred to those services. Those 
communications are so recent that I need not now 
repeat at length the sentiments which they contain.' 

Sir George Bowen took a prominent part in the 
public ceremonies which marked the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition of 1886, and the Colonial Con- 
ference and Jubilee celebrations of 1887. Having 
such long and varied experience in the administra- 
tion of both Crown and self-governing Colonies, he 
has become a special authority on many questions 
affecting the ' Greater Britain.' 

Although he had formally retired from the perma- 
nent service of the Crown, the veteran Governor re- 
mained ready and eager to be employed in any mission 
in which his experience might be useful. A few 
months after his retirement such an occasion arose ; 
and he was appointed by the Queen, in December 1887, 
to be the chief of a Royal Commission sent to Malta, 
to inquire and report on the arrangements connected 
with the new constitution granted to that island. The 



7G PREFATORY MEMOIR 

principal parliamentary papers connected with this 
mission will be found in a subsequent chapter. 1 It 
will be seen that the two Commissioners, Sir George 
Bowen and Sir George Baden-Powell, received through 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies the thanks of 
the Queen for their 'care and ability' ; and that all 
their recommendations were adopted by Her Majesty's 
Government. 

Such, in brief, are the main features of the public 
life of Sir G. Bowen, a life devoted to the service 
of his country. The fuller record of his work, 
to which the preceding sketch is introductory, has 
been compiled from the materials furnished by his 
public reports and addresses, and from a selection of 
his semi-official correspondence, and of his letters to 
his numerous friends among politicians and literary 
men of eminence. It will be easily understood that 
in so large a mass of documents, it has been found 
necessary to make many omissions and abridgments. 
In particular, care has been taken to avoid the 
reproduction of any part of his despatches which 
was of a confidential nature, or which could reason- 
ably give pain or offence to any classes or individuals 
in the Colonies. The principal end which has been 
kept steadily in view has been to record in a per- 
manent form, and to render more widely available 
. for reference, the long and varied experience of his 
life, as a contribution to the history of the Colonies ; 
and as a support to those statesmen who, rising 
above the strife of party politics, are labouring to 
establish on a firm and solid basis the unity of the 
British Empire. 

1 See Vol. II., Part VII. 



PART II. 

THE FOUNDING OF 
QUEENSLAND 

1859-1868 



CHAPTER VI. 

SIP, ft. BOVVEN APPOINTED FIRST GOVERNOR OF QUEENSLAND 
LETTER FROM SIR E. BULWER LYTTON ENTHUSIASTIC RECEP- 
TION AT BRISBANE ADDRESSES AND REPLIES REPORT TO 
THE SECRETARY OF STATE AND HIS REPLY. 

FROM Corfu to Queensland is a gigantic leap, not in 
space alone, but in habits of thought and traditions 
of government. If political life in the Ionian Islands 
was not all that might have been wished, at least 
there was a settled system of administration, and 
principles of government founded upon ancient pre- 
cedents and not inglorious records. In Queensland 
there was nothing of the sort ; and if ever a State was 
entitled to the happiness which is said to belong to 
the nation that has no history, that State was the 
district of Moreton Bay, now, in 1859, on the petition 
of its inhabitants, to be severed from the maternal 
care of New South Wales, and to begin a separate life 
of its own in the commonwealth of nations. As Chief 
Secretary in the Ionian Islands, Sir G. Bowen had won 
the approval of the Home Government in circum- 
stances of no little difficulty ; and his appointment to 
be the first Governor of the new Colony of Queens- 
land was a proof of their confidence. But no one 
knew better than himself how abrupt would be the 
transition from the official guidance of a few small 
islands to the government of a country half the size 
of Western Europe ; and from the maintenance of a 



80 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

constitution which had prevailed for over forty years, 
and was itself a survival of a far older system, to the 
inauguration of a State where the whole machinery 
of government and legislation had to be created. 

Only the leading men resident in the Colonies 
really know how great and pervasive is the influence 
of a Governor who understands and performs his 
duty; how many even in Colonies which have long 
enjoyed representative institutions are the delicate 
crises to be smoothed away, and how serious the 
constitutional and imperial interests to be guarded 
always, however, with the gloved hand and sheathed 
sword by the Queen's representative. All such 
problems and difficulties naturally present themselves 
in the crudest shape in the first years of a new State, 
however well disposed towards its Governor, and 
desirous to learn those lessons of moderation and 
compromise which are of the essence of successful 
self-government. The responsibility of a first Gover- 
nor is immense, but so is his reward. Few rulers 
enjoy so fully the high recompense of seeing their 
work shape itself beneath their touch as the Proconsuls 
of England's younger Colonies. As in a tropical 
climate the grain seems to stir and the fruit to ripen 
almost as soon as sown, and the husbandman has the 
happiness of speedily garnering the harvest which his 
own toil has prepared, so a generation in Australia 
effects more transformation than a century in Europe 
or a ' cycle in Cathay ' ; and the founder of a Colony 
may witness more national growth in a dozen years 
than the oldest Statesman in the old world can hope 
to survey ; while, great as is the achievement of the 
present, the possibilities of the future are boundless. 



LETTER FROM SIR E. BULWER LYTTON 81 

The first Lord (then Sir Edward Bulwer) Lytton, 
as Minister for the Colonies, gave Sir George Bowen 
sound advice on the duties and bearing of a Colonial 
Governor in a characteristic letter which is here 
reprinted. 1 It comprises a code of public principles 
without which no Governor in a free Colony can 
hope for success ; and is a proof of the practical 
statesmanship of the poet-philosopher. 

The Et. Hon. Sir E. B. Lytton to Sir G. F. Bowen. 

Great Malvern : April 29, 1859. 

Dear Sir George Bowen, 

I have the pleasure to inform you that the Queen 
approves of your appointment to Moreton Bay, which 
will henceforth bear the appellation of Queensland. 
Accept my congratulations and my assurances of the 
gratification it gives me to have promoted you to a 
post in which your talents will find ample scope. 

There is not much to learn beforehand for your 
guidance in this new Colony. The most anxious 
and difficult question connected with it will be the 
' Squatters.' But in this, which is an irritating con- 
test between rival interests, you will wisely abstain 
as much as possible from interference. Avoid taking 
part with one or the other. Ever be willing to lend 
aid to conciliatory settlement ; but, in order to secure 
that aid, you must be strictly impartial. Bemember 
that the first care of a Governor in a free Colony is to 
shun the reproach of being a party man. Give all 
parties and all the Ministries formed the fairest play. 

Mark and study the idiosyncrasies of the com- 

1 See Speeches of Edward, Lord Lytton, edited by his Son, Vol. I., 
page 121. 

VOL. I. G 



82 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

munity ; every community has some peculiar to itself. 
Then, in your public addresses, appeal to those which 
are the noblest : the noblest are generally the most 
universal and the most durable. They are peculiar 
to no party. 

Let your thoughts never be distracted from the 
paramount object of finance. All States thrive in 
proportion to the administration of revenue. 

You will as soon as possible exert all energy and 
persuasion to induce the colonists to see to their self- 
defence internally. Try to establish a good police ; 
if you can then get the superior class of colonists to 
assist in forming a militia or volunteer corps, spare 
no pains to do so. It is at the commencement of 
Colonies that this object can be best effected. A 
Colony that is once accustomed to depend on Im- 
perial soldiers for aid against riots, &c., never grows 
up into vigorous manhood. Witness the West Indian 
Colonies. 

Education the Colonists will be sure to provide 
for. So they will for religion. 

Bo your best always to keep up the pride in the 
mother-country. Throughout all Australia there is a 
sympathy with the ideal of a gentleman. This gives 
a moral aristocracy. Sustain it by showing the store 
set on integrity, honour, and civilised manners ; not 
by preferences of birth, which belong to old coun- 
tries. 

Whenever any distinguished residents in your 
Colony come to England, give them letters of intro- 
duction, and a private one to the Secretary of State, 
whoever he may be. This last is not sufficiently 
clone in Colonies ; but all Secretaries of State who 



LETTER FROM SIR E. BULWER LYTTOX 83 

are fit for the office should desire it. You may quote 
my opinion to this effect to my successors. 

As regards despatches : Your experience in the 
Ionian Islands will tell you how much is avoided in 
despatches that may be made public, and done in 
private letters. This practice is at present carried to 
inconvenience and abuse. Questions affecting free 
Colonies may come before Parliament, of which no 
documents whatever afford the slightest explanation. 

The communications from a Government should 
be fourfold : 

(1.) Public Despatches. 

(2.) Confidential: Intended for publication, if at 
all required. 

(3.) Confidential: Not to be published unless 
absolutely necessary for defence of measures of the 
Governor or of the Home Department. 

(4.) Letters strictly private : These, if frank to a 
Minister, or to an Under Secretary, like Mr. Merivale, 
should be guarded to friends ; and should touch as 
little as possible upon names and parties in the 
Colony. A Government may rely on the discretion 
of a Department, never on that of private corre- 
spondents. 

As you will have a free press, you will have 
some papers that may be abusive. Never be thin- 
skinned about these ; laugh them off. Be pointedly 
courteous to all editors and writers acknowledging 

o 

socially their craft and its importance. The more 
you treat people as gentlemen the more ' they will 
behave as such.' * 

1 The present Lord Lytton, in his Prefatory Memoir to his edition 
of his father's speeches (page 124), makes the following comment on this 

G 2 



84 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

After all, men are governed as much by the heart 
as by the head. Evident sympathy in the progress 
of the Colony ; traits of kindness, generosity, devoted 
energy, where required for the public weal ; a pure 
exercise of patronage ; an utter absence of vindic- 
tiveness or spite ; the fairness that belongs to magna- 
nimity these are the qualities that make Governors 
powerful, while men merely sharp and clever may be 
weak and detested. 

But there is one rule that I find pretty universal 
in Colonies. The Governor who is the least huffy, 
and who is most careful not to over-govern, is the 
one who has the most authority. Enforce civility 
upon all minor officials. Courtesy is a duty which 
public servants owe to the humblest member of the 
public. 

Pardon all these desultory hints ; and, wishing 
you all health and enjoyment in the far land, 
Believe me, yours very truly, 

E. B. LYTTON. 

P.S. Get all the details of the Land Question 
from the Colonial Office ; and master them thoroughly. 
Convert the jealousies now existing between Moreton 
Bay and Sydney into emulation. Your recollection 
of the old Greek States will tell you what strides 
States can take through emulation. 

You are aware that since I have been the Secre- 

text : ' This was the instinct of his nature ; and in it is the explanation 
of all that was both Liberal and Conservative in his political aspirations. 
Not to pull down the highest, but to exalt the lowest class of the com- 
munity ; to elevate the soul of the whole nation ; to induce every man, 
born the free citizen of a great empire, to feel that he is by birth a 
great gentleman.' 



ENTHUSIASTIC RECEPTION IN QUEENSLAND 85 

tary for the Colonies I have changed the old Colonial 
uniform for the same as that worn in the Imperial 
service. I consider it a great point to assimilate the 
two services in outward emblems of dignity. The 
Queen's servant is the Queen's servant, whether at 
Westminster or at the antipodes. 

E. B. L. 

If their first Governor was deeply impressed with 
the gravity and responsibility of the trust confided 
to him, the people of Queensland were not less alive 
to the importance of this epoch in their existence or 
less sanguine in their anticipations of the golden age 
which was to open before them. What they thought 
and hoped will be best understood from some passages 
in the local press. The work of a Governor, it must 
be remembered, is not to be traced in his despatches 
alone : it is largely made up of public ceremonies 
and interviews, face to face with the Colonial Legis- 
lature and with all classes of the community ; and to 
understand his influence one must not only see him at 
his desk, but follow him to receptions and deputations, 
hear his speeches and replies to addresses, and read 
their effect in the public records and journals of the 
time. The feeling of the people of Queensland on the 
arrival of their first Governor on December 10, 1859, 
is faithfully represented in the following extracts from 
the ' Moreton Bay Courier ' : 

'The great event of our history stands recorded. 
A new epoch in the annals of Australia has come to 
pass ; " our era " has commenced ; and the delays 
and disappointments of the past are amply com- 
pensated for by the triumphant successes of the 



80 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

present. We have, as a free and independent people, 
welcomed amongst us the first representative of 
royalty to whom the task of governing our young 
State has been allotted ; and never was welcome given 
with heartier zest. . . . 

'Yesterday week, the 5th instant, was the first 
day upon which the arrival of H.M.S. " Cordelia " 
was looked for, and upon that account a series of 
holidays, lasting over four days, was commenced. 
Steamers went down to the bay, visitors poured in 
from the country, and flags waving by day, and fire- 
works by night, gave a glimmering idea of the en- 
thusiasm held in check until the actual landing. On 
Friday evening, about sunset, the troopers who had 
been upon the look-out at Sandgate rode with " hot 
haste " into the town, and announced that the " Cor- 
delia " was coming across the bay. Flags were every- 
where hoisted as the glad intelligence spread like 
wild-fire through the city, and other demonstrations 
of joy were also made. 

' On Saturday morning the " Breadalbane " started 
for the bay, having on board Captain Wickham 
(Government Eesident), Mr. Justice Lutwyche (of 
the Supreme Court), Colonel Gray, Mr. Pring (the 
Attorney-General elect), and several ladies and gen- 
tlemen. After we were moored alongside, Captain 
Wickham appeared at the gangway of the " Cordelia," 
and said that Captain Vernon Harcourt would be 
happy to see any one who wished to come on board. 
The invitation was no sooner given than accepted 
by the majority of the " Breadalbane's " passengers, 
;iiid we had scarcely reached the deck of the " Cor- 
delia' when we were informed that his Excellency 



LANDING AT BRISBANE 87 

was desirous of having everyone presented to him. It 
became evident in the course of this improvised levee 
that his Excellency had not failed to obtain informa- 
tion relative to the place previous to his arrival, for 
many of those who were introduced had already be- 
come known to him both by name and reputation. 
In the happy countenance of his Excellency were 
to be recognised the peaceful termination of all 
our struggles for independence, and the hope of a 
prosperous future. 

4 Various compliments were paid on the passage 
up the river, which were all noticed and acknowledged 
by his Excellency ; but it was not until the arrival of 
the steamer at the Botanical Gardens in Brisbane that 
the grand expression of feeling was evinced. Upwards 
of 4,000 persons were congregated on the banks, 
and the cheers that were given were worthy of any 
assembly of loyal Britons all the world over. His 
Excellency was received at the landing place by the 
Mayor and Corporation of the city of Brisbane ; and 
as he stepped on shore a salute of twenty-one guns 
was fired. At the same moment a party of twelve 
young ladies, uniformly dressed in white, presented to 
Lady Bo wen a bouquet of choice flowers. Passing 
under the triumphal arch, his Excellency and Lady 
Bowen entered the viceregal carriage, and a pro- 
cession was formed to escort them to Government 
House. Along the whole line of route his Excel- 
lency was cheered after the genuine English fashion, 
and the procession that followed was of very credit- 
able length and appearance. The banners carried by 
the various bodies of working men were especially 
noticeable for their appropriateness to the occasion, 



88 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

and the flag adopted as the Queensland ensign was 
frequently to be seen along the line of the cortege. 
The Union Jack, blended (out of compliment to Lady 
Bo wen) with the Greek flag, waved on every side, 
and all the windows and balconies were filled with 
enthusiastic spectators.' 

' The administration of the customary oaths of 
office to the Governor, and the reading of the procla- 
mation of the new Colony from the balcony of the 
Government House, concluded the formal proceedings 
of the day. Sir George then came forward and 
said : " Gentlemen, I thank you all for the warm 
and hearty welcome which you have this day given 
me. I shall not fail to represent to our gracious and 
beloved Sovereign the loyal greeting with which 
you have received Her Majesty's first representative 
among you. I shall have the pleasure of seeing you 
again at the pavilion at ten o'clock on Monday morn- 
ing, and, till then, I bid you all good-bye." An en- 
thusiastic outburst of cheers followed the delivery of 
these few words, and the large crowd quietly dis- 
persed, leaving his Excellency to enjoy the peace and 
comfort of his new home, and the fine scenery of 
which Lady Bowen and he had already frequently 
expressed their admiration.' l 

1 A writer in the Edinburgh Bevieiv (October 1863) states that 
the city of Brisbane ' stands upon a scene of surpassing beauty. The 
noble river, which winds almost underfoot, and appears and dis- 
appears, and appears again, as it pursues its tortuous course to the sea, 
presents ever and anon points of view surpassingly beautiful ; the 
thick brush on its banks, with the majestic Moreton Bay pine over- 
topping all the other giants of the forest, indicating the spots of 
extraordinary fertility, where the hand of man is erecting his future 
dwelling, and transforming the wilderness into smiling farms and 
fruitful fields.' It should be observed that very vivid sketches of the 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 89 

The Governor's first reception at the Botanical 
Gardens on Monday, December 12, 1859, was attended 
by fully four thousand persons ; and a large number 
of addresses of welcome were then presented to him. 
The first was from ' the people of Queensland ' : 

' May it please your Excellency. 

' We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, have 
the honour to convey to your Excellency the con- 
gratulations of the inhabitants of Queensland on 
your arrival in the Colony, and to welcome your 
Excellency to your seat of Government. 

' Suffering, as we have been, from the evils con- 
sequent upon a distant Legislature, which, however 
well disposed, could not, from the nature of the case, 
either understand or provide for our requirements 
with sufficient promptitude, we hail the advent of 
Separation and your Excellency's arrival with feel- 
ings of heartfelt gratitude to our beloved Queen. 

'We desire to convey through you, her Eepre- 
sentative, our love and devotion to our Sovereign. 
We see in your Excellency's presence amongst us 
another instance of Her Majesty's earnest desire to 
promote the welfare and happiness of her subjects ; 
and keeping this steadily in view, it shall be our con- 
stant aim to prove ourselves worthy of the privileges 
ceded to us, and to render the Colony of Queensland 
not alone prosperous and happy in itself, but at the 
same time worthy of its Queen and mother-country.' 

scenery of Queensland and of ' Life in the Bush ' will be found in some 
of the novels of Mrs. Campbell Praed, who was born in the Colony, 
being a daughter of Mr. Murray Prior, one of the earliest settlers, and 
afterwards a member of the Parliament and Ministry. 



90 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

The Governor made the following reply : 

' Gentlemen, 

' I have received with most sincere gratification 
your cordial welcome and your loyal address. I 
thank you with my whole heart for your good wishes, 
and for the assurance of your personal regard for 
myself and my family. Those good wishes and that 
personal regard we warmly return. Like myself, 
Lady Bowen contemplates with unalloyed satis- 
faction a residence of many years among you, in a 
country where the charm of the climate and the 
beauty of the scenery vividly recall the land of her 
birth. 

' It will indeed be a pleasing and honourable duty 
for me to convey to the Queen, my august Mistress, 
your loyal expressions of heartfelt gratitude, love, 
and devotion. I know that our Sovereign will re- 
ceive most graciously, and with cordial satisfaction, 
the many proofs which I shall be able to lay before 
her of your growing welfare and happiness. And 
here, gentlemen, let me announce a fact which I 
know you will all hear with delight. Queensland, 
the name selected for the new Colony, was entirely 
the happy thought and inspiration of Her Majesty 
herself. Other designations had been suggested to 
her, but the Queen spontaneously determined to con- 
fer her own royal title on this new province of her 
Empire. It should assuredly, then, be the constant 
aim of us all to show ourselves not undeserving of 
this signal mark of the favour and sympathy of our 
Sovereign, and (to quote your own well-chosen 
phrase), " to render the Colony of Queensland not 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 91 

only prosperous and liappy in itself, but at the same 
time worthy of its Queen and mother-country." 

' In your address (as in other addresses which 
have been presented on my arrival among you), your 
kindness has assigned to me many gifts and qualities 
that I only wish I could more confidently appropriate. 
But it is only simple justice to attribute to me the 
most lively sympathy and the most abiding interest 
in all that concerns the welfare of the great and 
rising Colony in which the Queen has been graciously 
pleased to name me Her Majesty's first representative. 

4 Supported and strengthened by the Legislature 
and population, as I am confident, from the warmth 
of your greeting, that I shall be, it would be unpar- 
donable if I were ever to neglect the duties which I 
have undertaken to perform, or ever to spare the best 
exertions of which I am capable towards promoting 
your happiness and prosperity. 

'I rejoice to witness around me the obvious pro- 
gress alike of material industry, of mental activity, and 
of moral and physical well-being. Everything may be 
expected from such signs as these. They are strong 
proofs to our Queen and countrymen at home that 
the foundations of a mighty and flourishing province 
of the British Empire have already been laid in this 
part of Australia.' 

In reply to the address of the Mayor and Corpora- 
tion of Brisbane, the Governor said : 

' Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen, 

' I request that you will accept my warmest 
thanks for the cordial and generous welcome to Bris- 
bane which your address conveys to me. From my 



92 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

reception here I have derived deep personal grati- 
fication, and the most favourable impressions of the 
loyalty and good feeling that animate all classes of 
the community. 

' I esteem it no ordinary privilege to be permitted 
to watch over the progress of this city and Colony, at 
a period so full of promise as that of the inaugura- 
tion of local self-government. My object here, as in 
the other principal settlements of Queensland (all of 
which I hope to visit within the next twelve months), 
will be to see and judge for myself to ascertain the 
real wants and wishes of the inhabitants of all classes, 
in order that the views and measures of the Governor 
may harmonise with the voice of the people. Candid 
expressions of opinion and full information on all 
important topics of local interest, in the addresses 
which may be presented to me, will materially con- 
duce to "this end. You may rest assured that all 
suggestions emanating from public bodies such as 
the Municipality of Brisbane will at all times com- 
mand my attention. 

4 It has invariably been held by the highest 
authorities, that the system of local government by 
municipalities has been one of the main elements of 
our national greatness, and of the stability of the 
British Constitution. I rejoice, therefore, that the 
city of Brisbane has set the example of applying for 
incorporation an example which I hope will be 
extensively followed throughout Queensland. I am 
anxious to draw general attention to the conclusions 
on this subject, arrived at, after deliberate considera- 
tion, by the practical and experienced Statesmen who 
form the Privy Council of Great Britain. In their 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 93 

report on the political institutions to be granted to 
the Australian Colonies, which was presented to the 
Queen in 1849, I read as follows : 

' " We are of opinion that the existence in Aus- 
tralia of municipal bodies in a state of efficiency is 
scarcely less necessary to the public welfare than the 
existence there of representative legislatures. A 
large part of the benefit to be derived from such 
legislatures seems to us to depend on the simultaneous 
establishment and co-existence of incorporated muni- 
cipalities. It is the only practical security against 
the danger of undue centralisation. It is the only 
security for the vigilant and habitual attention by the 
local legislature to the interests of the more remote 
localities. It is by such bodies alone that in those 
secluded societies public spirit is kept alive, and skill 
in the conduct of public affairs acquired and exer- 
cised. It is in such corporations that the ' colonists 
are trained to act as legislators in a larger sphere. 
By them and by them alone can any effectual resist- 
ance be made to the partial and undue dedications of 
the public resources to the advantage of districts 
peculiarly fortunate in the zeal and authority of their 
representatives in the legislature." 

' These, gentlemen, are wise and weighty words. 
IS till, this, like all other political questions, in a free 
country, must ultimately be decided by the people 
themselves. Far be it from me to attempt to press 
on the inhabitants of any portion of this Colony un- 
welcome duties under the name of municipal privi- 
leges. It has been rightly observed that " if such 
duties are not undertaken with alacrity, and per- 
formed with zeal, and controlled by public vigilance, 



94 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

and rewarded by public applause, they would be 
undertaken to no good purpose." 

6 But, Mr. Mayor and Gentlemen, you may very 
probably consider that I have already said too much, 
while I myself am painfully conscious that I have said 
too little on a topic of such vital importance. I will, 
therefore, conclude by again thanking you, in the 
name of the Queen, for your loyal greeting to Her 
Majesty's first representative among you ; and by 
assuring you that you will at all times find in me a most 
willing coadjutor in all public works and measures 
that can conduce to the improvement and prosperity 
of the port and city of Brisbane.' 

Other addresses from the Clergy and from several 
public bodies followed, and were duly acknowledged. 
Then came a numerous deputation of working men, 
whose foreman said : 

' May it please your Excellency, 

'We, the representatives of the working-men of 
Brisbane, loyal subjects of the British Crown, would 
respectfully offer your Excellency our sincerest con- 
gratulations on your safe arrival on these shores as 
the first Governor of Queensland. We feel thankful 
that a gracious Providence has brought your Ex- 
cellency and your family in safety to this the land of 
our adoption. 

' We desire to record our gratitude to our illus- 
trious Sovereign, Queen Victoria, who (with her 
Ministers) hath laid this young and rising community 
under the deepest and most lasting obligations. 
When we reflect on the calm and deliberate attention 
evinced by Tlor Majesty's Government, during this 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 95 

movement in the Northern district, which has eventu- 
ally ended in separation from New South Wales : 
when we mark the unwearied assiduity, the strict 
and impartial justice, the total disregard of all the 
sinister influences brought to bear on the struggle by 
the neighbouring Colony, it affords another evidence 
of that liberal and enlightened policy which has cha- 
racterised Her Majesty's reign, and under the shade 
of which the Anglo-Saxon in this southern hemisphere 
may dwell contented and happy. 

' We now welcome your Excellency as the lawful 
representative of our Sovereign and the first Governor 
of Queensland. We hail your arrival on our shores 
with the utmost satisfaction. We look on this day 
as one of the brightest in the existence of the young 
Colony, and take it as an earnest of good things to 
follow. Starting into existence as another of that 
belt of Colonies, which at no distant day is yet destined 
to encircle this great island continent, there is much 
that necessarily remains to be done, in developing the 
various resources of the Colony, in opening up the 
interior, in working out the problem of responsible 
government ; in cultivating literature, science, and 
the arts ; in short, in everything calculated to raise a 
virtuous population 

A happy band, 



To stand a wall of fire 
Around our much -loved land. 



These are works that require clear heads, strorio- 
hands, and above all, honest hearts ; but if we speed 
onward, earnest and eager, though great the struggle, 
yet glorious will be the success. 

' We now wish that vour Excellency's connexion 



9G THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

with this new colony may be long and prosperous, 
with tranquillity in your Government and happiness 
in your personal and family relations.' 

His Excellency replied : 

4 Gentlemen, I have already received so many 
addresses since my arrival in this Colony that it is 
difficult for me to vary the expression of my thanks 
for the loyal spirit in which they are all conceived 
towards our gracious and beloved Queen, and for the 
kindly feeling which they all evince towards my 
family and myself. 

' Gentlemen, this work of self-government by a 
free people is indeed, as you so well express it, " a 
work requiring clear heads, strong hands, and, above 
all, honest hearts." It is easy to see that you fully 
understand and appreciate the privileges, and I am 
confident that you will conscientiously perform the 
duties entrusted to you. 

' I perceive, gentlemen, that you characterise 
your address as proceeding from " Working Men." 
I feel certain, however, that you do not mean by that 
phrase to imply that you belong to any separate 
class, whose feelings and interests are adverse to, or 
even distinct from, the feelings and interests of any 
other class of the inhabitants of this colony. In a 
new and free country, like that in which we are 
living, where there are no paid idlers or sinecurists, 
every man Governor, Judges, Magistrates, Clergy, 
and all every man, I repeat, is emphatically a 
" Working Man." Let us, then, all unite cordially in 
advancing our common interests. Capital is power- 
less without labour, and labour is unprofitable with- 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 97 

out -the aid of capital. Without good government 
and good laws, impartially administered and cheer- 
fully obeyed, neither capital nor labour is safe. 
These are old, but they are true and wise, maxims. 

' The whole life of every active man in a free 
country is necessarily a life of labour and com- 
petition. It is a life of competition with those who 
are running the same race, of struggle with circum- 
stances, often of fight against that adverse fortune 
which may now and then befall us all. But he who 
enters into the work with that dogged perseverance 
which is the peculiar characteristic of the Anglo- 
Saxon race, is sure to bring out successfully those 
talents with which nature may have endowed him. 
Whatever may be the amount of his abilities and 
opportunities, such a man will always be sure to im- 
prove those abilities and opportunities to the best 
advantage, and to apply them as successfully as cir- 
cumstances will permit. 

' Best assured that I shall always remember with 
gratitude this nattering mark of your esteem and 
respect ; and that you will at all times find me your 
zealous fellow workman, in all that may tend to pro- 
mote the happiness and welfare of the people of 
Queensland.' 

Eeplying to the address of the inhabitants of one 
of the principal towns, Sir George laid special stress 
on the importance of maintaining amicable relations 
with the parent Colony of New South Wales : 

' You allude in your address to your recent 
struggle for separation from New South Wales. In 
that struggle you are now victorious. In gracious 
compliance with your own wishes, the Queen has 

VOL. i. n 



98 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

conferred upon you to the fullest extent, the privilege 
of local self-government. Let all, then, forget hence- 
forward any feeling of ill-will engendered by the 
recent controversy, now happily terminated in your 
favour. I wish these words to apply, not only to 
those who now hear me, but throughout the length 
and breadth of Queensland. If any inhabitant of 
this Colony cherishes any lingering jealousy towards 
the Colony of New South Wales, let him convert that 
jealousy into emulation. Let us all unite in a gene- 
rous rivalry with the neighbouring provinces. Let 
us emulate them, in reverence for our religion, in 
loyalty to our Queen, in obedience to the laws, in 
energy, in enterprise in a word, in all those qualities 
which have made the British Empire what it is. 
Such are the arts which have enabled us, the great 
English nation, to overrun the earth from one end of 
it to the other. It is thus that we have spread our 
race and language over the North American Con- 
tinent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It is thus 
that we have annexed to Britain that India .which 
eluded the grasp of Alexander. It is thus, finally, 
that we are now fast peopling our own Australia, that 
" Great Southern Land " which lay beyond the ken 
of the ancient world.' 



The proceedings of December 12, 1859, are 
memorable in many ways. To the people of Queens- 
land the moment was of vital importance ; and the 
impression produced by their Governor's speeches 
was very favourable. ' His welcome is no noisy 
tribute of lip service, but a manifestation that comes 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 99 

from the heart.' 1 The whole community accepted 
Sir George Bowen's advice in the friendly spirit in 
which it was obviously tendered. They realised that 
he ' thoroughly appreciated their position ' ; and they 
were willing to listen to the counsels of a Governor 
' whose reputation must hereafter be estimated by 
the success or failure of his administration in Queens- 
land ' : that he would lay ' on broad foundations the 
happiness and prosperity of the colony ' was, they felt, 
6 guaranteed by the good sense of his language.' 2 

Sir George's own impressions of his reception are 
recorded in the subjoined despatch : 

To the Duke of Newcastle, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies. 

Government House, Brisbane, Queensland : 
December 19, 1859. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to report, that on the 10th 
inst. I landed at Brisbane ; and that, after taking 
the usual oaths before Mr. Justice Lutwyche, Judge 
of the Supreme Court, I assumed, in obedience to the 
Queen's commands, the office of Captain-General and 
Governor-in-Chief of the Colony of Queensland and 
its dependencies. My reception was very gratifying 
to me personally, and eminently satisfactory on public 
grounds, as proving the excellent spirit with which 
all classes of the inhabitants of the new Colony are 
animated towards their Queen and mother-country. 
From a variety of motives, similar to those which 

1 Morcton Bay Courier. 2 North Australian, Dec. 20, 1859. 

H 2 



100 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

actuated the people of the Colony of Victoria before 
its separation from New South Wales, and which 
it would be superfluous in me to recapitulate, the 
inhabitants of Moreton Bay districts have, during 
several years, petitioned the Queen to be formed into 
a separate Colony. My arrival as the first Governor 
was a tangible proof that the prayer of their peti- 
tions had been granted and their long deferred hopes 
fulfilled ; and the people of Queensland appear to have 
determined, as one man, to evince their ' heartfelt 
gratitude, love, and devotion towards their Sovereign,' 
and 'their affectionate attachment to Her Majesty's 
person and government,' by uniting in a hearty 
welcome and loyal greeting to Her Majesty's first 
representative among them. 

The address from the people of Queensland (to- 
gether with several other addresses from various 
public bodies) was presented to me shortly after my 
arrival, in a pavilion erected for that purpose in the 
Botanical Gardens of this city, and in the presence of 
(at the lowest estimate) 4,000 of the inhabitants of 
Brisbane and its vicinity. In my reply I took occa- 
sion to mention that ' Queensland, the name selected 
for the new Colony, was entirely the happy thought 
and inspiration of Her Majesty herself. Other de- 
signations had been suggested to her, but the Queen 
spontaneously determined to confer her own royal 
title on this new Province of her Empire.' The 
announcement of this simple fact was received by 
the 4,000 of Her Majesty's subjects who formed my 



DESPATCH REPORTING ARRIVAL lui. 

audience, with an emotion rarely witnessed in so large 
a concourse ; it was received with tears of joy, and 
shouts of ' God save the Queen ! ' 

These expressions of love and loyalty to the Queen, 
and the cordial welcome given to Her Majesty's first 
representative, are far from being mere phrases or 
empty compliments. The reception of a new Governor 
in other Colonies is, generally speaking, simply an 
affair of ordinary military display on the part of the 
garrison, and entails neither expense nor trouble on 
the inhabitants. But there is not a single soldier in 
Queensland. Here all preparations were made by a 
' reception committee,' appointed at a public meeting 
of the inhabitants ; and the whole cost, including the 
hire of several steamers engaged to escort me up 
the river Brisbane from Moreton Bay to the seat of 
Government, and the purchase of cannon to fire 
salutes, was defrayed by public subscription. 

It is an honourable duty for me to solicit your 
Grace to lay before the Queen not only the assurance 
of the devoted loyalty and gratitude of Her Majesty's 
subjects in this Colony, but also the manifold proofs 
which my official correspondence will afford of their 
growing welfare and happiness, and of the rapid pro- 
gress here, alike of material industry, of mental activity, 
and of moral and physical well-being. ' Everything,' 
as I ventured to express my hope in one of my ad- 
dresses, ' may be expected from such signs as these. 
They are strong proofs to our Queen and country- 
men at home that the foundations of a rich and 



102 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

flourishing province of the British Empire have been 
laid in this part of Australia.' 

I enclose printed copies of the addresses presented 
to me on my assumption of office, and of my replies. 
It will be perceived that I have somewhat deviated 
from the set form of such compositions. A Governor 
may be of much use here by explaining and adapting 
the social and political institutions, the feelings and 
habits, of the mother-country ; in short, by looking 
at Australia with English and at England with Aus- 
tralian eyes. Accordingly, I seized the opportunity 
presented to me of offering observations and advice 
on some of the idiosyncrasies which distinguish this 
like all other communities. Thus, I reminded the 
people of Queensland in my reply to their address, 
that an arduous and responsible, but most important 
and interesting, task awaits them ; for the attainment 
of self-government is an epoch in the life of a State, 
resembling the attainment of his majority in the life 
of an individual. So again I pointed out to the 
Mayor and Corporation of the city of Brisbane the 
many direct and indirect advantages of municipal 
institutions, which have been somewhat neglected in 
Australia ; confirming my own views by a quotation 
from the report of the Privy Council on the Austra- 
lian Colonies, presented to the Queen in 1849. So 
again, in addressing the ' representatives of the work- 
ing men,' I deprecated the use of that phrase in any 
sense which could imply that it belongs exclusively 
1<> :u iy sopMrale class, whose feelings and interests 



REPLY OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE 103 

were adverse to, or even distinct from, the feelings 
and interests of any other class of the inhabitants of 
this Colony. I reminded my hearers, moreover, that 
in a new and free country, .every man, Governor, 
Judges, Clergy, and all, every man is emphatically a 
working man. Let us, then, I continued, all unite 
cordially in promoting our common interests. I con- 
cluded by assuring my hearers that they will at all 
times find me their zealous fellow workman in all that 
may tend to promote the happiness and welfare of 
the people of Queensland. Finally, I took advantage 
of some expressions of irritation made use of in one 
of the addresses against the neighbouring Colony of 
New South Wales, to exhort my audience to convert 
such jealousies into emulation. 

I trust that your Grace will approve the tone and 
matter of my replies. They certainly made a most 
favourable impression in this country, as appears 
partly from the applause "with which they were re- 
ceived at the time of their delivery ; partly from the 
comments of the rival organs of the colonial press, 
which have discovered a common ground of agree- 
ment in their praise ; and partly from the sensible 
diminution which I am happy to believe is already 
observable in the virulence of party spirit, and of 
local and personal jealousies. 

In his reply (April 11, 1860) the Duke of New- 
castle wrote : 

I have received your despatch of December 19, 



104 THE POUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

accon panied by copies of several addresses presented 
to you on your assuming the Government of Queens- 
land, and by copies of your answers. I have laid 
this despatch with its enclosures before the Queen. 

The expressions of loyalty to our Sovereign and 
of goodwill to yourself, contained in the addresses 
presented by the inhabitants of Queensland on their 
reception of their first Governor, were highly satis- 
factory to Her Majesty. I cannot do otherwise than 
approve of the sentiments embodied in your replies. 

I trust that the new Colony has before it a long 
career of internal prosperity and of friendly and 
advantageous relations with the other communities 
in Australia. 



105 



CHAPTER VII. 

ORGANISATION OF THE PUBLIC DEPARTMENTS LETTERS TO SIB 
E. BULWER LYTTON TO THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE TOUR 
ON THE DARLING DOWNS RAPID BUT SOLID PROGRESS OF 
SETTLEMENT. 

THE first three months after his arrival in Queensland 
were devoted by Sir George Bowen to the task of 
organising the various departments of the new 
Government, studying the condition of the people 
and the resources of the Colony, and generally 
mastering the carte du pays. In consequence of 
the wording of the Order in Council creating the 
new province, the Parliament could not assemble 
till May, and the interval was not a day too long 
for the multitudinous administrative details to be 
thought out and elaborated. As has been said, 
every part of the machinery of government was only 
in posse when the Governor arrived, and waited 
to be formed and set in motion by his own hand. 
Besides such constructive labour, he had the no 
less difficult work to accomplish of learning the 
needs and resources of the entire community. 
Several burning questions had to be studied : the 
land question foremost of all ; then the improvement 
of agriculture and the introduction of such new crops 
as cotton and sugar ; with many other matters of 
serious moment. A close attention to these subjects 



106 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

coupled with unremitting administrative toil kept 
the Governor closely engaged at Brisbane until 
March, when he was for the first time free to make 
a tour of visits among the inland districts of the 
Colony. His reflections upon the various problems 
lying before him are contained in the following letter 
to Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, and in a despatch to 
the Secretary of State. 

To the Et. Hon. Sir E. Bulwer Lytton, Bart., M.P. 

Brisbane, Queensland : March 6, I860. 

My dear Sir Edward Lytton, 

When I was your guest at Knebworth shortly 
before I left England last year, you told me that 
you would always be glad to hear from me, though 
you were no longer in office. 

I have now been nearly three months in Queens- 
land. My official despatches to the Secretary of 
State contain a full account of what I have done ; 
with proofs that my humble efforts to promote 
their well-being are satisfactory to the people of this 
Colony. My reward will be complete if I should 
be so fortunate as to deserve the approval of Her 
Majesty's Government ; and, let me add (whether this 
letter finds you in office or out of it), of yourself, 
whose confidence placed me in my present position. 

In congratulating me on my promotion to this 
Government, the Duke of Newcastle (who had for- 
merly appointed me to the Chief Secretaryship at 
Corfu) wrote that ' the task of guiding the destinies 



LETTER TO SIR E. BUI/VYER LYTTON 107 

of one of the Australian Colonies was worthy the 
ambition of any man whom duties at home do not 
prevent from undertaking it.' My position is, cer- 
tainly, full of interest and encouragement. I have 
more of creation and discovery than falls to the lot of 
most Colonial Governors. Every department in this 
great and rising Colony may almost be said to be the 
work of my own hands. 

A district within Queensland, covering about the 
area of the British Islands, is already studded with 
the stations of our ' shepherd kings ' ; and beyond 
those limits there are regions equal to the aggregate 
extent of two of the other principal monarchies of 
Europe. Fresh bands of pastoral settlers, driving 
their thousands of cattle, sheep, and horses before 
them, are fast pushing out into the wilderness ; and 
it is confidently expected that, in the course of the 
next five years, there will be a chain of stations from 
Moreton Bay to the Gulf of Carpentaria ; and thence 
a line of steamers to Singapore, opening up commerce 
with India and China, and with the Dutch and 
Spanish colonies in the Eastern Archipelago. The 
Queen might say of her loyal Queenslanders, as 
Jupiter said of the Eomans of old : 

His ego nee metas rerum nee tempora pono ; 
Imperium sine fine dedi. 1 

While zealously developing the resources of the 
districts already settled, I shall be able to do much 



1 Virgil, JEn. I. 278. 



108 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

for geography and science in the vast and still unex- 
plored regions comprised within Queensland. The 
charm of the climate and the beauty of the scenery 
in this part of Australia are hardly known in England. 
At Brisbane, we have the climate of Naples, without 
malaria or scirocco. We are also free from the ' hot 
winds ' blowing from the central desert which occa- 
sionally afflict Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide. 
This district, too, is, in point of vegetation, a sort of 
debatable land between the temperate and tropical 
zones. The productions of both grow with equal 
luxuriance. In the gardens, potatoes and pineapples, 
cabbages and bananas, are flourishing side by side. 
But I need not expatiate on these topics to the author 
of ' The Caxtons.' 

I will not trouble you with statistical figures. I 
will only say that our English population is at present 
calculated at about 25,000 souls. There are no 
materials as yet for forming an accurate estimate of 
the Chinamen, Aborigines, Indian coolies, &c., within 
the limits of the colony. A regular census will be 
taken in 1861, so that the periods may coincide with 
those of the census in the United Kingdom. The 
Treasurer estimates our revenue at about 180,000/. 
for the current year; so that, if I mistake not, 
Queensland, at her first start, takes the twelfth place 
among the forty-eight British Colonies. 

Your name as that of the creator of this Colony 
enjoys the same sort of respect and popularity in 
Queensland which was paid to the 01*10-77?$ of a 



LETTER TO SIR E. BULWER LYTTON 109 

Greek settlement. The future port of Brisbane on 
Moreton Bay lias already been called Lytton ; and I 
have directed the Surveyor-General to call a rising 
township Knebworth. This is only following the pre- 
cedent of the Colonies now forming the United States 
of America, where so many geographical names were 
derived from English sovereigns and statesmen. I 
am going to have a Pakington and a Westwood, in 
honour of my friend Sir J. Pakington. 1 I find there 
is already a Gladstone, a Pelham, and a Clinton. 
When the native names are tolerably euphonious, I 
shall preserve them. 

After the general disaffection of the Ionian 
Islands (a feeling exactly akin to the sentimento 
nazionale which England fosters in Italy), it cer- 
tainly is very pleasant to find one's self among so 
loyal a population as that of Australia. Whatever 
inconveniences may attend what is called 'respon- 
sible,' but should rather be called 'parliamentary' 
government in our Colonies, it is certain that it has 
had the effect of greatly tightening the bonds of 
pride and affection which unite the Australians to 
their mother-country. Since the full establishment 
of local self-government, the colonists no longer ' feel 
the collar,' to quote the phrase of a popular leader 
here, who was formerly supposed to be disaffected, 
but is now enthusiastic in his loyalty. If you grant 
representative institutions without responsible govern- 
ment, you ' light the fire and stop the chimney,' as 

1 Afterwards Lord Hampton, G.C.B. 



110 THE FOUNDING .OF QUEENSLAND 

Charles Buller said. Witness the Ionian Islands. I 
question if there is any practical or logical locus 
standi between the form of government in Ceylon 
and Mauritius, and the form of government in Vic- 
toria and New South Wales. 

My Parliament is to meet in May, on the 90th 
anniversary of the discovery of Moreton Bay by Cap- 
tain Cook. That I may know something of the 
carte du pays before I convene the legislature, I am 
about to start on two tours, one of three hundred 
miles on horseback, and another of about one thou- 
sand miles by sea, touching at the settlements on the 
coast. I shall ride about thirty miles every day, and 
shall be comfortably lodged at night in the houses of 
the principal ' squatters,' or pastoral settlers, whose 
stations average that distance from each other. 
These gentlemen live in a patriarchal style among their 
immense flocks and herds, amusing themselves with 
hunting, shooting, fishing, and the exercise of a plenti- 
ful hospitalit}^. I have often thought (especially in 
reading Thackeray's novel, ' The Virginians ') that the 
Queensland gentlemen-squatters bear a similar relation 
to the other Australians that the Virginian planters 
of a hundred years back bore to the other Americans. 

But there is a perfectly distinct class of people in 
the towns. Brisbane, my present capital, must re- 
semble what Boston and the other Puritan towns of 
New England were at the close of the last century. 
In a population of TjOOO, 1 we have fourteen Churches, 

1 Now, in 1889, the population of Brisbane is above 70,000. 



LETTKE TO SIR E. BULWER LYTTON 111 

thirteen public-houses, twelve policemen. The lead- 
ing inhabitants of Brisbane are a hard-headed set 

o 

of English and Scotch merchants and mechanics ; 
very orderly, industrious, and prosperous ; proud of 
the mother-country ; loyal to the person of the 
Queen; and . convinced that the true federation for 
these Colonies is the maintenance of the integrity of 
the Empire, and that the true rallying point for 
Australians is the Throne. 

I hope that you will approve the tone and sub- 
stance of my replies to the addresses presented to me. 
You will perceive that I have attempted to look on 
England with Australian and on Australia with Eng- 
lish eyes-; and to tender some advice on the idiosyn- 
crasies which distinguish this like all other societies. 
In fact I have guided myself in this, as in all else, by 
the precepts of the letter (wonderful for a States- 
man who has never lived in a Colony) which you 
wrote to me on the 29th April last. 1 One phrase 
which I borrowed from you has become a household 
word in Queensland : ' Let us convert our jealousies 
into emulation.' There is another sentence of yours 
in a published despatch to another Governor, which 
is often on Australian lips : ' Wherever England ex- 
tends her sceptre, there, as against the foreign enemy, 
she pledges the defence of her sword.' We are 
to have only one or two officers of the army in 
Queensland to organise the volunteer force which I 
have called into existence in compliance with your 

1 See above, page 81. 



112 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

recommendation. We have splendid materials for 
yeomanry cavalry. 

The great question to be settled when the Parlia- 
ment meets is the land question. It threatens in all 
these Colonies to become an irritating contest between 
rival interests between the towns and the country- 
like the corn laws in England, and the agrarian laws 
in ancient Eome. How exactly the squatter question 
resembles the strife between the patricians and ple- 
beians about the ager publicus ! We want an Aus- 
tralian Licinius Stolo. I think I remarked to you 
once before that it is also curious that ' runs ' (the 
colonial term for wide ranges of pasture) should 
seem a literal translation of the Spo/xoi ev/oee? of 
Homer, 1 where Greek shepherd kings fed their cattle 
in a climate similar to that of Australia. How 
refreshing amid my daily cares are these classical 
parallels ! 

If I had not already exhausted your patience, 
there are many topics on which I might possibly in- 
terest you, and on which I have thought long and 
deeply myself. Such are the division of the public 
debt between New South Wales and Queensland ; 
the advantages and disadvantages of elective and 
nominated Upper Houses in these Colonies ; the state 
of education ; the best methods of promoting immi- 
gration, geographical discovery, and intercourse with 
India and China ; and of ameliorating the condition 



of the aborigines. 



0<L IV. C05. 



DESPATCH TO THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE 113 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : January 6, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

Although. I have been incessantly occupied since 
my assumption of office on the 10th ult. in creating 
and organising the several departments of govern- 
ment in this new Colony, I have not omitted to turn 
my attention to the vast, but as yet very partially 
developed, natural resources and productive capa- 
bilities of Queensland. In my despatch of November 
28th ult., I alluded briefly to the valuable supplies of 
timber, and of minerals of various kinds, which await 
here the further introduction of labour and capital ; 
and in a - despatch of even date herewith, I have 
furnished some information as to the prospects of 
the cultivation of sugar within this Colony. I shall 
return to each of these subjects separately in future 
reports. 

For the present there is no need that I should 
enlarge on the capabilities of this soil and climate for 
grazing purposes. It is a well-known fact that the 
wools exported from the Moreton Bay districts rank 
highest, and command the best prices in the European 
markets. A rich pasture land, extending in length 
from north to south about 120 miles, with an 
average width of 50 miles, was discovered so 
far back as in 1827 by that distinguished botanist 
and traveller, the late Mr. Allan Cunningham, and 
was named by him the ' Darling Downs,' in honour 
of General Darling, at that time Governor of New 

VOL: i. T 



114 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

South Wales. The description which its discoverer 
wrote of this district is also, to some extent, applicable 
to other pastoral regions which have since been 
explored and occupied within the limits of the new 
Colony : 

' These extensive tracts of clear pastoral country 
commence about the parallel of twenty-eight degrees 
south latitude. Deep ponds, supported by streams 
from the highlands immediately to the eastward, 
extend along their central lower flats. The lower 
grounds thus permanently watered present flats which 
furnish an almost inexhaustible range of cattle pasture 
at all seasons of the year ; the grass and herbage 
generally exhibiting in the depth of winter an extreme 
luxuriance of growth. From these central grounds rise 
downs of a rich black and dry soil, and very ample sur- 
face, and as they furnish abundance of grass, and are 
conveniently watered yet perfectly beyond the reach 
of those floods which take place on the flats in a sea- 
son of rain, they constitute a valuable and sound 
sheep pasture with a most beautifully diversified land- 
scape, made up of hill and dale, woodland and plain.' 

Although the ' Darling Downs ' had been dis- 
covered in 1827 by Mr. Cunningham, it was not until 
1839 that the first sheepowners l drove their flocks 
before them into that region, over the 6 dividing 
range ' of hills which forms the watershed of Eastern 



1 One of these pioneers was Mr. Hodgson, now Sir Arthur Hodgson, 
K.C.M.G., well-known by his exertions at the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, who still holds the ' run ' which he first occupied in 1839. 



DESPATCH TO THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE 115 

Australia, and separates the districts of the coast 
from those of the interior. The success of the early 
pioneers encouraged a host of followers. The history 
of this settlement relates how flock after flock and 
herd after herd came pouring in until the Downs 
were fully occupied, and the more adventurous and 
enterprising settlers found themselves constrained 
to push, further out into the unexplored wilderness. 
Nearly two years ago it was computed that within the 
limits of the districts now comprised within the Colony 
of Queensland there were not less than 3,500,000 
sheep, 450,000 horned cattle, and 20,000 horses ; and 
the annual export of wool, tallow, hides and skins, 
was valued at above half a million of pounds sterling. 
It is probable that the census of the next year will 
show a notable increase ; for already flocks feed 
within the tropics far to the northward of Port Curtis 
arid Keppel Bay ; and a region (all within the new 
Colony of Queensland), stretching nearly 600 miles 
from north to south, and about 300 miles from east 
to west, and enjoying a serene and salubrious climate, 
is studded with the stations of the pastoral settlers. 
Nor is, perhaps, the general expectation too sanguine 
which predicts the establishment within the next few 
years of a chain of settlements from Moreton Bay to the 
Gulf of Carpentaria, and the consequent opening of a 
rapid and easy communication with India and China 
by the way of Java and Singapore. 1 

1 These anticipations have been far more than realised (1889) ; 
and the trade and general wealth of Queensland have increased even 
more rapidly than the population. 

i 2 



1L6 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

The subject of cotton engrosses at the present 
moment a large share of the attention of the press, 
and of the public generally in this Colony. It is 
felt that nothing more fortunate for the steady 
prosperity of Queensland could occur than that, 
while pastoral settlers spread over the highlands 
and downs of the interior, some enterprising capi- 
talist, or association of capitalists, should introduce 
on an extensive scale the cultivation of cotton on the 
eastern seaboard and along the banks of the rivers. 
The peculiar adaptation of the climate and soil of 
this part of Australia for the growth of the most 
valuable description of this plant, the Sea-Island 
cotton, has long been a fact far removed from all 
doubt by frequent and successful experiments ; and 
the demand in England, now chiefly supplied by the 
produce of American slave-labour, is practically 
insatiable. The whole of the low lands and alluvial 
plains near the mouths of the rivers of Queensland, 
as well as a seaboard of at least 600 miles along the 
shore of the Pacific, could be rendered almost im- 
mediately available for the production of this lucra- 
tive, because necessary, article of commerce. There 
is a succession of harbours at intervals along the coast, 
so that the cost of carriage to the port of shipment 
would be comparatively trifling. I will only allude to 
the advantage of rendering the English manufactures 
less dependent on foreigners for their supply of cotton 
and to the discouragement of slavery which would 



CULTIVATION OF COTTON 117 

accrue from the successful cultivation of that plant by 
free labour. 

It appears to me, that the cultivation of cotton 
might be carried on with success in Queensland on 
two different plans. In the first place, in the tropical 
districts of the Colony, where the climate is unfavour- 
able to European fieldwork, on large plantations, and 
with Asiatic labour ; and, in the second place, in the 
temperate districts, on small farms occupied by 
English emigrants and their families. 

With regard to the former plan. I presume, 
that the Government of British India would sanction 
the emigration of coolies to Queensland (should the 
Legislature of this Colony make proposals for that pur- 
pose), on conditions similar to those carried out with so 
much success at Mauritius. Why should not English 
capital and free Indian labour do for cotton in 
Northern Australia what English capital and free 
Indian labour have done for sugar, with so great ad- 
vantages both to the employers and the employed, in 
the similar climate of Mauritius ? On this part of the 
subject, I beg to refer your Grace to ' A Letter to the 
Colonists of Queensland,' recently published in London 
by Mr. Marsh, M.P. for Salisbury, and a large pro- 
prietor in this Colony. That gentleman argues that 
the introduction of Asiatic labour would be to North 
Queensland what machinery has been to England, 
' elevating the [European] labourer to the rank of a 
mechanic, and the mechanic to that of an employer, 



118 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

and contributing in a large degree to the well-being 
of every class of society.' 

With regard to the second of the two plans pro- 
posed above, there appears no sufficient reason why, 
in the vicinity of Brisbane and Maryborough, and, 
generally, throughout the temperate districts of this 
Colony, cotton-growing should not be brought under 
the conditions of European labour, and made to form 
a part of the industry on small farms. This is done 
in Texas by German farmers, in a climate not less 
sultry, and infinitely less healthy, than that of 
Queensland. The whole subject, therefore, is as de- 
serving of the attention of small farmers as of large 
capitalists; for it seems capable of proof, that cotton 
growing can not only be prosecuted with success on 
extensive plantations, and with Asiatic labour, but 
can also be made a profitable part of a yeomanry 
agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of cotton is one 
of the least expensive of all agricultural operations, 
especially in Australia, where, owing to the absence 
of severe winter frosts, the plant is perennial, and not 
as in North America, an annual. The women and 
children of English emigrant families could be em- 
ployed in the light labour of picking the pods in 
harvest time. 



As soon as the administrative machinery was fully 
organised, and the several departments were at work, 
the Governor set out upon a tour into the interior. 
So far, he had seen only the seaboard ; he now 



TOUR ON THE DARLING DOWNS 119 

ascended to the magnificent stretches of undulating 
table-lands and prairies, the southern portion of 
which is famous in the annals of sheep-farming as 
the ' Darling Downs.' These noble plains, extend- 
ing within the tropics, but elevated some 2,000 feet 
above the sea-level, spread from the southern limits 
of Queensland, for a distance of over 1,000 miles, 
to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and their breadth from 
east to west is from 400 to 500 miles, giving a 
total area of at least 400,000. square miles. ' The 
whole of this area, with the exception of two partial 
interruptions, may be described as a succession of 
wide open downs, enclosed each within small sub- 
sidiary basaltic ranges traversing the great plateau. 
These downs are each of immense extent, and con- 
tain deep and most excellent agricultural soil, at pre- 
sent clothed with the richest grasses, growing in won- 
derful luxuriance. They are in a great measure 
destitute of trees, but the bases of their enclosing 
ranges are furnished with a very handsome and 
stately description of pine, behind which, and re- 
tiring into their recesses, are found very valuable 
cedars. These recesses are plentifully supplied with 
numerous springs and rills, which trickling down the 
slopes of the ranges, and traversing the enclosed 
plains, unite and form the abundant network of 
rivers by which this immense plateau is watered. 
Travellers through these vast plains all concur in 
their admiration of the luxuriance of the soil, the 
coolness and salubrity of the climate, and the love- 
liness of the entire landscape.' l 

That Sir George Bowen was keenly appreciative 

1 Edinburgh Review, No. 243, Oct. 1863, art. ' Queensland.' 



120 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of the beauty of the Darling Downs is shown in the 
subjoined letter, in which he describes his first intro- 
duction to the homes of the pastoral Tenants of the 
Crown, commonly known by the American nickname 
of ' squatters.' 



To Herman Merivale, Esq., C.B., Permanent Under- 
secretary of State for the Colonies. 

Government House, Brisbane : April 10, 1860. 

My dear Merivale, 

I have just returned from a very interesting and 
gratifying tour in the interior, during which I spent 
nearly a week in the ' County Merivale/ You should 
feel proud of being the eTraW/Ao? of one of the most 
picturesque and probably (putting gold out of the 
question) richest districts of all Australia. 

I ascended from the tierra caliente of the coast 
to the table-land of the Darling Downs, of which your 
county comprises the southern portion, through Cun- 
ningham's Gap, a cleft between mountains of por- 
phyry and basalt ; which, though not equal, as some 
enthusiastic Queenslanders imagine, to ' anything in 
the Alps,' is certainly finer than anything that I ever 
saw in the British Isles. There is, however, a cascade 
falling three hundred feet into a chasm resembling 
the crater of a volcano, which would make the for- 
tune of any valley in Switzerland. 

Some of the squires, or ' squatters,' of Merivale had 
descended into the lowlands to meet and escort me to 
their houses ; so we formed a very picturesque caval- 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DA TILING DOWNS 121 

cade as we wound up through the luxuriant forests 
of the Gap. On the summit I was greeted with loud 
cheers, which made the rocks re-echo as they prob- 
ably had never sounded since the dawn of creation ; 
and there I found another batch of hospitable 
squatters, with a cold collation and plenty of cham- 
pagne and hock, spread on the grass at the top of the 
pass, nearly 3,000 feet above the sea. The view from 
this point is most interesting and magnificent ; on one 
side the undulating hills and waving forests of the 
semi-tropical littorale, with the Pacific beyond ; on 
the other the broad downs, intersected by wooded 
ridges, of the table-land. The Larissce campus opimce 
of Horace ! rose to my lips, for I assure you that the 
Darling Downs closely resemble the general aspect of 
Thessaly ; and the river Gondamine is a good substitute 
for the Peneus. There are indeed no Pelion and Ossa 
' flourishing side by side,' but the hills which encircle 
the basin-like plains vividly recall the lower ranges of 
Pindus and Glympus. Show what I say to Fortescue, 2 
who lias seen Thessaly ; he will recollect the splendid 
variety of birds and butterflies there. This is another 
point of similarity. The woods on the Darling Downs 
are full of birds of brilliant plumage and strange voices ; 
while stately bustards and emus stalk over the plains, 
and wildfowl of all kinds frequent the streams. The 
residences of the squatters, however, afford a striking 

1 Carm. I. 7. 

2 The Parliamentary Under- Secretary for the Colonies, afterwards 
Lord Carlinsford. 



122 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

contrast to the lodgings to be procured in Greece. I 
found carpets and curtains, plate and pianos, cham- 
pagne and crinoline, in places where fifteen years 
before the face of a white man had never been seen. 

If their country is like Thessaly, the squatters of 
Merivale are complete Centaurs. The cavalcade of 
well-mounted horsemen that everywhere came out to 
meet the first Eepresentative of their Queen eclipsed 
anything of the kind that could be exhibited in 
ancient Greece, or indeed, in any part of the world, 
except in England or in Australia. I was escorted 
into your county town of Warwick by 400 horsemen. 
I rode one day, to the delight of the Centaurs I mean 
of the Squatters, and without the slightest fatigue, 
seventy miles in eight hours of course, with a change 
of horses. You should never send a Governor here 
who cannot ride and shoot. His performances across 
country are one of the secrets of Sir W. Denison's 
success as Governor of Tasmania and of New South 
Wales successively. 



In such a colony as Queensland was in 1860, be- 
fore railways had penetrated into the interior, an 
active Governor, who was also a good horseman, was 
indispensable. Such official tours as those made by 
Sir George Bowen are among the greatest pleasures 
and also the .most important duties of a Governor. It 
is only by such visits that he can see with his own 
eyes the needs of his people, and that the people can be 
brought into direct relations with the representative 
of their Sovereign. This tour in the south-eastern 



ADDRESSES AND REPLIES 123 

districts was eminently successful. On all sides the 
Governor was welcomed with enthusiasm ; and even 
while confronting some of the keenest jealousies and 
prejudices of the time and place, his replies to the 
addresses presented to him at Warwick and the rival 
towns of Drayton and Toowoomba evoked none but 
golden opinions. 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : April 7, 18GO. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to enclose copies of the ad- 
dresses presented to me at the three towns of Warwick, 
Drayton, and Toowoomba, which I visited during an 
official tour of inspection from which I have lately 
returned. It will be satisfactory to the Queen, and 
to Her Majesty's Government, to receive these further 
proofs of the affectionate loyalty of the people of this 
Colony to Her Majesty's throne and person ; and 
(I may, perhaps, be permitted to add) of their con- 
fidence in the arrangement made, under Her Majesty's 
favour, for their government. 

My recent journey extended through those dis- 
tricts of Queensland which have been longest settled 
and are most thickly inhabited. I was everywhere 
received with cordial hospitality by the principal 
settlers, and with loyal enthusiasm by all classes of 
the community. 

As it was during your Grace's first administration 
of the Colonial Department that the wishes of the 
Australian colonists were crowned by the concession 



124 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of responsible government, I will take leave to draw 
your attention to a paragraph in one of the enclo- 
sures, which expresses a sentiment generally enter- 
tained by this people. After stating that ' the journey 
of his Excellency has been one continued ovation 
from beginning to end ' ; that ' all classes have vied 
in doing honour to the representative of the Queen ' ; 
and that ' all little sectarian differences, petty jealou 
sies, and presumed rival interests have been merged 
in the laudable wish to give our first Governor a 
hearty welcome,' the ' Darling Downs Gazette ' pro- 
ceeds as follows : ' Not the least pleasing reflection 
that suggests itself, when reviewing these demonstra- 
tions of general joy, is the confirmation of the fact, 
now so long and in so many lands established, that 
those descended from the old stock at home, to whom 
self-government has been a timely concession, not a 
charter wrung from the mother-country by the force 
of arms, still recognise and revere the grand old 
institutions which have made England the greatest 
power on earth.' 

There cannot in my opinion be a greater mistake 
than the view which some public writers in England 
appear to hold, viz. that the Governor of a Colony, 
under the system of responsible government, should 
be merely a roi faineant. So far as my observation 
extends, nothing can be more opposed than this 
theory to the wishes of the Anglo- Australians them- 
selves. The Governor of each of the Colonies in 
this group is expected not only to act as the head of 



THE DARLING DOWNS 125 

society ; to encourage literature, science, and art ; to 
keep alive by personal visits to every district under 
his jurisdiction the feelings of loyalty to the Queen, 
and of attachment to the mother-country, and so to 
cherish what may be termed the Imperial sentiment ; 
but he is also expected, as head of the administra- 
tion, to maintain, with the assistance of his Executive 
Council, a vigilant control and supervision over every 
department of the public service. In short, he is in 
a position in which he can exercise an influence over 
the whole course of affairs exactly proportionate to 
the strength of his character, the activity of his mind 
and body, the capacity of his understanding, and the 
extent of- his knowledge. 

In accordance with this view of the duties of my 
office, I took occasion, in my reply to the address of 
the town of Warwick, to explain the principal objects 
of my official tours. ' The chief motive,' I said, ' by 
which I am actuated, is an earnest desire to perform 
honestly and efficiently that portion of the work 
which the constitution has allotted to me in the ad- 
vancement of this great Colony. All contribute to 
the revenue ; all should benefit by its application. 
As it rests with the' Governor to propose, with the 
advice of his Executive Council, the estimates which 
will be submitted for the decision of the Parliament 
of Queensland, it will be my constant endeavour to 
ascertain, by personal observation, the wants and 
wishes of the people of every district ; and so to 
frame those estimates as to bring home to all an 



126 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

equitable share of the advantages which the rapid 
development of your almost inexhaustible resources, 
due to your own skill and industry, will each year 
enable the Government to extend.' 

The warm coast land of this Colony is admirably 
adapted for the growth of cotton, of sugar, and of all 
semi-tropical fruits and productions. Queensland, like 
Mexico, has a tierra caliente, or hot region, near the 
sea, from which there is an ascent through fine 
mountain passes to the cool tableland of the interior, 
which is eminently fitted as well for pastoral settle- 
ment as for European agriculture. I have described 
in a former despatch that rich pastoral district of 
the table-land which is known as the 'Darling 
Downs.' Many large fortunes have been amassed 
there during the last fifteen years. 1 Some idea of the 

1 An extract from a letter of Sir G. Bowen to a friend in England 
illustrates this statement : ' Some of our larger squatters are owners of 
from 50,000 to 300,000 sheep ; and there are men in Australia who have 
above half-a-million. A successful Queenslander, who became a member 
of the House of Commons, where he supported Lord Palmerston, was 
invited to one of the political receptions of Lady Waldegrave at Straw- 
berry Hill. That accomplished hostess prided herself on her informa- 
tion about her guests ; and on the arrival of the gentleman referred to, 

she is said to have greeted him with ' Oh, Mr. , I am very glad to 

see you. I hear that you have as many sheep and cattle ^as the 
Patriarchs, that, in short, you are a second Job.' Her guest replied : 
' I hope, Lady Waldegrave, you do not mean to compare me to Job, 
who, as we learn from the Bible, had only 7,000 sheep, whereas I have 
300,000. Job was a mere stringy -larger: It should be explained 
that young settlers, on beginning sheep-farming in the interior, with 
only from 5,000 to 10,000 sheep, cannot generally afford to build at first 
houses of wood or stone ; and are obliged for some time to content 
themselves with comfortable huts made from the bark of the so-called 
' stringy-bark ' eucalyptus. So they were often known to the great 
squatters by the sobriquet of ' stringy-barkers.' Many now wealthy 



RAPID BUT SOLID PROGRESS OF SETTLEMENT 127 

value set upon the stations on the Darling Downs may 
be gained from the fact that during the past year the 
leases of several of the tenants of the Crown in that 
quarter have been sold for prices ranging from 
20,000/. to 50,000/. sterling, although these leases 
will expire in about six years from this time, and 
it is most improbable that they will be renewed on 
conditions equally favourable. While the impression 
created on my mind by my journey across the Dar- 
ling Downs was still fresh, I stated in my reply to the 
Drayton address that ' it had filled me with surprise 
and admiration. Even before I left England I knew 
by report the rich natural resources and the pictu- 
resque beauty of this district. But I confess that 
I was not fully prepared for so wonderfully rapid an 
advance in all that can promote and adorn civilisa- 
tion, an advance which has taken place during the 
fourth part of an average lifetime. Not only have I 
seen vast herds of horses and cattle and countless 
flocks of sheep overspreading the valleys and forests, 
which, within the memory of persons who have yet 
scarcely attained to the age of manhood, were 
tenanted only by wild animals and by a few wan- 
dering tribes of savages ; not only have I travelled 
over roads beyond all comparison superior to the 
means of communication which existed less than a 
century ago in many parts of the United Kingdom ; 

' shepherd kings ' look back with pleasure to the old days when they 
lived in huts, and, in the absence of ready money, used to play whist 
with each other for Sheep points and a bullock on the rubber. 



128 THE .'FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

not only have I beheld flourishing towns arising in 
spots where, hardly twenty years back, the foot of 
a white man had never yet trodden the primaeval 
wilderness ; not only have I admired these and other 
proofs of material progress, but I have also found in 
the houses of the long chain of settlers who have 
entertained me with such cordial hospitality all the 
comforts and most of the luxuries and refinements of 
the houses of country gentlemen in England. The 
wonderful advance of this portion of the Colony dur- 
ing the last ten years is due to no sudden and fortui- 
tous discovery of the precious metals ; it is derived 
wholly from the blessing of Providence on the skill 
and energy of its inhabitants in subduing and reple- 
nishing the earth. Assuredly I have observed during 
the past week very remarkable illustrations of the 
proverbial genius of the Anglo-Saxon race for the 
noble and truly Imperial art of colonisation.' 

I will add in conclusion a striking proof of the 
singularly rapid progress of this district. A public 
banquet was given in my honour in the large and 
handsome ball-room attached to one of the three 
hotels which Toowoomba, itself the creation of the 
last ten years, already possesses. About 120 persons 
sat down to a dinner, very well appointed, and pro- 
vided with as good music, wine, and viands as would 
be exhibited on a similar occasion in the majority 
of country towns in England. One of the principal 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood, who happens, more- 
over, to be a candidate for the representation of Too- 



PUBLIC DINNER AT TOOWOOMBA 129 

woomba in the Queensland Parliament, reminded his 
hearers, in a speech delivered in the course of the 
evening, that he had himself been the first white man 
who had settled in that district, and that just fourteen 
years previously he had encamped in the then unex- 
plored forest on the very site of the hall in which he 
was addressing them. 



VOL. i. 



130 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE FIRST PARLIAMENT THE FIRST ELECTIONS THE FRANCHISE 
RESULTS OF VOTE BY BALLOT AND MANHOOD SUFFRAGE 
MEETING OF THE PARLIAMENT SPEECH OF THE GOVERNOR, 
AND ADDRESSES OF BOTH HOUSES ADDRESSES TO THE QUEEN 
AND HER MAJESTY'S REPLY THE ' TIMES ' ON QUEENSLAND. 

THE nearer the time for the elections for the first 
Legislative Assembly of the new Colony approached, 
the more sanguine grew Sir George Bo wen's antici- 
pations of the coming experiment in parliamentary 
government. He had now seen enough of the 
Queenslanders to be convinced of their loyalty, 
good feeling, and public spirit. 

' Pray tell the Duke of Newcastle,' he wrote to 
Mr. Herman Merivale, in a letter (April 10), of which 
part has already been quoted, ' that all our elections 
will pass off with quiet and good-humour, in spite of 
the disfranchisement of one-third of the men who 
voted at the last general election, and that the Parlia- 
ment will meet at Brisbane before the end of May. 

' Doubtless we shall have our crises minister idles, 
like our elder colonial sisters ; but I have yet to 
learn that they need cause any trouble or anxiety to 
the Home Government. Nay, more, I have yet to 
learn that the rapid succession of Ministries in New 



ELECTIONS THE FRANCHISE 131 

South Wales and Victoria has materially retarded the 
progress of those Colonies. It is certain that the 
progress of Australia depends less on the skill and 
wisdom of its law-makers than on the energy and 
industry of the population. People who declaim 
against responsible government should recollect 
that, if it had not been conceded, these Colonies 
would soon have separated from the mother-country, 
or have been kept down only by force of arms in 
what you call in your book on the Colonies " un- 
lovely and inglorious subjection." : 

The partial disfranchisement alluded to in the 
above letter is explained in the following despatch. 
That it did not cause serious complications at the 
very outset of the representative organisation of 
Queensland speaks volumes for the good sense of 
the people. 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : February 6, I860. 

My Lord Duke, 

It has long been known that a large proportion 
of the animal and vegetable productions of Australia 
is distinguished by characteristics directly the reverse 
of what is familiar in Europe. It would almost 
appear that an anomaly of similar nature exists in 
the influences exercised at the antipodes by certain 
political institutions. 

I find that it is a very general opinion among 
competent authorities that vote by ballot and man 



132 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

hood suffrage, as compared with open voting and a 
low property qualification, are, in this community, 
institutions of a conservative character, and cal- 
culated to give increased influence to the landed 
proprietors and rich settlers in the country districts, 
as opposed to the mixed population of the towns. 

In Australia, aristocratic influence cannot be said 
to exist, but the ballot protects the voter against 
the occasional violence and dictation of democratic 
opinion. Again, energy and industry, with the 
prosperity consequent on those qualities, are so 
common among the Australian settlers, that in the 
towns and villages of Queensland there is hardly a 
working man who does not possess at least the 
property qualification required by the New South 
Wales Constitution Act of 1853. In fact, the 
majority of our labouring classes live in their own 
houses, built on their own land. In the towns and 
villages therefore, manhood suffrage may almost bft 
said to have practically existed before it was formally 
enacted (with slight modifications) by the Electoral 
Law of 1858. 

If a general view be taken of the important 
question now under consideration, it will appear that 
vote by ballot and manhood suffrage are not likely 
to lead, in this Colony, to those dangers and incon- 
veniences which have been apprehended from similar 
institutions in older, more thickly-peopled, and less 
universally prosperous communities. 

In the first place, distress and pauperism, those 



VOTE BY BALLOT AND MANHOOD SUFFRAGE 133 

comprehensive terms so frequently used in European 
politics, are unknown in Queensland. All classes of 
this community appear to be thoroughly imbued with 
the love of law and order, and the other virtues 
which naturally grow up with the acquisition of 
property, however small, and with the enjoyment of 
that prosperity which is the legitimate reward of 
honourable industry. 

Again, in an Australian Colony there exist none 
of those classes and institutions to which vote by 
ballot and manhood suffrage are supposed to be 
antagonistic. Here there are no paid idlers or sine- 
curists ; every man, from the Governor downwards, is 
emphatically a working man. Nor have we a Church 
establishment, a House of Lords, or hereditary privi- 
leges of any kind to which democratic sentiments and 
prejudices are hostile. 

But in this colony there is a numerous class of 
shepherds, stockmen, and agricultural labourers set- 
tled on the pastoral stations of the interior. Though 
equally trustworthy and prosperous, in most cases, 
with their fellow workmen in the towns, these men 
were excluded from the electoral roll by the pro- 
visions of the Constitution Act of 1853, because they 
are regarded, in some degree, as hired servants living 
in houses belonging to their employers. They ac- 
quired the franchise by the introduction, in 1858, of 
the principle of manhood suffrage, and are stated to 
have usually exercised their new privileges, when 
well treated by their employers, as those employers 



134 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

recommended. This class of men are now again 
disfranchised, in consequence of the construction 
put upon the Order in Council of June 6, 1859, 1 
by Sir William Denison's legal advisers, and many 
of our great pastoral settlers (' squatters ') consider 
that they have thereby lost a large amount of poli- 
tical influence. 

The most important consideration of all yet 
remains to be stated. In several British depen- 
dencies, in the Ionian Islands, in parts of British 
India, and elsewhere, the full concession of political 
power to the people would have the unfortunate 
effect of arming alien and disaffected races against 
British supremacy. But next to an enlightened and 
reasonable attachment to the principles of local self- 
government, in analogy to the usage of the British 
constitution, the strongest political feelings of the 
overwhelming majority of the population of Queens- 
land let me say, of all the Australian Colonies are 
undoubtedly at the present moment loyalty to the 
person of the Queen and pride in the mother-country. 
Speaking of Queensland in particular, I might say 
that the feelings to which I allude almost approach, 
in a large proportion of the inhabitants of this Colony, 

1 It was pointed out at the time by Mr. Justice Lutwyche that the 
drafting of this Order in Council by the Colonial Office was faulty. As 
the Law Officers of the Crown in England, when consulted by the 
Duke of Newcastle, confirmed this opinion, an Act of the Imperial 
Parliament was passed to correct the error of the department, and to 
place beyond doubt the legal validity of the Constitution of the new 
Colony. It was properly left entirely to the Queensland Parliament to 
settle what the electoral franchise should be in the future. 



LOYALTY AND PATRIOTISM OF THE AUSTRALIANS 135 

to that ' maladie du pays, that passionate love of 
England,' which an acute writer of extensive colonial 
experience (Mr. Gibbon Wakefield) foretold thirty 
years ago would be the result of allowing the Aus- 
tralian Colonies to manage in their own way their own 
internal affairs. As Lord John Eussell wrote in 1855, 
the avowed desire of the Australian colonists to assimi- 
late their institutions as far as possible to those of the 
parent country is in itself a proof that their sympathy 
with that country is ' not merely the expression of 
a common sentiment arising from a common origin, 
but is connected with a deliberate attachment to the 
ancient laws of the community from which their own 
has sprung.' 

The Governor's prediction was verified : the elec- 
tions for the twenty-six seats in the Legislative 
Assembly passed off in perfect order and quiet, and 
his own Ministers were among the most popular 
candidates. No better proof could be given of the 
satisfaction with which the people of Queensland re- 
garded the first steps taken by the Governor and his 
Executive Council, in ordering the affairs of the new 
State. At the same time the Legislative Council, 
consisting of fifteen leading settlers nominated by 
the Governor, was appointed, with Sir Charles 
Nicholson as its first President. On Sir Charles's 
departure for England, Sir Maurice O'Connell became 
his successor ; and the new Council derived much 
benefit from being presided over by two gentlemen 
of their position, experience, and high character. 



136 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : May 18, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to report that the elections for 
the first Legislative Assembly of Queensland began 
on the earliest day allowed by law, that is, on the 
27th ult., and that they are now all over, having 
been everywhere conducted with perfect order, de- 
corum, and good feeling. I am assured that the 
quiet of the elections was exceeded only by their 
purity, and that there is no complaint even of that 
species of political hospitality which is ^echnically 
termed treating ; and which, if it could be excusable 
anywhere, would be so in a country where voters 
often have to ride more than fifty miles to the 
poll. 

This result of the elections will appear still more 
creditable to the inhabitants of Queensland when 
certain peculiarities of our position are called to 
mind. In the first place your Grace will recollect 
that most of our electorates are only just created, 
and that the majority of the electors therein had 
never previously exercised their privilege. They 
had, consequently, to control the excitement of 
novelty and inexperience. In the next place, in the 
electorates which existed before the separation of 
this Colony from New South Wales, manhood suffrage 
Kad been introduced in 1858 ; and a large proportion 
of the electors who had voted under that system at 
the last elections for the Parliament at Sydney, now 



THE FIRST ELECTIOKS 137 

find themselves disfranchised, through no fault on 
their part, but owing to a legal interpretation of the 
Order in Council of June 6, 1859, of which they find 
it difficult to understand the equity. Again, Queens- 
land is the only Colony in the Australian group 
indeed it is the only Colony of importance in any 
part of the Empire where (not to speak of defence 
against external aggression) the dignity of the Crown 
and the authority of the law are entirely deprived 
of the support and prestige of a detachment of Her 
Majesty's troops. On my first assumption of office it 
could hardly be said that any public force whatso- 
ever existed in Queensland. By dint of personal 
exertion -and influence, I have now succeeded in or- 
ganising a police corps, and also a body of rifle 
volunteers. Still, in the majority of the electorates, 
there was nothing but their own individual respect 
for the law, as authoritatively interpreted, to prevent 
a large number of the electors from insisting (if so 
disposed) on exercising the franchise of which they 
consider themselves unjustly deprived. 

In the cases where the elections were contested, 
the choice of the constituencies has generally fallen 
on the candidates whom I am glad to see in the 
Assembly ; so far indeed as I have any choice among 
gentlemen, who, however much they may differ on 
points of purely colonial interest, appear to vie with 
each other in loyalty to the Queen, in cordial respect 
for Her Majesty's representative, and in attachment 
to the mother-country. 



138 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

It is, however, very gratifying to me to be en- 
abled to report that all the three members of my 
Executive Council have been elected to the Assembly. 
Mr. Herbert, the Colonial Secretary (whom I brought 
with me from England), 1 received invitations from 
three separate constituencies, and has been returned 
without opposition for the Leichhardt district. Mr. 
Pring, 2 the Attorney-General, also received requisitions 
from two electorates, and his return for the Eastern 
Downs was unopposed. Mr. Mackenzie, 3 the Colonial 
Treasurer, offered himself for the Burnett district, 
where there were already several candidates in the 
field, and came in at the head of the poll by a trium- 
phant majority. This result, I venture to submit, is 
an irrefragable proof that, on my first arrival here, I 
called to my councils men who already possessed, or 
who, while serving under my directions, have since 
acquired a large share of public confidence. It 
would appear also an indirect testimony of approval, 
on the part of the people of this Colony, of the 
manner in which I have administered the Govern- 
ment during the last six months, while surrounded 
by many difficulties, and deprived, owing to the 
peculiarity of my position, of the advice and assist- 
ance of a constitutional Legislature. 

1 Now Sir Robert G. W. Herbert, K.C.B., Permanent Under-Secre- 
tary of State for the Colonies. 

* Afterwards a judge of the Supreme Court of Queensland. 

3 He became afterwards (through the death of his elder brother) 
Sir Kobert Mackenzie, Bart, of Coul, N.B. 



APPOINTMENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 139 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : May 21, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to transmit herewith copies 
of the Proclamation summoning the first Legislative 
Council of Queensland. It will be composed of 
fifteen gentlemen, who have been carefully selected 
from among the leading colonists to represent in fair 
proportion the different districts and the chief interests 
of the Colony. 

After full consideration I am inclined to the 
opinion that, looking to the number at present fixed 
for the Assembly, namely twenty-six, fifteen will 
be a fair proportion for the Legislative Council. 1 In 
fact, I have had some difficulty in properly filling up 
even that number, for all the more active and in- 
fluential politicians desire seats in the Lower House. 
My own experience already tends to confirm in some 
degree an observation of Earl Grey, 2 to the effect 
that the attempts hitherto made to create in the 
Colonies a substitute for the House of Lords have 
been followed by very moderate success. 'Legis- 
lative Councils composed of members appointed by 
the Crown have, in general, had little real influence 
over public opinion, while they have been attended 
with the great disadvantage of rendering the 
Assembly less efficient, by withdrawing from the 

1 The number of members in both Houses was gradually increased 
with the progress of wealth and population. 
3 Colonial Policy, Vol. II., p. 98. 



140 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

scene where their services might be most valuable, 
some of the persons best qualified, by the enjoyment 
of a certain degree of leisure, by their character and 
their ability, to be useful members of the popular 
branch of the Legislature. The number of such men 
in the circle of colonial society is necessarily limited ; 
hence it seems inexpedient that any of them should 
be taken away from the Assembly which must always 
exercise the largest share of power and influence.' 

Two remedies have been ventilated rather than 
proposed in this Colony, for the inconveniences to 
which Earl Grey alludes in the above-quoted passage. 
In the first place, it is argued by some that under the 
present circumstances of Queensland the effect of 
dividing the Parliament into two separate chambers 
is to substitute two comparatively ineffective bodies 
for one of a superior character ; and that it would 
be well for us to revert, at all events for some 
years, to a single Council (like that which formerly 
existed in New South Wales), one-third of which 
should be .composed of persons appointed by the 
Crown, and two-thirds of representatives elected by 
the people. But I greatly doubt if this system would 
work well now that responsible government has been 
introduced, and I feel certain that the Queensland 
Parliament will never be induced to take what 
would be represented as a retrograde step. On the 
other hand, there is in some quarters a popular cry 
in favour of making the Upper House here (as in 
Victoria and some other Colonies) elective equally 



SIR CHARLES NICHOLSON, FIRST PRESIDENT 141 

with the Lower, but by a different and more re- 
stricted constituency. I again agree with Earl Grey 
that ' if an Upper Chamber could be constituted in 
such a manner as to have substantial weight and 
authority, and to be thus capable of exercising a 
salutary check upon the Eepresentative Assembly, 
while at the same time effectual provision were made 
against the machine of government being brought to 
a stand by differences between these two bodies, the 
advantage of such a constitution of the Legislature 
could not well be contested. But to accomplish this 
is a problem not yet solved by any colonial constitu- 
tion of which I am aware.' I will not trouble your 
Grace with my own suggestions on this subject until 
it shall have become of more practical interest. In 
the meantime, the Legislative Council, as at present 
constituted, will prove an obstacle to any too hasty 
legislation. All the members have, individually, a 
large stake in the welfare of this Colony, and I place 
implicit reliance on their local knowledge and ex- 
perience, as also on their patriotism and loyalty. 

I have, moreover, the satisfaction of informing 
your Grace that Sir Charles Nicholson has, at my 
request, and entirely from a sense of public duty, 
and a desire to render useful services to this Colony, 
consented to undertake, during the first session, 
the office of President of the Legislative Council 
of Queensland. On my arrival in Australia I soon 
perceived (and my views were confirmed by Sir 
William Denison), that it would be of great import 



142 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

ance to the best interests of the new Colony, if its 
first Parliament could be inaugurated under the 
presidency of a gentleman of the tried ability, long 
official experience, and high character of Sir Charles 
Nicholson; who had been created a baronet, as a 
mark of the Queen's approbation of the manner in 
which he had, during eleven years, and at an eventful 
period in colonial history, filled the office of Speaker 
of the first Legislative Council of New South Wales. 



On May 22, 1860, the first Parliament of Queens- 
land met at Brisbane. The Legislative Assembly 
unanimously elected as their Speaker Mr. Gilbert 
Eliott, the member for Maryborough, a gentleman of 
an old Scotch family, and formerly an officer of the 
Eoyal Artillery. All agreed that their choice could 
not have fallen on a man more generally esteemed 
and respected. On the following day the Assembly 
proceeded to Government House, and the Speaker 
Elect presented himself in the usual form for the ap- 
proval of the Crown. I replied in the following words : 

c Mr. Speaker, I approve, on behalf of the Queen, 
the choice which the Assembly has made in your 
person. It is with high satisfaction that I receive 
you as Speaker. I congratulate you cordially that 
your long and honourable career in the military and 
civil service of your country has been crowned by 
the distinguished position in which the confidence 
of the House has placed you.' 



OPENING OF THE FIRST PARLIAMENT 143 

These formal proceedings on the English model, 
and the celebration of the Queen's birthday, when the 
society of the new Colony was gathered together for 
the first time at a Government House Ball, postponed 
serious business till May 29th ; when the Governor, 
escorted by a troop of Volunteer Cavalry, and amid 
general demonstrations of respect, proceeded to the 
Parliament House and delivered his opening speech. 
It was deeply imbued with the solemn feeling inspired 
by an event of such moment as the inauguration of 
the first Legislature of so vast a country : 

'Honourable Gentlemen of the Legislative Council 
and Gentlemen of the Legislative Assembly, 

'It is with feelings of no ordinary interest and 
satisfaction that I now, in the name and on behalf of 
the Queen, open the first session of the first Parlia- 
ment of Queensland, and have recourse to your ad- 
vice and assistance in the Government of this great 
Colony. 

' It has been throughout my earnest desire to 
meet the Legislature at the earliest practicable period 
after my assumption of office in last December ; but 
it was the unanimous opinion of the Law Officers of 
the Crown that, by reason of the lengthened periods 
fixed by the Constitution Act for the formation and 
revision of the electoral rolls, the elections could not 
legally begin before April 27. Consequently, it was 
impossible for the Parliament to assemble for the 
despatch of business sooner than the day for which 
you were summoned. 



144 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

' This delay, however, lias been accompanied 
with at least one advantage. It has afforded me 
time to make myself personally acquainted with our 
chief centres of population, with a large portion of 
our vast territory, and with the condition and require- 
ments of its inhabitants. 

'The genuine respect, the hearty welcome, the 
overflowing kindness with which I have been 
everywhere and on all occasions received, while 
deeply gratifying to me personally, are most satis- 
factory on public grounds as strong proofs of the 
loyalty to the Queen, and of the attachment to the 
mother-country, which animate all classes of this 
community. 

4 1 now congratulate you on the full attainment 
of the object of your long-sustained efforts and 
aspirations in the establishment of this separate and 
independent Legislature ; and on the perfect order, 
decorum, and good feeling with which the people 
of Queensland universally exercised at the recent 
elections their privilege of self government. It is my 
firm hope and belief, founded on all that I have seen 
since my arrival here, that Her Majesty will have the 
high satisfaction of witnessing, as the result of her 
gracious boon to this Colony, its continued progress 
alike in material industry, in mental activity, and in 
moral and religious well-being ; its steady advance in 
wealth and social improvement, and the permanent 
happiness and welfare of her people.' 



THE GOVERNOR'S SPEECH 145 

Some of the chief Bills to be laid before the Parlia- 
ment were then enumerated ; Bills relating to educa- 
tion, police, finance, telegraphic communication, and 
the like ; and the Governor then turned to the main 
question of the hour : 

'The land question is at once the most compre- 
hensive and the most important with which you will 
have to deal. Queensland embraces a territory, blest 
with a salubrious climate and with a fertile soil, 
equivalent, at the lowest estimate, to nearly three 
times the area of France, and nearly ten times the 
area of England and Wales. Along our sea-coast 
and on the banks of our rivers we possess millions of 
acres, which bear the same relation to the cotton and 
sugar which the great pastoral districts of the interior 
hold to the wool manufactures of the mother-country. 
Of this gigantic patrimony the Crown has constituted 
this Legislature to be the guardians and adminis- 
trators. The control and disposal of the whole are in 
your hands. I know that you are deeply impressed 
with the responsibility involved in such a trust ; for 
the mode in which you may acquit yourselves of the 
duties connected with it will, in all human pro- 
bability, affect materially the interests of generations 
yet unborn. You will feel with me that hasty legis- 
lation is, above all things, to be deprecated. 

' Next to a wise management of the public lands, 
a good system of immigration is, perhaps, the most 
VOL. i. L 



]4('> Till'] FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

essential element in the prosperity of a new country. 
Provision has been made by the Government, under 
the regulations now in force, for a supply of labour 
from the mother-country, adequate to the require- 
ments of the present year. I advise you to consider 
whether it would not be well materially to modify 
the existing system ; and, in future, to grant, under 
certain conditions, remission certificates in the pur- 
chase of land to persons who reach our shores at 
their own cost, or who introduce labourers without 
expense to our Treasury. A policy of this nature 
would soon have the effect of directing hither a per- 
manent stream of immigration of the most desirable 
character. It would thus prove a graceful method 
of communicating to our less prosperous fellow-sub- 
jects at home a share in the profits of that rich and 
magnificent estate with which our Sovereign has 
been graciously pleased to endow this Colony. 

6 1 take this opportunity of informing you that I 
have felt much gratification in accepting, on behalf 
of the Queen, and in the terms of the existing laws, 
the services of several corps of Volunteers. I trust 
that this movement here, as in the United Kingdom, 
will become permanent. Communities which have 
entirely neglected to cherish the military spirit, or 
which have failed adequately to provide for their 
own external and internal defence, have seldom at- 
tained, and have still more seldom preserved, a vigo- 
rous manhood. In this respect the British Colonies in 
North America afford us an example to be imitated, 



THE GOVERNOR'S SPEECH 147 

and the Spanish Colonies in South America a warn- 
ing to be avoided. . . . 

4 The future destiny of this Colony will depend in 
no slight degree on the members of its first Legisla- 
ture. You will feel with me that an arduous and 
responsible, but most important and interesting task 
awaits us, for the commencement of self-government 
is an epoch in the life of a State resembling the 
attainment of his majority in the life of an individual. 
For myself, I highly value the honour and privilege 
of having been selected by our Sovereign to inaugurate 
as first Governor of Queensland this new Province of 
the Empire. You may rest assured of my zealous 
and honest endeavours to carry out efficiently, as Head 
of the Executive, whatever measures you may have 
declared to be conducive to the public welfare, and 
to which I shall have signified my assent, as the 
representative of the Queen. But, I say it in all 
sincerity, it is on your prudence, knowledge, and 
experience that I depend. On these I implicitly 
rely, as also on your patriotism, and on that loyalty 
for which Australia is celebrated. This great por- 
tion of the earth for Queensland embraces a terri- 
tory far more than equal in extent to the aggregate 
of two of the principal monarchies of Europe, * 
this great portion of the earth, I say, begins its 
political life with noble principles of freedom, order, 
and prosperity. Let me conclude with the humble 
prayer that Almighty God may vouchsafe to direct 
our counsels, and that Pie may prant to all of us that 

L '2 



148 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

moderation, wisdom, and courage necessary to pre- 
serve and extend these inestimable blessings, and 
to hand them down hereafter to our children's 
children.' 

Everything in the birth of a new State is instruc- 
tive ; and a few paragraphs from the addresses of both 
Houses of Parliament in reply to the Governor's 
speech are therefore reprinted. 

The Legislative Council said : 

May it please your Excellency, 

We, Her Majesty's most loyal and dutiful subjects, 
the members of the Legislative Council of Queensland, 
in Parliament assembled, desire to express through 
your Excellency our feelings of loyalty and attach- 
ment to the throne and person of our most gracious 
Sovereign, and to thank you for the speech with which 
your Excellency has, in the name and on behalf of 
the Queen, opened this the first session of the first 
Parliament of Queensland. 

We heartily reciprocate your Excellency's con- 
gratulations on the attainment of separate and in- 
dependent government, We feel that as a branch of 
the Legislature now called into existence we have 
imposed upon us serious duties and grave responsi- 
bilities, which we trust, under God's blessing, we may 
be enabled to discharge in a measure conducive to 
the well-being of this community. 

The great questions involved in a right solution 



ADDRESSES FROM BOTH HOUSES IN REPLY 149 

of the difficulties surrounding our land policy are 
matters of the highest interest to all classes in the 
Colony of Queensland, and we will not shrink from 
adding our exertions to those of the other branches 
of the Legislature in endeavouring to establish that 
system which, on mature consideration, may seem 
most calculated to ensure the best results. 

We rejoice to find that your Excellency appre- 
ciates the loyal spirit which has led many of the inhabi- 
tants of Queensland to volunteer their services 'for the 
defence of the country in case of need, and we trust 
the organisation given under existing laws to this 
body of Volunteers, may not only render them efficient 
in the hour of emergency, but also tend to foster that 
patriotic enthusiasm which alone gives life and spirit 
to the only warlike struggle likely to be known to 
the present generation of colonists, a war in defence 
of the country from attack. 

Finally, we heartily join your Excellency in your 
aspirations for the future of this country ; we pray 
that the blessing of Almighty God may rest upon the 
deliberations of the Legislature of this Colony ; and 
we add our congratulations that on your Excellency 
has devolved that proud task you have so well begun, 
of guiding this young community in its first footsteps 
among nations. 



150 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

The Legislative Assembly said : 

May it please your Excellency, 

We, Her Majesty's loyal and dutiful subjects, the 
members of the Legislative Assembly of Queens- 
land, in Parliament assembled, desire to express to 
your Excellency our affection and loyalty to the 
person and government of our most gracious Sove- 
reign, and to offer our respectful thanks for your 
Excellency's speech to this Assembly now for the first 
time convened. 

We concur most cordially in your Excellency's 
estimation of the important influence that must be 
exercised upon the future of this territory by the 
inauguration within it of a separate Parliamentary 
Constitution, and while we reciprocate the hope and 
belief that this community may prove itself to have 
been not unworthy of Her Majesty's most gracious 
and considerate boon of self-government, we feel a 
deep satisfaction in learning from your Excellency 
that the inhabitants of all parts of the Colony have 
been successful in their earnest efforts to testify, by 
the reception of her first representative among them, 
that honest loyalty, that warm attachment, and that 
heartfelt gratitude which Queensland must ever feel 
towards her Queen. 

Concurring cordially in the desirability of afford- 
ing time for full and patient consideration before 
dealing comprehensively with questions of so varied 
and complicated a character as those concerning the 



ADDRESSES FROM BOTH HOUSES TO THE QUEEN 151 

disposal of the land, we will lend our ready attention 
to such special legislative action as your Excellency 
has recommended to us, with a view to the more 
immediate removal of obstructions to capital and 
enterprise. 

In expressing your reliance upon the patriotism 
and loyalty of this Assembly, we trust that your 
Excellency will not have estimated too highly our 
earnest desire and purpose, under the blessing of 
Providence, to recommend and, through those who 
may from time to time be your Excellency's responsi- 
ble advisers, to carry into execution, such measures 
as may have deserved your assent, and as may be 
conducive no less to the establishment of a sound 
system of independent government than to the en- 
during welfare and progress of all branches of this 
community. 

The Addresses to the Queen voted by both Houses 
were a further proof of the loyalty of the youngest pro- 
vince of the British Empire. The Governor's covering 
despatch must here be quoted : 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : June 30, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

The Parliament of Queensland has requested me 
to perform the honourable duty of transmitting to 
your Grace, for presentation to the Queen, the loyal 
and dutiful addresses to Her Majesty, unanimously 



152 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

voted by both Houses of the Legislature, ' to express 
their gratitude for the gracious and liberal concession 
which has been made to this Colony in its establish- 
ment as a separate and independent province of the 
British Empire.' 

It will be perceived that both addresses breathe 
the same spirit of fervent and grateful loyalty to the 
Queen, of attachment to the British Empire, and of 
well-founded confidence in the future prosperity of 
the new Colony. 

The Legislative Council says : ' By the establish- 
ment of this new Dependency, we believe that a 
powerful impulse will be given towards the settle- 
ment and civilisation of portions of Australia at 
present almost wholly unoccupied. We are persuaded 
that these vast regions, so blessed by Providence 
with all material resources, will at no distant period 
be occupied by a numerous and thriving population, 
enabled by their own prosperity to contribute to that 
of the Empire at large, and cherishing and perpetuating 
that spirit of loyalty and affection to your Majesty's 
person and government which so happily animates 
all classes of the inhabitants of Queensland.' 

The Legislative Assembly expresses like sentiments 
in different words: 'We approach your Majesty 
with feelings of warm loyalty and affectionate attach- 
ment to your Majesty's person and government, de- 
siring as the representatives of the people of Queens- 
land to express to your Majesty our heartfelt 
gratitude for your Majesty's gracious compliance with 



ADDRESSES TO THE QUEEN 153 

the long-clierislied wishes of the inhabitants of this 
portion of your Majesty's dominions by raising it to 
the rank of a British Colony, and by graciously con- 
ferring on it a designation which we believe will be 
found truly to express the relation of loyalty which 
will bind us and our posterity in duty and allegiance 
to your Majesty and your Majesty's successors.' 
And again : ' While expressing our humble thanks to 
your Majesty, we cannot refrain from expressing also 
our hopes regarding the future of the Colony, and 
giving an assurance that it will be our aim by 
a zealous and conscientious discharge of the high 
duties entrusted to us to promote the welfare, happi- 
ness, and progress of your Majesty's faithful subjects 
in Queensland ; and by avoiding all cause of offence, 
to promote a proper and friendly understanding 
between this and the adjoining Colony of New South 
Wales.' 

The terms in which the Assembly refer, in the 
third paragraph of their address, to my own poor 
services afford me sincere gratification, as a proof of 
the confidence which the representatives of the people 
of Queensland repose in the representative of their 
Sovereign. 

The Assembly conclude as follows : ' We humbly 
pray that Almighty God may continue to bless and 
long preserve your Majesty, and the mighty Empire 
to which we have the honour and happiness to belong, 
and that He may vouchsafe to direct our counsels, 
and make us worthy of our blessings and privileges ' 



154 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

From my own observation and experience, I can 
bear witness that in the addresses transmitted here- 
with, the Parliament of Queensland has simply given 
expression to the genuine feelings which animate all 
classes of this community. 

I may mention, in conclusion, that your de- 
spatch, of April 11 ult., 1 opportunely arrived at Bris- 
bane on the day before that on which the address 
of the Assembly to the Queen was formally put into 
my hands by the Speaker, accompanied by the 
whole House. I seized the occasion to reply in the 
following terms : ' Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the 
Legislative Assembly, it will be a pleasing and honour- 
able duty for me to transmit to the Queen this loyal 
and dutiful address, which I am confident will prove 
a source of much gratification to our Sovereign. I 
will take this opportunity of reading (previously to 
laying it by message on the tables of both Houses) a 
despatch which arrived yesterday from the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, and which informs me that 
the expressions of loyalty to our gracious Sovereign, 
and of goodwill towards myself, contained in the 
addresses presented to me by the inhabitants of 
Queensland on my reception as their first Governor, 
have been "highly satisfactory to Her Majesty." 3 I 
then read your despatch, which was received with 
sincere gratification by my audience. 



1 Sec above, page 103. 



HER MAJESTY'S KEPLY 155 

We now give the reply of the Queen, through the 
Secretary of State, to the above-mentioned addresses. 
The Duke of Newcastle wrote as follows : ' I have to 
acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the 
30th June last, in which you forward addresses to the 
Queen from both Houses of the Parliament of Queens- 
land, expressing to Her Majesty their gratitude for 
" the gracious and liberal concession " which she has 
made to the inhabitants of that portion of her domi- 
nions by raising it to the rank of a British Colony. 

4 Nothing can be more appropriate than the lan- 
guage and spirit of these addresses to an occasion 
which promises to be a memorable one in the history 
of the British Empire in Australia ; and I am com- 
manded by the Queen to inform you, and, through 
you, the Parliament of Queensland, that she has re- 
ceived them with great satisfaction. Her Majesty 
does not doubt that the feelings of the Parliament 
and people of the young Colony towards herself and 
the mother-country are fitly symbolised by its name ; 
and she trusts that, under the Divine blessing, they 
may long continue to form a bond of union between 
the two countries, and so contribute to the honour 
and welfare of both.' 



Having got his vessel of State under way, with 
every prospect of a prosperous voyage, Sir George 
Bowen confided his reflections to the Parliamentary 
Under-Secretary for the Colonies, who was an old 
Oxford friend. 



15G THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

To the Eight Hon. Chichester Fortescue, M.P. 

Government House, Brisbane : June 6, 18GO. 

My dear Fortescue, 

I am sure that you will be glad that I have got 
so successfully over all the labours and anxieties of 
the last six months : and that my Parliament has 
made so calm and patriotic a commencement. I have 
made light of the difficulties with which I have had 
to contend, owing to the necessities of my peculiar 
position : for I hold that the Secretary of State 
should never help a Governor unless he has shown 
that he can help himself. But my position was (un- 
avoidably on the part of the Home Government) 
without precedent. At the first start of all other 
Colonies, the Governor has been assisted by a nomi- 
nated Council of experienced officials ; he has been 
supported by an armed force ; and he has been 
authorised to draw, at least at the beginning, on the 
Imperial Treasury for the expenses of the public 
service. But I was an autocrat ; the sole source of 
authority here, without a single soldier, and without 
a single shilling. There was no organised force of 
any kind at my arrival, though I have now, by dint 
of exertion and influence, got up a respectable police 
on the Irish model, and a very creditable corps of 
Volunteers. And as to money wherewith to carry 
on the Government, I started with just 1\d. in the 
Treasury. A thief, supposing, I fancy, that I should 
have been furnished with some funds for the outfit 
so to speak of the new State, broke into the 



T^D. IN THE QUEENSLAND TREASURY 157 

Treasury a few niglits after my arrival, and carried 
off the l\d. mentioned. However, I borrowed money 
from the banks until our revenue came in, and our 
estimates already show (after paying back the sums 
borrowed) a considerable balance in excess of the 
proposed expenditure for the first year. 1 

The election by popular suffrage to the Assembly 
of all my Executive Councillors, and the addresses of 
both Houses in reply to my opening speech, show 
what the persons most interested i.e. the people of 
this Colony think of my administration. The en- 
thusiasm with which I was received, as the first 
Governor, was in itself a source of danger, for it 
seemed too fervent to last long, and such outbursts 
are generally followed by a reaction. But I was as 
heartily cheered on my way to open Parliament last 
week as I was on my arrival six months ago. I can 
honestly say that there is scarcely any post in the 
Queen's service that I would willingly exchange for 
that which I held during the first half of this year, 
with ah 1 its difficulties and anxieties. 

Will you tell the Duke that Eobert Herbert 
(Fellow of All Souls), whom I appointed as my first 
Colonial Secretary, is leading the Assembly with 
ability and tact ? 

The happy commencement of representative go- 
vernment in Queensland was hailed with admiration 

1 This historic sum of l$d. has now (1889) risen to an annual 
revenue of above three millions sterling. 



158 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

in the mother-country. The Secretary of State's 
despatches abound in eulogistic congratulations ; and 
the feeling of the public was eloquently expressed in 
the following leading article of the ' Times ' (August 
20, 1860): 

' Europe, Asia, and, we might add, America, pre- 
sent to us at this moment much movement with very 
little progress. Old faiths and traditions give way, 
and nothing rises up to supply their place. Barbarism 
has lost its energy, and civilisation seems arrested in 
its onward career. In Eussia and Turkey we behold 
Governments, losing their hold on the affection and 
reverence of peoples without having created anything 
to supply the void which they are about to make. 
In France and Germany we see the energies of great 
nations frittered away by unworthy jealousies within, 
or in still more unworthy ambitions beyond the fron- 
tier. Italy is in the crisis of a revolution, to which 
many of the most sanguine do not venture to attribute 
a permanent success. Spain has wasted that strength 
in an abortive foreign war which she needs to consoli- 
date and secure such liberty as she has saved out of 
so many revolutions and so many civil wars. It is 
rsfreshing to turn from this scene of blind and short- 
sighted ambition, from the doings of States that seem 
to know no other means of increasing their wealth 
and power except such as were known to Pagan 
Europe in the days of Macedon and of Rome, to the 
first efforts of young and prosperous communities 
developing, with the order and regularity of one of 
the vegetable products of nature, the elements of 
present freedom and future prosperity. 

In a remote 1 corner of Australia, some six or seven 



Till-] ' TIMES ' ON QUEENSLAND 159 

hundred miles to the north of the original settlement 
of Sydney, is situated a vast territory, the very name 
of which is scarcely known to a large number of our 
readers. The district of Moreton Bay appears, if we 
may believe the accounts we receive of it, to be among 
the most favoured regions of the world. It is placed 
at the commencement of that long barrier reef of coral 
which, running parallel with the north-eastern coast 
of the Australian continent, provides a smooth and 
delightful passage to the navigator who would thread 
the mazes of the Oriental Archipelago. Unlike most 
parts of Australia, the land adjacent to the coast is 
watered by a succession of fine rivers, and is, within 
a moderate distance of their course, exuberantly 
fertile. The climate is warm, but exceedingly healthy. 
The woods are beautiful, and require only to be 
known to become a valuable article of commerce. 
At a moderate distance from the sea the land rises 
for several thousand feet into a succession of beautiful 
downs, enjoying all the freshness of a temperate 
climate, and covered by innumerable flocks and herds. 
This Colony, after a long and arduous struggle, has 
obtained that which seems to be the great ambition 
of all such communities a separation from the 
larger and older society to which it is attached. 
With a territory three times the size of France, and 
a population of some twenty or five-and-twenty 
thousand souls, Moreton Bay or Queensland, as it 
is now to be called -has entered with the utmost 
confidence and hope on the career of self-government. 
This small and remote population supplies the mate- 
rials for two Legislative Chambers, and bears into 
the remote regions of the far East the feelings, the 



160 THE FOUND1XG OF QUEENSLAND 

habits, and the customs of our ancient monarchy. 
With such simple pomp as the resources at his com- 
mand can furnish, the first Governor, Sir George 
Bowen, late Colonial Secretary of the Ionian Islands, 
opens his first Parliament. We are favoured with a 
copy of his Excellency's speech, similar in tone, and 
by no means inferior in style, to the documents it 
professes to imitate. Let us see what are the subjects 
to which the attention of this new people is called by 
their first Magistrate on that interesting and memora- 
ble day which places them for the first time in the 
possession of the inestimable gift of self-government. 
The Constitution Act seems to be a little clumsy and 
unwieldy. The law officers of the Crown advise that 
the elections cannot legally begin till April 27, and 
it is not therefore surprising that the Parliament of 
Queensland was unable to meet till the auspicious 
anniversary of May 29, on the threshold of the first 
winter month of those Antipodean regions. The 
first business was to alter the Act giving the Consti- 
tution, so as to cut down the Upper House to a 
number more consistent with the wants of the Colony 
than the original instrument seems to have contem- 
plated. Then we have the question of State assis- 
tance to public worship, which is broadly left to the 
consideration of the Legislature, with the very sensi- 
ble recommendation that it should be guided by no 
abstract theories, but only by the wants and require- 
ments of the country. Primary education follows 
next, together with a recommendation, unique, as far 
as we are aware, in the Colonies, for the foundation 
of a High School with a number of exhibitions to 
the Universities of the mother-country open to com- 



THE ' TIMES ' ON QUEENSLAND 161 

petition among the students. That such a scheme 
should be considered feasible gives us a high idea 
of the wealth of the community ; that it should be 
thought desirable is no inconsiderable proof of their 
good sense and attachment to the parent State. Then 
follows the appointment of Commissioners for the 
apportionment of the public debt between New South 
Wales and Queensland, an arrangement in which we 
may be permitted to hope that the parent will deal 
liberally with his sturdy offspring. The police are to be 
thoroughly organised, a system of annual statistics is 
to be formed, and an electric telegraph laid down for 
the purpose of uniting Queensland to the other 
Colonies of the Australian group ; and to this is added 
a project for an electric line to Batavia, in Java, 
which would complete the telegraphic communication 
between Sydney and Melbourne and Singapore, and 
shortly with England. There is also a scheme for 
steam navigation in the Eastern Archipelago, which 
we cannot help feeling is, like the electric telegraph, 
destined to struggle with many obstacles before its 
final completion. 1 Of course the address of no 
Colonial Governor would be complete without the 
introduction of a Land Bill, and a measure for the 
purposes of immigration, in the course of which the 
Governor does not omit to suggest the grant of a 
remission of the purchase money of land to immi- 
grants who pay for their own passages. The fact is 
noticed that Queensland already contains several 
corps of Volunteers ; and after an address to the 
gentlemen of the Assembly and the gentlemen of the 

1 All these projects were successfully carried out within a few 
years after the delivery of the Governor's speech. 

VOL. I. M 



J62 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

Legislative Council, quite in the English taste, the 
speech concludes with a prayer framed exactly on 
the model of that which ordinarily terminates the 
address of our own gracious Sovereign. 

4 This speech and these incidents, trivial and com- 
monplace as they may appear, have in our minds a 
very high significance. After so many wars and 
revolutions it still continues to be true, as it was in 
the time of Burke, eighty years ago, that slavery can 
be had anywhere, but that freedom is that pearl of 
great price of which England alone has the monopoly. 
With no other arms but our industry, our commercial 
spirit, and the expansive freedom of our institutions, 
while other countries barely maintain their position, 
we are enabled to cover the world with communities 
the faithful patterns of their mother-country, and 
destined, we believe, not only to preserve our lan- 
guage, our arts, and our institutions, but to be- 
come in their turn the mothers of other Colonies, 
and thus, in a circle gradually increasing, to spread 
our language, manners, arts, and ideas to the remotest 
corners of the earth. It is impossible to view, even 
from this remote distance, scenes like that we have 
endeavoured to describe without the liveliest emo- 
tions of national pride. How vain and absurd is it 
to attribute to England those vulgar schemes of 
commonplace ambition which our neighbours so 
ardently pursue, when, without a crime and without 
a tear, without doing wrong to any one, and even 
with the greatest advantage to herself, England is 
;il)l- to give permanence and consistency to an 
Empire more vast than the proudest conqueror ever 
dreamt of, and stronger and more homogeneous than 
was ever cemented by the action of the sword.' 



163 



CHAPTEE IX. 

THE WORK OF THE FIRST SESSION THE GOVERNOR'S PROROGA- 
TION SPEECH THE LAND LEGISLATION LETTERS FROM THE 
DUKE OF NEWCASTLE AND SIR E. BULWER LYTTON. 

WHAT the Parliament of Queensland accomplished 
in the fcur months of its first session may be read in 
the Governor's Prorogation speech of September 18, 
1860: 

4 Honourable Gentlemen of the Legislative Council and 
Gentlemen of the House of Assembly, 

' The advanced state of the public business, and the 
satisfactory conclusion to which you have carried no 
small amount of legislation, enable me to release you 
for a time from your attendance in Parliament^ and to 
close the present session. 

4 During the recess, various measures of import- 
ance, to which your attention has in some cases been 
already directed, will be matured by my Government, 
and will be submitted for your consideration when you 
assemble again. As at present advised, I consider 
that the public convenience will be best provided for 
by my opening the next session of Parliament towards 
the close of the month of April in the ensuing year. 
' It is a matter of deep satisfaction to myself, and 
of congratulation to you, that so much useful legisla- 



164 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

tion should have been completed during your first 
session. Questions difficult of settlement, and mate- 
rially affecting the future prosperity of this Colony, 
have been approached and examined by you in a 
spirit of patient industry and of persevering inquiry ; 
and I entertain a confident hope that from legislation 
of such a character based on no abstract theories 
but on practical experience, and neither impaired by 
haste, nor influenced by favour, nor impeded by faction 
the results to be developed will prove both valu- 
able and permanent. 

' Looking to the solemn and most interesting duty 
in which we have been engaged, that, namely, of in- 
augurating this new and flourishing Colony, and of 
preparing it to assume that high position among the 
other provinces of the British Empire to which it has 
already attained ; looking also to those cordial rela- 
tions, the existence of which between myself and the 
members of both Houses it is alike my pride and my 
happiness to acknowledge, I have deemed it natural 
and proper that my first addresses to the first Parlia- 
ment of Queensland should not bear a merely formal 
character. Further, as the speeches of Governors are 
laid before the Imperial Parliament, and are thus 
destined to authoritative circulation in the mother- 
country, it cannot but be desirable that my addresses 
should contain, to a certain extent, an official and 
authentic summary of the general condition and 
prospects of this Colony, and more especially of 
such recent legislation as may have at once enhanced 



SPEECH CLOSING THE FIRST SESSION 165 

its advantages and extended those advantages more 
freely to our fellow countrymen at home. 

' With these views, I will now briefly pass in 
review the principal Acts which have received your 
sanction during the present session, and to which I 
have signified the assent of the Queen. 

' The chief public bills which have already become 
law may be divided into the following classes : 

' First in order stand those measures which were 
immediately necessary upon your meeting for the 
effective adaptation of the constitution of New South 
Wales to the altered circumstances of this Colony 
In addition to the Act whereby the number of mem- 
bers required to be present for the despatch of busi- 
ness is defined, and to the Act which limits the num- 
ber of salaried officials capable of being elected to the 
Legislative Assembly, an important amendment has 
been made in the law under which voters are regis- 
tered, ensuring greater accuracy in the electoral lists, 
and obviating a considerable expenditure of public 
money. 

' The all-important interests of religion and educa- 
tion have received a full share of your careful con- 
sideration. The much vexed question of grants in 
aid of public worship has been set at rest in accord- 
ance with the feelings of a large proportion of our 
population. Primary education has been provided 
for upon the general principles of that comprehensive 
system which experience has proved to be peculiarly 
adapted to meet the requirements of our colonial 



166 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

communities ; at the same time, education of a more 
advanced order will shortly, under the provisions of 
the Grammar Schools Act, be placed within easy 
reach of the inhabitants of all the more populous 
districts. 

' The necessary provision has been made for the 
collection of the census in this Colony on the same 
day of the ensuing year with that on which it will 
be taken in the United Kingdom and in many other 
portions of the Empire. The accurate statistical in- 
formation which will thus be rendered available will 
prove of eminent interest and utility in your future 
labours. 

' In taking the requisite steps for a settlement of the 
outstanding accounts between Queensland arid New 
South Wales, your legislation has been based upon 
principles which can hardly fail to recommend them- 
selves to the concurrence of the sister Colony, for tiiey 
are identical with the principles originally adopted DV 
the Executive, and sanctioned by the Parliament of 
New South Wales itself ; and which have further re- 
ceived the approval of the Imperial Government. I am 
justified therefore in entertaining a well-founded hope 
that no long time will elapse before this, the last re- 
maining difficulty of separation, shall be amicably 
adjusted, and the two great neighbouring Colonies, 
whose interests are so inseparably united, shall 
regard each other only with feelings of friendly 
emulation. 

' Your adoption of an Act to regulate the exporta- 



THE LAND LEGISLATION 167 

tion of warlike stores, proposed by my Government 
with a view to the lamentable outbreak in New Zea- 
land, 1 affords me an opportunity of bearing my testi- 
mony to the sympathy existing here, as throughout 
Australia, with the troubles of our fellow countrymen 
in the aforesaid Colony. Queensland has hastened to 
offer an effective proof of that sympathy, by cheer- 
fully contributing towards the augmentation of the 
forces at the seat of war that proportion of Her 
Majesty's troops which had been allotted for the de- 
fence of this Colony. 

'Tlie patriotic spirit with which the Volunteer 
movement has been supported by all classes of our 
community is a further and most valuable testimony 
to the undoubted loyalty of this portion of the Queen's 
dominions, and to the determination of our people, 
as they participate in the glory and prosperity, so also 
not to shrink from their share in the trials of the 
mother- country . 

' I now come to those measures regulating the 
occupation and alienation of the Crown Iands 7 on which 
you have bestowed so large a portion of your time 
and attention, with the full knowledge that the pro- 
gress of Queensland will mainly depend upon the 
judicious discharge of the high trust involved in the 
control and administration of our vast territories. 

4 Having in the first instance adopted such means 

1 The reference here is to the second Maori War, which began in 
1800, and lasted with little intermission till 1870, when it was brought 
to a final close, as will be seen in Part III., during Sir G. 'Boweu's 
government of New Zealand. 



168 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

as were legally and equitably available for the pur- 
pose of checking that speculative monopoly of pas- 
toral lands, under which wide tracts of country were 
withheld from profitable occupation, you have thrown 
open to real settlement those extensive districts, upon 
conditions and with advantages such as will not fail 
to secure a large and immediate accession to the 
capital and producing power of the Colony. 

' Again, that part of your legislation which is, per- 
haps, of paramount importance to the community 
at large, by whom the proprietorship and occupation 
of freehold properties upon favourable terms is so 
urgently demanded, will also be regarded with satis- 
faction by those who are interested in promoting a 
stream of emigration from England. The liberal 
grants of land to immigrants arriving here without- 
cost to our Treasury ; the facilities afforded to small 
capitalists of extending their operations during the 
first and more arduous years of their enterprise, by 
leasing at a nominal rent the land adjacent to that 
which they may have purchased ; the increased op- 
portunities of settlement by a departure on the agri- 
cultural reserves from the system of auction, whereby 
intending purchasers were often delayed or impeded 
in the attainment of their object ; and the strong in- 
ducements offered for the cultivation of cotton, to 
which this soil and climate are so eminently adapted ; 
these combined advantages will, I doubt not, prove 
sufficiently attractive to draw to our shores that 
immigration which we so much need, as the best in- 



PKACTICAL MEASURES ADOPTED 169 

strument for tlie development of the rich and varied 
resources of this favoured country. 

' In other matters not comprised within legislative 
enactments, I have observed with much satisfaction 
your earnest desire to look beyond the pressing re- 
quirements of the moment, and to devote a due pro- 
portion of the means under your control to objects 
less immediately, although not less closely, connected 
with the welfare of this Colony. 

4 From the reports furnished by the various select 
committees which have been occupied upon special 
subjects, an amount of practical information is to be 
collected which will prove not only of direct ad- 
vantage - to the Executive Administration here, but 
which, when made known in England, will be studied 
with keen interest by the many persons to whom this 
portion of the Island-Continent of Australia is an 
object of anxious attention. 

' Again, by inquiries tending to facilitate the future 
settlement of the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
and the intercourse of Australia with India and 
China ; by equipping an expedition of discovery in 
the direction of that system of rivers and tableland 
which holds forth the promise of the profitable oc- 
cupation, at no distant day, of our northern districts ; 
by procuring such scientific aid as may be avail- 
able towards ascertaining the existence of the pre- 
cious metals within our boundaries ; and by making 
provision for an adequate representation of this 
Colony in the Industrial Exhibition of 1862, you 



170 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

have made no scanty contribution to the rapidly 
growing prosperity of Queensland, while adding new 
conquests to the domains of geography and science.' 

* Gentlemen of the House of Assembly, 

' I thank you, in the name of the Queen, for the 
liberal supplies which you have granted to Her 
Majesty. It will be the duty of the Government to 
exercise a watchful super vision over their expenditure, 
and in so doing to study such economy as may be 
consistent with an effective fulfilment of your ex- 
pressed intentions. 

' The steady and rapid increase of the revenue is a 
matter of no slight congratulation. It is most grati- 
fying to observe that the second quarter of this year 
has produced nearly treble the amount of the first 
quarter ; and I have every reason to hope and believe 
that this financial progress will continue on an equally 
satisfactory scale. 

' You have devoted about one-fourth of the esti- 
mated revenue to the construction of roads, bridges, 
and public offices ; to the extension of electric tele- 
graphs and postal communication ; to the improve- 
ment of our harbours ; and to other works calculated 
to advance the material prosperity of our people. 
And it will not, I think, be forgotten in the future 
annals of this Colony that the first Assembly of 
Queensland was equally careful of the moral and 
social as of the material wants of the community ; 
that, in its first session, it voted ample sums for the 



EXCELLENT WORK DONE 111 

formation and encouragement of hospitals, libraries, 
botanical gardens, and schools of art ; and that it 
appropriated for purposes of education alone, a sum 
larger in proportion to our present numbers than is 
devoted to that object in Great Britain itself larger, 
probably, than is devoted to it in any other country 
of the world.' 

' Honourable Gentlemen of the Legislative Council, and 
Gentlemen of the House of Assembly, 
' The result of your labours fully justifies the hopes 
expressed in the speech which I addressed to you at 
the commencement of this session. You have left 
little to be desired by the warmest friends of Queens- 
land, except that future sessions may maintain the 
high character which you have already earned for 
this Legislature. I recently laid before you a de- 
spatch from the Secretary of State informing me that 
the conduct of the inhabitants of this Colony on the 
occasion of the first establishment of their new 
Government was " highly satisfactory " to the Queen. 
1 am confident that the happy initiation of Parlia- 
mentary institutions among you will afford additional 
gratification to Her Majesty. It is my earnest hope 
that those institutions, now so successfully inaugu- 
rated here, may be productive of all those blessings 
which, when rightly administered, they cannot fail to 
confer. This Colony has now, so far as human in- 
fluences extend, its destinies in its own hands. I 
humbly pray that, by the favour of the Supreme 



172 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

Kuler, its onward career may be characterised by 
the same spirit of loyalty, moderation, and en- 
lightened patriotism with which it has commenced 
the exercise of its rights and the performance of its 
duties as a separate and independent province of the 
British Empire.' 



By far the most important of the Acts passed 
during the first session of the first Parliament of 
Queensland related to the tenure of land. In the early 
days of colonisation a vast proportion of the public 
land had fallen into the hands of the ' squatters ' or 
pastoral tenants of the Crown, partly because grazing 
was the most rapidly profitable form of farming, partly 
because the earliest settlers were generally men of 
education and moderate capital, whose tastes and ex- 
perience led them rather towards cattle and sheep- 
farming than towards agricultural labour. When a 
large element of lower social status and smaller capital, 
but at least equal physical energy, made its appearance 
in Queensland, a certain rivalry immediately arose 
with the squatters. Their square miles of territory 
were naturally coveted by men whose ambition aimed 
only at the successful cultivation of acres ; and there 
was for a time considerable fear that the agricultural 
interest, always a vital factor in every country, 
might seriously suffer from the prior claims of almost 
the monopoly of the public land by the great pastoral 
settlers. Above all, it was evident that a dangerous 
feature in land tenure existed in the possibilities of 
merely speculative investment in squatting rights 
which were secured only for temporary profit, to be 



THE NEW LAND CODE 173 

sold again as soon as a high bid should be made. 
The first Government of Queensland was fully alive 
to these dangers, and one of their earliest official steps 
was to postpone all consideration of tenders for squat- 
ting ' runs ' in the newly created pastoral districts 
of Kennedy and Mitchell until August 1860; that is, 
until the Queensland Parliament should have had an 
opportunity of legislating upon the various difficulties 
connected with the land tenure. The results of the 
debates in the Council and Assembly on this subject 
were contained in four Acts, viz. ' The Unoccupied 
Crown Lands Act' (24 Viet. No. 11); 'The Land 
Tenders. Begulation Act' (24 Viet. No. 12); 'The 
Alienation of Crown Lands Act' (24 Viet. No. 15), 
and ' The Occupied Lands Leasing Act ' (24 Viet. 
No. 16) ;" and these, wrote the Governor, ' form what 
may be called the land code of Queensland/ He 
further remarked in a letter to a political friend in 
England : ' The legislation of our first Parliament 
has settled that long quarrel between the pastoral 
and agricultural interests which has raged in all new 
countries ever since the days of Abel, the " keeper of 
sheep," and Cain, the " tiller of the ground." l I may 
observe that the proceedings of the pioneer settlers 
in occupying fresh " runs " in Australia follow the 
precedent of those ancient squatters, Abraham and 
Lot, as described in the thirteenth chapter of Genesis.' 
By these Acts, which were, at a later period, re- 
vised and extended, not only were the conditions of 
the occupation of pastoral land regulated and re- 
stricted, but a new departure in colonial land tenure 
was begun. Provision was made for the increase 

1 Genesis, chap. II. 



174 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of agricultural holdings by conferring on the Governor 
the power to mark out large areas of ' agricultural 
reserves,' near the coasts and rivers, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of towns. These reserves were destined 
wholly for agricultural and not for pastoral settlers. 
The land was to be sold at a fixed price of I/, per acre, 
and the purchaser of a certain number of acres enjoyed, 
on easy conditions, the right of leasing a large adjoin- 
ing area at a nominal rent with option of purchase at 
the same price of II. at any period of his occupancy. 
Immigration was encouraged by a provision for allot- 
ting free land orders to immigrants paying their own 
passages. In this manner room was made for a 
population of large and small agriculturists, and the 
undue preponderance of the pastoral settlers was 
restricted. 

Commenting on these Acts in his despatch of 
October 1, 1860, Sir George Bowen wrote : 

' In an official letter written soon after my arrival 
in this Colony, I made use of the following words : 
"While maintaining, as the representative of the 
Queen, a 'dignified neutrality' (to quote Lord Elgin's 
happy phrase) between contending parties, I hope to 
lend my aid to a conciliatory and permanent settle- 
ment of the land question, which otherwise threatens 
to become in Australia an irritating and prolonged 
contest between rival classes and interests, like the 
Agrarian Laws at Koine, and the Corn Laws in 
England." 

' Earl Grey has remarked in his valuable book 
on Colonial Policy that, even in the self-go vernin<* 



THE LEGISLATION OF THE FIRST SESSION 175 

Colonies, " an able Governor can do much by a 
judicious use of the influence rather than of the 
authority of his office." But the success attained in 
the first session of my first Parliament has exceeded 
my most sanguine hopes. Without pledging myself 
to absolute concurrence with every detail of the 
Land Acts now passed (which will be extended and 
enlarged in the future as the progress of colonisation 
may require), I regard them as a practical and 
satisfactory settlement of this much-vexed question, 
which is still embittering the social life and retarding 
the material advance of the neighbouring and elder 
Colonies. 

'I confidently believe that the Acts, Eeports, 
and other official papers already transmitted, will be 
found to contain ample justification of the favourable 
opinion which I expressed in my Prorogation Speech 
of the results of the first session of the first Parlia- 
ment of Queensland. This Parliament may fairly 
boast of having passed, with due caution and fore- 
sight, a greater number of really useful measures, 
and of having achieved a larger amount of really 
practical legislation, than any other Parliament in 
any of the Australian Colonies since the introduction 
of parliamentary government. I will conclude by 
quoting the testimony borne on this point by the 
chief organ of public opinion in New South Wales, a 
journal which was at first by no means favourable 
to the creation and prospects of the new Colony of 
Queensland : 



176 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

6 " Judging from the experience of the older 
Colonies, it would have seemed safe to predict that 
Queensland would not settle its land policy until two 
or three parliamentary sessions had expired ; until 
half-a-dozen Ministries had climbed by its means 
into power, and been baffled by the very tactics 
by which they themselves succeeded ; and until an 
amount of social hatred had been engendered 
which it would take years to extinguish. These 
anticipations, however, would have been all false. 
The Government of Queensland has been either very 
fortunate or very judicious. The last to enter the 
race, Queensland has shot ahead, and taken the first 
place. While in Melbourne the popular rage has 
been worked up by its guardians into riot, and while 
in Sydney the tactics of the popular party have 
succeeded in placing the land question in a position 
of chronic blockade, in Queensland it has been 
settled on a moderate and reasonable basis, and 
without so much as a single ministerial crisis." ' l 



In his reply to the above despatch, the Duke 
of Newcastle congratulated Sir G. Bowen on the suc- 
cess of his government, and the general prosperity of 
Queensland ; adding that he perceived with great 
pleasure the evidence afforded by the various Acts 
of the first session ' of the industry, intelligence, and 
good sense with which the Council and Assembly have 

1 The Sydney Morning Herald, September, 1860. 



OPINION OF SIR E. BULWER LYTTON 177 

applied themselves to the practical duties of legisla- 
tion.' Not less gratifying was the testimony of Sir 
E. Bulwer Lytton, the Minister who had appointed 
Sir G. Bo wen to Queensland ; and who now wrote to 
him : ' You have managed admirably, and shown 
great tact and ability. It is indeed a grand thing to 
have been the (Ekist, the founder of the social state of 
so mighty a segment of the globe as Queensland, and 
is, perhaps, more sure of fame a thousand years hence 
than anything that we can do in the old world. It is 
carving your name on the rind of a young tree, to 
be found with enlarged letters as the trunk expands.' 



VOL. i. 



178 Till'] FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 



CHAPTEE X. 

THE PROGRESS OF QUEENSLAND OFFICIAL TOURS SPEECH ON 
EDUCATION VISIT TO THE NORTHERN DISTBICTS COLONIAL 
FORCES LETTERS TO THE DUKE OF NEWCASTLE, MR. COBDEN, 
SIR G. CORNEWALL LEWIS, SIR ROUNDELL PALMER MR. 
GLADSTONE AUSTRALIAN FEDERATION PAX BRITANNICA. 

To review in detail the legislation of the nine ses- 
sions of the two Parliaments which sat under Sir 
George Bowen's rule in Queensland would be an 
instructive but lengthy task. The beginnings of all 
new States are interesting, and the wonderful progress 
of Queensland in these early years of independent 
existence is full of valuable lessons in the science of 
self-government. Only a comparatively small portion 
of the Colony was even partially settled when the 
first Parliament met ; but during the eight years of 
the first Governor's tenure of office, the area of 
civilisation was extended till the northernmost point 
of Australia, Cape York, was occupied and incor- 
porated in the organisation radiating from Brisbane. 
So rapid and sweeping an expansion necessarily 
created a vast amount of work for the Government 
and Legislature; and many difficult problems had 
to be solved. The sound sense and intelligence 

o 

displayed by the colonists in relation to the large 
questions which thus fell under their purview were 
iviiKirkable ; and there is probably no other instance 



THE GOVERNOR'S OFFICIAL TOURS 179 

on record of a similar peaceful and orderly assump- 
tion by an untrained legislature of so vast a re- 
sponsibility, or of so wise and impartial an exer- 
cise of great power over so immense a dominion - 
and among so many conflicting interests. The land 
question was, of course, the foremost difficulty, but 
the Acts passed in the first session were found to work 
so well that subsequent years saw little else but their 
expansion. With the rapid growth of the Colony other 
questions than the regulation of municipalities, schools, 
public works, and suchlike matters of local importance, 
came to the front. One was the establishment of a 
comprehensive system of communication by railways 
and telegraphs. Another was the question of the 
defences of the Colony. What was done in all these 
and other matters will be seen in outline in the 
Governor's letters and despatches. The details must 
be sought in the Parliamentary bluebooks and the 
colonial histories. 

The Governor's duties, however, were by no 
means limited to the period of the parliamentary 
session, which generally lasted from April to Sep- 
tember. Much of his most important work was done 
in the annual recess. It was then that he journeyed 
through all parts of the Colony in order to make 
himself thoroughly acquainted at first hand with 
the wants and wishes of all classes of the com- 
munity. It was the neglect of the Government of 
New South Wales to pay detailed attention to every 
part of its huge dominions that forced on the separa- 
tion of one province after another, till Moreton Bay 
had followed the lead of Port Phillip, and Queensland 
had been separated in like manner as Victoria. Sir 

N 2 



180 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

George Bowen was resolved that no such indifference 
to the remoter parts of the Colony should be mani- 
fested during his rule ; and he never permitted a 
recess to pass without making a considerable official 
circuit. In his first year, as has been seen, even 
before the Parliament met, he was able to make him- 
self acquainted with the district of the Darling Downs. 
In the following autumn he inspected the northern 
districts as far as Eockhampton; in 1861, the central 
districts ; the next year he went north again to Port 
Denison ; and thus every recess found him encourag- 
ing the people to meet him and lay before him their 
special wants and hopes. It is worthy of notice that 
in every one of these official tours he was throughout 
welcomed with unbounded loyalty. The addresses 
which he received in each district that he visited 
would fill a volume of respect, gratitude, and affec- 
tion. Addresses, however, are very similar in style 
and matter, and the recital of one or two will give a 
sufficient impression of the rest. The Governor's 
replies to the addresses presented to him were always 
received with acclamation ; and his advice, even when 
trenching on deep-rooted prejudices, was heard with 
attention. His speeches were frequently occupied 
with urgent counsels in favour of municipal organisa- 
tion, of the raising of Volunteer forces for defence, 
and the introduction of tropical crops, such as cotton 
arid sugar, into those regions where the cereals of the 
cooler parts of Queensland were not suitable. Thus 
he told the people of Maryborough that ' The object 
of my official tours, here as elsewhere, is to see and 
judge for myself, to ascertain the requirements and 
desires of all classes of the inhabitants of Queensland. 



THE GOVERNOR'S ADDRESSES 181 

In this object I am confident that I shall derive valu- 
able assistance from the members of your future 
municipality, for I rejoice to find that you have 
applied to be incorporated according to law. All 
political experience has proved that local municipal 
bodies are fully as necessary to the public welfare 
as central representative legislatures. It is in such 
corporations that men are trained to legislate on a 
wider stage. They are the best security against 
undue centralisation, and against the partial and 
unjust dedication of the public revenues to the ad- 
vantage of favoured localities. It has been observed 
by a great statesman and philosopher, that "muni- 
cipalities are to liberty what primary schools are 
to science ; they bring it within the reach of the 
people. They teach men how to use and how to 
enjoy it." ' 

In reply to the address of the people of Eock- 
hampton, Sir George again recommended municipal 
institutions, and added his advice that they should 
' form in this district a corps of Volunteer riflemen, 
in imitation of the patriotic example set by the in- 
habitants of Brisbane and Ipswich, and generally by 
our fellow countrymen throughout the Empire. In 
addition to the obvious advantage of thus provid- 
ing for your external and internal defence, such 
associations are eminently calculated to promote 
union and good feeling among a population thinly 
scattered over a wide extent of country ; and also 
to foster that spirit of independence and self-re- 
liance, without which no people whose annals are 
recorded in history has ever attained to vigorous 
manhood.' 



1S2 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

Nor did he ever fail to impress upon his audiences 
the importance of education. As an Oxford first 
class man and Fellow of his College, Sir George 
was not likely to forget the uses of high training. 
A University indeed would have been somewhat pre- 
mature in Queensland, for ample facilities for the 
higher education in all its branches existed in the 
Universities of Sydney and Melbourne, but every 
provision was promptly made for schools and col- 
leges at the principal towns of the new Colony. Sir 
George Bowen was always ready to do his part in 
opening such institutions, giving away the prizes, 
and encouraging the students. As an example of 
his speeches on educational subjects, the following 
address at the opening of the first Grammar School 
may be cited : 

' The Trustees of this institution having conveyed 
to me a wish that I should take part in the interesting 
proceedings of this day, I gladly accepted their invi - 
tation. Educated myself at an English public school 
and university, my warmest sympathies are naturally 
enlisted in the inauguration of the first public school 
established in this new Colony, with the object of pro- 
viding for our youth some of the higher branches of 
a liberal education. And, as a public man engaged 
during many years in the active business of life, I 
desire to bring the living testimony of practical ex- 
perience to confirm and enforce those precepts and 
exhortations which the students will doubtless hear 
from the learned head-master, and from the gentle- 
men associated with him. 



SPEECH ON EDUCATION 183 

c In the first place, I observe with great satisfac- 
tion that this institution will be carried out, so far 
as circumstances may permit, on the well-tried plan 
of the old public schools of England. So much, in- 
deed, is implied in its name. This school professes 
to teach grammar in its widest sense that is, " the 
science which has for its object the laws which re- 
gulate human language." Now it is, I imagine, 
admitted on all sides that by education is meant not 
a mere preparation for some specific trade or pro- 
fession, but rather a preparation for the whole busi- 
ness of life a preparation which shall fit the student 
to fill his part well as a member of a family, of a 
professional or commercial community, of society 
generally, and of the State. Far be it from me to 
say that no help should be furnished at school and 
college towards the various pursuits of manhood. 
Much can be done and much, I hope, will be done 
in this institution towards that object, both directly 
and indirectly : directly, by instruction in the prin- 
ciples and practice of law, commerce, and agriculture ; 
and indirectly, by instruction in history, modern 
languages, mathematics, chemistry, and physics. 
Still the main end of a liberal education is so to dis- 
cipline the understanding and the taste, and so to 
strengthen the various powers of the mind, that when 
the student proceeds, thus disciplined and strength- 
ened, to learn the use of the weapons needful 
for himself especially, he may acquire that use 
most readily, and ever afterwards employ it most 



184 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

worthily for himself and most beneficially for his 
country. 

4 Such, then, being the true aim of education, it 
follows that grammar, or the science of language, 
must hold an important place in it. Language is the 
medium of intercourse between man and man the 
instrument, as it were, of thought. How can the 
processes of the mind be better understood than by a 
minute analysis of two of the most perfect languages 
that have ever been spoken ? Or how can the young 
scholar learn more easily to think accurately for him- 
self than by the study of the exact meaning of words 
and phrases ? It has been asked indeed : " While 
the claims of language to form an essential part of 
education must be granted, why should the dead 
languages of Greece and Eome be chosen for this 
purpose ? " To this plausible question convincing re- 
plies have often been given. It has been shown that 
while, on the one hand, the study of modern lan- 
guages alone would prove an inferior discipline, so, 
on the other hand, the worth to all time of the stores 
of wisdom and learning contained in the classical 
languages of antiquity is almost incalculable. Greek 
and Latin are a better instrument for training the 
mind, because they are more elaborate in their ety- 
mology and syntax, expressing by copious inflexions 
what the languages of modern Europe express by 
mere juxtaposition of independent words. Moreover, 
the study of the ancient tongues from which the 
principal modern languages are derived, supplies a 



USES OF CLASSICAL STUDIES 185 

common standard and foundation for the philology, 
similar to that furnished in the elements of Euclid for 
the mathematics of all nations. Again, it has been 
truly said that we are hardly less closely connected 
with the people of Greece and Borne than with our 
own immediate ancestors. Not more truly do we owe 
most of our civil rights and social institutions to our 
Anglo-Saxon forefathers than we are indebted to the 
Greeks and Eomans for most of our law, our literature, 
our science, and our philosophy. 

' It has sometimes been objected, with all the 
audacity of ignorance, that classical studies are un- 
fit for the present active age, and tend to make men 
." unpractical " and " mere dreamy scholars." But all 
experience refutes this superficial objection. Almost 
all the greatest English statesmen and lawyers in the 
last hundred years have been men pre-eminent for 
classical attainments. I need only mention in con- 
firmation of this assertion, the names, on the judicial 
bench, of Lords Mansfield, Stowell, Ellenborough, and 
Tenterden ; and, in political life, the names of Lord 
North, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, Mr. Burke, Lord Grenville, 
Mr. Windham, Mr. Canning, Sir Eobert Peel, Sir 
George Lewis, and Lord Palmerston. And who at 
the present day are the two foremost champions of 
the two great rival political parties, as consummate 
parliamentary orators and ready and acute debaters ? 
Both these eminent Englishmen are not more proud 
of their success as statesmen than as scholars. They 
are rivals not only as political leaders but as trans- 



186 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

lators of Horace. Mr. Gladstone, the able and hard- 
working Chancellor of the Exchequer and Minister 
of Finance, a man of hard facts and dull figures, is 
also the author of an elaborate treatise on the poetry 
of Homer. Lord Derby, as Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity, recently welcomed the Prince of Wales to Oxford 
in a Latin speech worthy to be compared with the 
most renowned models of Eoman eloquence. 

' No doubt high distinction in public life has been 
attained in some few instances by men not remark- 
able for classical acquirements ; but (to quote from a 
speech of the late Sir Eobert Peel) " is there not strong 
reason to believe that in their case success would have 
been more easy and more complete, had such acquire- 
ments been superadded to their other qualifications? " 

' Having now spoken of some of the studies which 
will be pursued in this institution, I shall conclude 
by addressing a few plain and practical remarks to 
the masters and to the scholars respectively. 

' The true position of the instructors of youth has 
been laid down for all time in those well-known and 
beautiful verses of the Latin poet Juvenal : l 

Di majorum umbris tenuem et sine ponder e terram, 
Spirantesque crocos, et in urnd perpetuum ver, 
Qui prceceptorem sancti valuer e parentis 
Esse loco.' 

I will only add that I am confident that the gentle- 
men whom I now address will not rest satisfied with 
their present acquirements, but will ever day by day 

1 Sat. VII. 207. 



GOOD PROSPECTS IN A COLONY 187 

seek to add to their stores of knowledge ; so that, in 
the words of the late Dr. Arnold, one of the greatest 
teachers of any age, and who has done much to 
exalt the scholastic profession, " their pupils may 
drink not from a stagnant pond but from a fresh 
running stream." 

' As for the scholars who will be educated here 
now and henceforward, I earnestly exhort them to 
prove by their diligence and good conduct, their 
appreciation of the many advantages procured for 
them by the wise liberality of the colonial legislature. 
It has been often said that in this happy land there 
is no barrier between classes, and that the highest 
positions -can be attained by persons starting from 
the most humble origin. If a young man has only 
ability, energy, and perseverance, there is nothing 
within the range of the institutions of this Colony to 
which he may not aspire. I rejoice to learn that 
scholarships and other prizes will be provided as 
incentives and rewards for successful merit. I hope 
that the number of candidates at the examinations 
for these prizes will increase from year to year. 
Such examinations will produce among the rising 
generation a spirit of emulation, which is one of the 
noblest feelings of the human heart, and from which 
springs, in no slight degree, the greatness and pro- 
sperity both of individuals and of States. It is a 
spirit wholly distinct from that of envy or jealousy 
a spirit compatible with the utmost kindness and 
goodwill towards those with respect to whom the 



188 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

emulation is felt. I am aware that certain objections 
have been made to the system of competitive exami- 
nations altogether. Some people say that it leads to 
" cramming." Now it often happens, that when men 
seize upon a word, they imagine that word to be an 
argument, and go about repeating it till they per- 
suade themselves that they have arrived at some 
great and irresistible conclusion. So when they 
pronounce the word " cramming," they flatter them- 
selves that they have utterly discredited the system 
to which that word is by them applied. But an ex- 
cellent answer was once supplied to all loose reason- 
ing of this sort by Lord Palmerston, in defending 
competitive examinations. He said : " Some people 
seem to imagine that the human mind is like a bottle, 
and that when you have filled it with anything, you 
pour it out again, and it becomes as empty as it was 
before. This is not the nature of the human mind." 
The truth is that the boy who has been " crammed " 
(to use the popular phrase), has, in point of fact, 
learned a great deal, and that learning has accom- 
plished two objects. In the first place the boy has 
in the process of " cramming " been forced to exercise 
the faculties of his mind ; and in the next place, there 
remains in his mind a great portion of this know- 
ledge so acquired, and which probably forms the 
basis of future attainments in different branches of 
education. Again, it has been objected that com- 
petitive examinations make the young " vain and con- 
ceited," But this futile objection was also demolished 



PALMEHSTON ON COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS 189 

by Lord Palmerston in the admirable speech to which 
I have already referred. " As to vanity and conceit," 
he said, " those are most vain and conceited who know 
the least. The more a man knows the more he ac- 
quires a conviction of the extent of that which he 
does not know. A man must know a great deal to 
understand the immensity of his own ignorance." You 
will recollect the remark of Sir Isaac Newton, on his 
death-bed, that he looked upon himself only as a 
child picking up shells on the shore of the great 
ocean of truth and knowledge. 

4 Finally, an old and familiar classical proverb de- 
clares that " the beginning is half the whole " : 

Dimidium facti qui bene cmpit habet. 

There is some responsibility as well as honour in 
being concerned with the opening of this institution 
the first of the kind in Queensland but destined, 
I hope, to be a model to many successors. I think I 
may promise alike for the Government and for the 
Trustees, that no care shall be wanting on their part 
to secure a good beginning. I trust I may reckon 
on finding in the whole body of the masters a con- 
scientious zeal in the discharge of their duty. Still, 
with whatever skill and attention their studies may 
be chosen and directed, it must rest mainly with the 
scholars themselves whether the result shall be suc- 
cessful. By every motive which can influence re- 
flecting and responsible beings by regard for their 
own welfare and happiness in this world by the fear 



190 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of future discredit by the hope of lasting fame ; 
by motives yet more urgent by nobler and purer 
aspirations by the duty of obedience to the will of 
our Creator by the awful account which we shall all 
have to render of the talents entrusted to us for im- 
provement ; by these high arguments, I affectionately 
exhort all who now hear me, so " to number their days 
that they may apply their hearts unto wisdom." ' 



The following despatch gives a brief account of the 
Governor's tour in the spring 1 of 1860. 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House. Brisbane : December 4, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

In continuation of former despatches, I have the 
honour herewith to transmit copies of the addresses 
presented to me during my recent official tour of 
inspection in the central and northern districts of 
Queensland. 

It will be seen that, according to my constant 
habit, I took advantage of the customary replies to 
afford useful information, and to tender practical 
advice to the inhabitants of the several settlements 
which I visited. 

I was everywhere received during my recent tour, 
by all classes of the community, with the same loyal 
welcome as on my first arrival at Brisbane, now twelve 

1 It will be recollected that at the antipodes the spring months 
ure September, October, and November. 



VISIT TO NORTHERN QUEENSLAND 191 

months ago, and as on my subsequent visits to the 
southern and eastern districts of the Colony. 

The first has been the most critical year of my 
administration. I have now organised all the de- 
partments, and appointed all the officers of the 
Government ; I have, further, inaugurated the Parlia- 
ment ; and, what is also a delicate task in a new 
country, I have (to a great extent) formed the society 
which meets at the Government House. It is naturally 
very gratifying to find that my conduct on all these 
points has had a result the very reverse of impair- 
ing the confidence and respect which the people of 
Queensland were, from the beginning, inclined to feel 
towards the first representative of their Sovereign. 

The Colonial Architect, the Surveyor of Eoads, 
and others of the chief executive officers of the Go- 
vernment, accompanied me on my recent journey. 
Arrangements were everywhere made in the several 
districts for the immediate construction of the public 
w r orks, for which funds were voted in the late session 
of Parliament. I am determined to leave no just 
ground in this Colony for complaints of neglect on 
the part of the central Executive, such as those which 
led to the separation of Victoria and Queensland from 
New South Wales. 

A full description of Maryborough and its 
vicinity will be found in a former despatch. On 
the banks of the river Mary, as of all the other 
rivers of Central and Northern Queensland, there 
are vast tracts of country admirably adapted for the 



192 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

growth of cotton, of sugar, and of all other tropical 
and semi-tropical productions. 

Port Curtis is probably the best harbour, after that 
of Sydney, on the eastern coast of Australia. In 
1854, the Government of .New South Wales founded 
on its shores a township, which has been named 
Gladstone, and is the outlet of the adjacent pastoral 
counties of Pelham and Clinton. The excellence 
of the harbour, the salubrity of the climate, and the 
beauty of the surrounding scenery, combine to render 
Gladstone an eligible site for a flourishing town ; 
but the river Fitzroy, further north, affords a more 
ready access to the interior of the Colony, and conse- 
quently the settlement of Eockhampton on its banks 
has advanced more rapidly up to the present time. 

The town of Eockhampton was founded in 1858, 
and was then the extreme point of European settle- 
ment in this part of Australia. As the outlet of the 
vast regions watered by the river Fitzroy and its 
tributaries, it is even now a flourishing place, and 
pastoral occupation has already extended to the Peak 
Downs and to the shores of Broad Sound, fully 
200 miles further inland and northward. As I have 
reported elsewhere, the Queensland Government is 
about to found a new settlement at Port Denison, as 
the outlet of the recently proclaimed district of 
Kennedy, which will reach to within about 300 miles 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

Though Eockhampton is within the tropics, the 
climate of the neighbouring districts, especially on the 



HAPID PROGRESS OF SETTLEMENT 193 

upland downs and beautiful prairies of the interior, 
is in a high degree healthy and invigorating. Fresh 
settlers are fast arriving from New South Wales and 
Victoria, and bring their flocks and herds with them. 
JSTor is the value of the wool of the merino sheep 
deteriorated, to any sensible extent, in these warm 
latitudes. What the fleece loses in weight, it gains 
in softness and. delicacy. 

It will afford some idea of the great space already 
covered by the settlements of this Colony, to mention 
that on my official tours during the past twelve 
months, I have myself visited two flourishing towns 
in Queensland (Warwick and Eockhampton), which 
are distant from each other by the nearest road at 
least 600 miles ; that is, much further than Galway 
and Kirkwall respectively are distant from London. 
There is something almost sublime in the steady, 
silent flow of pastoral occupation over north-eastern 
Australia. It resembles the rise of the tide or some 
other operation of nature, rather than a work of man. 
Although it is difficult to ascertain exactly what 
progress may have been made at the end of each week 
and month, still, at the close of every year we find 
that the margin of Christianity and civilisation has 
been pushed forward by some 200 miles. 



A letter to Mr. Cobden records some of the 
Governor's impressions of the early beginnings of 
Queensland : 

VOL. i. o 



194 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

To Richard Cobden, Esq., M.P. 

Government House, Brisbane : March 18, 1862. 

My dear Sir, 

I see it reported in the English newspapers that 
the state of your health will require you to take a 
long sea voyage, and to pass a short time in a more 
genial climate than that of England. Do not be 
startled if I urge you to pay me a visit at the Antipodes. 
Eecollect that the journey from London to Sydney 
(whence there are weekly steamers in forty-eight 
hours to Brisbane, the capital of Queensland) is now 
a voyage d'agrement of about forty days. Your return 
would also require forty days ; so that if you confine 
your absence to the parliamentary recess say five 
months you could spend about eight weeks with me 
at Brisbane. During these eight weeks you could 
learn more than in as many years in England of the 
real condition of Australia, and of that most interest- 
ing question, interesting alike to statesmen and philo- 
sophers, the working in these Colonies of the almost 
purely democratic institutions which have been con- 
ferred upon them. 

You would find me living in a handsome and 
commodious Government House on the banks of 
the river Brisbane, here as broad as the Thames 
at Westminster. The climate of Brisbane resembles 
that of Madeira ; and it is the resort of invalids from 
India and China, as well as from all the Australian 
Colonies. The summer (December to March) is 
rather warm, but very healthy. During the rest 



LETTER TO MR. COBDEX 195 

of the year our climate is delicious. The winter 
(May to September) reminds me of a succession 
of the finest days of a Neapolitan winter. The 
hot season is also the rainy season. Nothing can 
exceed the beauty of the indigenous vegetation of 
this part of Australia especially of the flowering- 
shrubs and ferns ; while most of the European as 
well as semi-tropical productions grow with equal 
luxuriance. 

Pray show this letter to Mr. Bright, whose ac- 
quaintance I first had the pleasure of making at your 
house in London in 1854. I wish I could persuade 
him also to pay me a visit in Australia, either alone, 
or in company with you. He will recollect that if 
he were to leave London by the overland mail at the 
end of July, he would reach Brisbane about the 
middle of September. He could stay with us for a 
couple of months till the November mail, which leaves 
us about the 20th. In this way he could be back in 
London by the middle of January with a good know- 
ledge of the real state of things in Australia. In his 
political studies he could be assisted by an old school- 
fellow and associate in the Anti-Corn Law League, 
Mr. T. B. Stephens, who is now the mayor of the 
city of Brisbane. 

You are doubtless aware that vast tracts of this 
territory are admirably suited for the growth of cotton. 
Several local cotton companies are already in opera- 
tion ; but the great English manufacturers must 
embark some portion of their own skill, energy, and 

o 2 



196 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

capital in this enterprise, if cotton is to be grown on 
an extensive scale here ; for most of the local capital 
is invested in wool. The Queensland Legislature has 
done its utmost to aid the mother-country in the 
present crisis of the cotton supply, by offering free 
grants of land for cotton plantations, and premiums 
(for several years) on the growth of that plant. And 
there are no restrictions here, as in some of the other 
Australian Colonies, on the importation of cheap 
labour from India. But on this subject generally, 
I would beg to refer you and Mr. Bright to Mr. 
Bazley of Manchester, with whom I have had much 
correspondence about it ; and to the ' Cotton Supply 
Reporter,' in which the Duke of Newcastle has 
caused several of my despatches to be published. 
Mr. Bazley wrote to me not long since, that he believed 
that the best cotton in the world could be grown in 
Queensland. He proceeds to say that 'he will en- 
deavour to get up a company of English capitalists 
to grow cotton on a large scale in Queensland.' I 
beg to express my earnest hope that you will render 
every assistance in your power to an enterprise so 
important both for the parent State and for the Colony. 
It appears that the cotton plantations of North 
America cover in the aggregate little more than 
4,000,000 acres that is, about the area of Yorkshire. 
Along the eastern seaboard of Queensland, which 
extends for 1,200 miles, at least twenty Yorkshires 
are open for selection by cotton planters in a 



LETTER TO MR. COBDEN 197 

salubrious climate, and under British laws and in- 
stitutions (tant soit pen liberalised). 

The people of Queensland paid me the compli- 
ment of electing to the first Assembly all the men 
whom, on my first arrival, I had appointed to the 
principal offices ; and they then became my respons- 
ible ministers, and have now weathered the storms of 
three parliamentary campaigns ; so that they have 
attained a patriarchal age for an Australian ministry. 
As you will see from the enclosed papers, we have 
already settled on a moderate and reasonable 
basis the land question, which, like the Corn Law 
question in England, has been the source of long and 
violent agitation in Australia. I submit that I have 
practically proved here the principle for which I 
have always contended, viz. that any imperfect success 
of parliamentary government in the older Australian 
Colonies does not arise from any defect in the system 
itself so much as from the errors of the naval and 
military governors who first inaugurated free institu- 
tions in this continent. Had I space, or you patience, 
I could give you numerous illustrations of my mean- 
ing. Suffice it to say that liberty began here at the 
wrong end. The professional habits and instincts 
of the soldier and sailor Governors led them to 
.establish, centralised bureaucracies, which have now, 
by a few rapid and inevitable steps, become cen- 
tralised democracies. Ministries are upset in Aus- 
tralia, not so much on great principles of policy, 



198 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

but rather on wrangles about the distribution of 
the general revenue among the public works of the 
various districts. Every member tries to get as 
much as he can of the public money for his own 
constituents. It is as if the fate of an English 
Ministry depended on the erection of a bridge in 
Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. A propos, the con- 
duct of certain Irish members of the House of 
Commons in 1861 respecting the Galway contract will 
give you some faint idea of what takes place in Aus- 
tralia. To counteract this mischief I have laid great 
stress here on the creation of local municipalities, as 
being as necessary to well-ordered liberty as primary 
schools to sound science. I have already succeeded 
in persuading all our chief townships to apply to be 
incorporated ; and I hope soon to see established 
in the rural districts a county system like that of 
Canada. 

But it is high time that I should relieve you from 
these commentaries on Australian politics. Shall I 
candidly confess that I am anxious to awaken your 
curiosity, and that of Mr. Bright, so far as to induce 
you to pay me a visit in this new and most flourishing 
Colony the youngest and most extensive dependency 
of Great Britain ? I have long been convinced, and 
my conviction is fully shared by more experienced 
politicians than myself, that if one or two of the 
leading Eadical statesmen of England were to meet 
some of the Australian Eadicals on their own ground 
it would do a vast deal of good to both parties. And 



LETTER TO SIR ROUNDELL PALMER 199 

what a contrast to the scene in? which I first had 
the pleasure of making your acquaintance the halls 
of Oxford ! 



The importance of obtaining a good Chief Justice 
from England led to the following letter : 

To Sir Eoundell Palmer, M.P., Solicitor-General. 1 

Government House : Brisbane, August 18, 1862. 

My dear Sir Eoundell Palmer, 

When I used to dine with you at Lincoln's Inn, 
and meet you at Lambeth in Archbishop Howley's 
time, I always looked forward to your becoming 
Lord Chancellor, but I did not anticipate that I 
should one day address you on the selection of a 
Chief Justice, and as the Governor of what is already 
the most extensive in territory and the most favoured 
in soil and climate, and is destined to become one of 
the richest and most valuable to the parent State, of 
all the dependencies of the' British Crown. 

I presume that before this letter reaches you my 
despatches and the minutes of my Executive Council 
respecting the selection of our Chief Justice will 
have been forwarded to you from the Colonial Office. 
From those documents and from Eobert Herbert, 
the Colonial Secretary of Queensland, you will learn 
the whole state of the case. He goes home on leave 

1 Afterwards Lord Chancellor and Earl of Selborne. 



200 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

by this mail and will immediately put himself into 
communication with you. 

In the Australian Colonies all appointments what- 
soever, including the appointments of the Judges, are 
absolutely vested in the Governor, with the advice 
of the Executive Council ; nor do they require 
any confirmation from the Queen or any other Im- 
perial authority. Under the existing circumstances 
of this Colony, the Government and Legislature have 
determined to procure a Chief Justice direct from 
the English Bar, to be selected by some eminent 
legal functionary at home. As both Herbert and I 
are personally acquainted with you, we resolved to 
ask you to undertake this important trust, which I 
earnestly hope you will not decline. What we want 
is a gentleman rather than a mere lawyer. The prin- 
cipal officials in a Colony form a sort of social aris- 
tocracy. The Chief Justice ranks next to the Governor, 
and his influence extends far beyond the sphere of his 
judicial duties indeed, whether for good or for evil, 
it is immense. The first Chief Justice of Queensland 
may set his mark for the future on this great and 
rising Colony. As I have told the Duke of New- 
castle, the confidence of this new people can be easily 
and speedily won by a Judge of high personal cha- 
racter and impartiality, faithful in the discharge of 
his public duties, and animated with an honest and 
intelligent zeal for the public welfare. Whatever 
political party may be in power in the Colonial 
Legislature, there would be a strong desire on all 



PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IN AUSTRALIA 201 

sides to defer to the opinion of such a man on all 
questions affecting the administration of justice. It is 
hardly too much to say that he might become the 
father of the jurisprudence of a future nation. 1 

People in England talk and write flippantly of 
' Besponsible,' that is, Parliamentary Government in 
Australia, but they forget what great things it has 
done and is doing for the English name. What is 
there in history to compare with the marvellous 
growth of these Colonies ? Lord Palmerston was four 
years old when the first settlers landed at Port Jack- 
son, and already Sydney has a population of 80,000, 
Melbourne of nigh 150,000, the latter city being the 
growth of barely twenty-five years. 2 Local self-govern- 
ment is simply indispensable if these great Colonies are 
to remain what they now are, loyal provinces of the 
Empire. Englishmen in Australia will not submit to 
be governed from Downing Street, 16,000 miles away. 
I recollect pointing out to Mr. Gladstone, when he 
was at Corfu, a passage in the twentieth chapter of 
Macaulay's ' History of England,' showing that if you 
grant representative institutions at all, you must grant 
the logical sequence, a responsible Executive. And 
a Governor with a strong will, popular manners, and 
sufficient political knowledge and official experience 
to guide the deliberations of his council of ministers, 
cannot fail to exercise a very commanding influence. 

1 Sir James Cockle, the Chief Justice appointed on the recommenda- 
tion of Lord Selborne, proved to be all that was desired. 

~ Now, in 1889, Sydney has nearly 300,000, and Melbourne nearly 
400,000 inhabitants. 



202 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

The Governor of a Crown Colony is looked upon as 
the subordinate of the ' Downing Street ' department. 
The Governor of an Australian Colony, if he is 
worthy of his position, is regarded as the head of a 
people. 

The frequent references to Volunteer forces in the 
Governor's speeches pointed to a very important 
feature in colonial policy. The Imperial troops were 
withdrawn from all the self-governing Colonies, ex- 
cept so far as to form a nucleus for local oiganisa- 
tions for defence ; but Queensland was the only 
Colony ever founded ' without costing a soldier or a 
shilling ' to the British Treasury. The natural mode 
of supplying their place was by corps of Volunteers ; 
and Sir George Bowen lost no time, on his arrival 
in the Colony, in impressing upon the people the 
necessity of such provision. His first despatch on 
the subject is given below : 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : April 10, 1860. 

My Lord Duke, 

On my assumption of office as Governor of 
Queensland, I found that Brisbane and Ipswich, the 
two principal towns of this Colony, each containing 
a large amount of British property in its banks and 
warehouses, could be easily sacked or laid under con- 
tribution by the boats of a single hostile ship of war. 
They were, in short, entirely defenceless ; the military 
detachment formerly stationed at Brisbane having 
withdrawn several years ago, and there being 



POLICE CORPS VOLUNTEER FORCE 203 

absolutely no public force whatever in the two com- 
munities, except about twenty unarmed and undisci- 
plined constables. Under these circumstances, I set 
myself forthwith to work to organise a Constabulary 
on the Irish model, and considerable progress has 
been made, with the assistance of an officer who had 
acquired much experience, and had shown great 
energy and resolution as commandant of the ' Native 
Mounted Police,' a corps of 100 black troopers 
stationed in detachments in the remote pastoral dis- 
tricts of the interior, for the protection of the out- 
lying settlers from the attacks of the aborigines. 

My next step was to encourage the formation of 
Volunteer Corps after the example of the mother- 
country. I omitted no favourable opportunity of 
impressing on the inhabitants of this Colony the 
necessity of providing for their own defence. An Act 
of the local Parliament enables the Governor ' to accept 
on behalf of the Queen the services of such of her 
Majesty's loyal subjects as may be willing to enrol 
themselves in Volunteer Corps, and to make pro- 
vision for the regulation thereof.' Accordingly, in 
virtue of the powers thus vested in me, I issued a 
proclamation prescribing rules and regulations for 
the guidance of the Volunteer Corps which might be 
formed. This appeal has already been responded to. 
A corps entitled ' the Queensland Mounted Kifles,' 
and possessing an excellent materiel in both men 
and horses, has been enrolled at Brisbane. Com- 
panies of riflemen, to serve as infantrv, are also in 



204 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

course of formation both here and in the neighbour- 
ing town of Ipswich. 

My desire is not to rest content with enrolling a 
Volunteer force able to repel any external aggression 
on the seaboard. I wish to extend the movement to 
those inland districts where the settlers are still ex- 
posed to danger from the native tribes, which are far 
more numerous and more formidable in Queensland 
than in any other portion of Australia. This part of 
the question may need some explanation. 

The life of the pioneers of colonisation on the 
distant prairies of the interior of this Colony presents 
several distinct phases when viewed in its connexion 
with the aborigines. The first sight of the horse and 
his rider appears to strike a tribe of blacks, as yet 
ignorant of the white man's existence, with super- 
natural terror, similar to the awe with which the 
American Indians contemplated the comrades of 
Columbus and of Cortez. But superstitious fear is 
soon succeeded by bitter hostility. Mutual provoca- 
tions between the races lead to mutual reprisals. The 
fiercer spirits among the native warriors fall before 
the superior arms and skill of the European, or are 
driven still further backwards into the unexplored 
wilderness. The milder natures sink ere long into 
the condition of well-fed dependents of the colonists, 
and in the course of a few years no danger remains 
to be apprehended from them beyond some isolated 
acts of robbery or revenge. 

In the early days of the occupation of each dis- 



COLONIAL SELF-DEFENCE 205 

trict, the colonists are frequently obliged to associate 
together, for self-defence against the blacks, in a 
somewhat irregular manner, and after the fashion, as 
I am informed, of the old Dutch Commandos in 
South Africa. For many obvious reasons, it seems 
highly desirable that this border warfare, when 
absolutely unavoidable, should be carried on under 
some control on the part of the Government. The 
establishment of the Native Police has contributed 
much towards this end ; and I am inclined to believe 
that the enrolment of the principal settlers and their 
servants in several Corps of Yeomanry, or rather of 
Mounted Bifles, would contribute still more. Sir E. 
Bulwer - Lytton wrote to the Lieutenant-Governor 
of British Columbia, that ' in a settlement which is 
surrounded by savage tribes, while sound policy will 
dictate every effort to conciliate the goodwill and 
confidence of such uncivilised neighbours, and while 
humanity will shrink from the application of armed 
force against the aborigines wherever it can be 
avoided, yet some military strength and disciplined 
organisation are essential preservatives to the settlers, 
and indeed will be attended with far less loss of life, 
with actions far less sanguinary, than when the white 
man is left to defend himself against the black 
without that decided superiority which is conferred 
by military skill over savages. In such conflicts the 
want of discipline is the want of mercy.' 

In accordance with these views it is my intention 
to recommend the leading settlers in the remote 



206 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

pastoral districts of Queensland to form themselves 
into troops of Mounted Eifles ; and, in pursuance of 
the authority vested in me by law, to grant on 
behalf of the Queen, commissions as officers in these 
proposed Volunteer Corps to some of the local 
magistrates, and to other persons on whose courage 
and discretion equal reliance can be placed. 

I am fully persuaded that I shall receive the sup- 
port of the Colonial Legislature in carrying out the 
arrangements which I have shadowed forth in this 
despatch, and also in making all the provisions which 
an enlightened humanity may suggest for the interests 
of the aborigines ; and, whenever such a work may be 
commenced with a fair prospect of success, for their 
education and conversion to Christianity. 



The response of the Queenslanders to the Gover- 
nor's invitation was as prompt and hearty as could 
be desired. 

To the Right Honourable Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 
Bart., M.P., Secretary of State for War. 

Government House, Brisbane : August 18, 1862. 

My dear Sir George Lewis, 

I venture to ask you to cast your eye over the 
enclosed copy of a letter which I have addressed to 
the General Commanding in Australia, and which he 
will transmit by this mail to the Duke of Cambridge. 
A word from you would, of course, make certain the 



LETTER TO SIR G. CORNEWALL LEWIS 207 

confirmation of the action taken by General Pratt, 
and I take the liberty of soliciting you, on the 
grounds of public policy stated in the enclosure, to 
say that word. You will see that all I ask on behalf 
of the Government of Queensland is that the War Office 
and Horse Guards may approve of General Pratt 
sending an officer of the Eoyal Artillery to this 
Colony, with the special duty of organising our 
Volunteer Forces, and, in particular, of creating a 
corps of Volunteer Artillery here. Without this aid, 
Queensland must remain defenceless against external 
attacks, and the guns recently sent out must con- 
tinue useless. Those gentlemen in England w T ho are 
advocating the removal of all Imperial soldiers from 
Australia, and expect thereupon the sudden growth 
of efficient colonial regiments, would appear to forget 
that the old apologue of the dragon's teeth spring- 
ing up armed men is not likely to repeat itself at the 
antipodes of Hellas. As I told the Duke of Newcastle 
by the last mail, I cannot sow kangaroos' teeth under 
our gum trees, and then hope to see a crop of trained 
Volunteer gunners. There must be a nucleus of mili- 
tary instructors. 

All Queensland asks for is an Imperial contingent 
of one Captain of Artillery and an officer with a few 
soldiers of the line to drill and instruct our Volunteer 
forces ; that is, to enable the people of this Colony to 
defend themselves. The Government of Queensland 
will find everything but the regimental pay of the 
officers and men, and will make any further contri- 



208 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

bution towards the general defence of the Empire 
which may be agreed upon by the Australian and 
Imperial authorities. 

It is, I believe, the general feeling of the Governors, 
as well as of many of the principal colonists, that 
adequate fixed contributions should have been re- 
served for Naval and Military Defence, when the 
Crown Land revenues were absolutely surrendered in 
1855 to the Australian Parliaments, which then re- 
presented little more than half a million of people. 
Including the sale and lease of lands, and the royalties 
levied in various shapes on the goldfields, the yearly 
net Crown revenue of Australia cannot now be less 
than two millions sterling. Why should not a fair pro- 
portion of this grand patrimony of the British nation 
at large have been set apart for the general defence 
and unity of the British Empire ? I have told the 
Duke of Newcastle that it is probably not too late 
even now to rectify the grievous error which has 
been committed. If the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies were to make an appeal to the patriotism 
and loyalty of the Australians, it would not be diffi- 
cult to induce the several Legislatures to provide, by 
permanent Acts, naval and military contributions pro- 
portionate to the revenue and population of each. 1 
You will recollect that this was the policy which 
Benjamin Franklin suggested to George Grenville 
instead of the fatal Stamp Act. 

1 This 8Uggestion was practically carried out by the Colonial Con- 
ference of 1887. 



LETTER TO MR. GLADSTONE 209 

So again, Sir George Bowen wrote to Mr. Glad- 
stone on August 18, 1862 : 

fc As a Lancashire man yourself, you will be glad 
to hear that the news of the distress in Lancashire 
has evoked warm sympathy in all the Australian 
Colonies. I send you by this mail a Brisbane news- 
paper containing a report of a very enthusiastic 
public meeting held in this capital for the purpose of 
establishing a " Eelief Fund." I was invited to take 
the chair, and I am glad to say that there will be 
sent home a sum of money, very considerable indeed 
in proportion to our existing population, for the 
succour of the distress " indistinctly heard of across 
half the globe," in that " dear mother-country," which 
our colonists regard with the proud sympathies and 
almost passionate love of a common allegiance and 
of a common nationality. It seems as strange to 
Englishmen in Queensland as it would appear to 
Englishmen in Devon or Yorkshire, to be told that 
they ought to be " emancipated " from the rule of 
Queen Victoria ; and strong denunciations are heaped 
on the head of my friend Goldwin Smith, for his pro- 
posals to that effect, by the Australian Press. Most 
colonists tell me that they delight in seeing a few 
soldiers among them, as reminding them of the " Old 
Country," on what Sidney Herbert aptly called " the 
British flag and redcoat principle." Besides, it is 
absolutely necessary for the effective defence of the 
Colonies against external attack, that there should be 
VOL. i. p 



210 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

a few officers in each, to drill the Volunteers and other 
local forces. 

' But I must now pass per saltum from the prairies 
of Northern Australia, and from the coral isles of the 
Pacific, to Downing Street and Carlton House Ter- 
race. While you are reading this letter amid the fog, 
mud, and misery of a London autumn, we shall be 
(as Euripides 1 said of the Athenians) 

act liti \n^nr(WT<'iTov 
a/3jOais flairoi'TE? alOlpO?, 

enjoying the bright and exhilarating atmosphere and 
cloudless skies of an Australian spring, the most 
delicious climate in the world.' 



The result of these appeals was so far successful 
that the colonial forces have improved year by year 
under trained supervision. But Sir G. Bowen never 
lost sight of this subject in any of the Colonies over 
which he successively presided. He pressed it in 
New Zealand, and afterwards in Victoria, where he 
advised (in 1877) the employment of the eminent 
Eoyal Engineer officer, Sir W. Jervois, who recom- 
mended the systematic scheme of fortification for all 
the Australasian Colonies which has now rendered 
their chief ports practically safe against foreign 
attack. And, as he had advised in 1862, the Colonial 
Conference of 1887 agreed that each Colony should 
provide a permanent contribution in aid of the 
common national defence. 2 In a recent letter, Sir 
G. Bowen writes : 

1 Medea, 830. - See above, p. 208. 



FEDERATION OF AUSTRALIA 211 

'What is now most urgently required is the 
Federation of the Australian Colonies in one Domi- 
nion, like that of Canada. Among the many prac- 
tical advantages of such a Federation, not the least 
would be the consolidation of the local forces of each 
Colony into one general fleet and army, under one 
federal command and organisation. For this Federa- 
tion I have always been a strenuous advocate ; as also 
for a future Imperial Federation which would preserve 
the unity of the British Empire. As Mr. W. E. 
Forster believed, a federated British Empire would 
probably form a friendly alliance with the great 
English-speaking Commonwealth across the Atlantic ; 
and the 'world would then see a pax Britannica, far 
transcending what Pliny * styled the immensa Romance 
pads majestas? 

It has been well remarked by a writer in the 
' Quarterly Eeview ' : ' We trust that the great in- 
terests of Australia will ere long become so identified 
with each other that its political amalgamation will be 
solid, enduring, and complete ; and that the mighty 
island-continent may never be aptly symbolised by the 
great composite image which the king of Babylon saw 
in his troubled dreams the head of gold represent- 
ing its riches and splendour, but the legs of iron and 
toes of clay, strength enfeebled by want of coherence, 
and power separated into democratic fragments by 
the violence of faction.' 

1 Pliny, XXVII. 1. 



p L> 



THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 



CHAPTEE XL 

THE NORTHWARD EXPANSION OF QUEENSLAND EXPLORING 
EXPEDITIONS GOVERNOR'S VOYAGE TO CAPE YORK AND 
BACK FOUNDATION OF A NEW SETTLEMENT PUBLIC DINNER 

AT ROCKHAMPTON FOREIGNERS SETTLED IN QUEENSLAND- 
LETTERS TO MR. CARDWELL. 

IT was true, as Sir George Bowen often remarked 
in liis despatches and letters, that, owing to his 
peculiar position as the first Governor of the vast 
new Colony of Queensland, he had more of explora- 
tion and discovery than had fallen to the lot of any 
other Governor. When he assumed the Government 
in 1859, there was no settlement except in the south- 
eastern corner of the great territory altogether 
more than five times the size of the United Kingdom. 
Settlers (fewer than 25,000 in number) were then 
thinly scattered over a space about as large as Great 
Britain. Eockhampton was the most northern settle- 
ment on the coast, and the pastoral stations hardly 
extended beyond the Darling Downs on the west. It 
was, of course, one of the first duties of the new 
Government to explore the remainder of their vast 
dominion. With this object, a number of exploring 
expeditions were fitted out. Mr. Augustus Gregory, 
already well known for his successful journey through 
a large portion of Northern and Nor th-Eas tern Aus- 
tralia, was appointed the first Surveyor-General of 
Queensland. One expedition was sent out under the 



EXPLORING EXPEDITIONS 213 

command of Mr. George Elphinstone Dalrymple, who 
explored the fine territory, larger than Great Bri- 
tain, afterwards known as the Kennedy District, 
and founded as its shipping port the town of Bowen ; 
another was led by Mr. Landsborough, who success- 
fully crossed the continent from the head of the Gulf 
of Carpentaria to the southern boundary of Queens- 
land, and afterwards to Melbourne ; proving the 
existence in Queensland of great tracts of country 
hitherto unknown, but available for pastoral settle- 
ment ; a third was under Messrs. A. and F. Jardine, 
who forced their way, driving their cattle before them, 
through the dense forests and hostile natives of the 
Cape York Peninsula, to the new settlement founded 
in 1862 in Torres Straits. These were the chief expe- 
ditions fitted out by the Government; but many 
adventurous men, in search of fresh country, followed 
them. Full reports of all these and of other similar 
expeditions were forwarded to the Royal Geographical 
Society, and were published in their Transactions. 
Sir Roderick Murchisoii, then the able and energetic 
President, often spoke at the meetings of the Society 
in high eulogy of the exertions of Sir G. Bowen in 
the cause of geographical discovery. In a letter 
of 1875, Sir George wrote : 'I was much pleased by 
my reception at a meeting of the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society. In some remarks that I was called on 
to make, I related how when our Queensland explorer 
Landsborough was told that wool would not grow on 
sheep in hot latitudes, he exclaimed : " Sir, you are 
theorizing. Does not wool grow on negroes in the 
Tropics ?" A propos of this, I reminded my audience 
of the story of the negro preacher in America, who, 



214 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

in a sermon to his black congregation, said : " My 
brethren, the Scriptures tell us "that, at the last day, 
the good Lord will divide the sheep from the goats. 
Now, bless the Lord " (putting his hand on his own 
woolly pate), " we know who wears the wool \ " 

During the eight years of Sir G. Bowen's governor- 
ship, a line of new ports was opened all along the 
eastern coast of Queensland, from Eockhampton to 
Cape York, and also at the head of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria ; and the pastoral settlers overspread the 
entire interior, thus virtually adding to the British 
Empire a territory four times larger than the British 
Isles. As the Governor remarked in one of his 
speeches on this subject : ' Such are the triumphs of 
peaceful progress ; they are victories without injustice 
or bloodshed ; they are conquests not over man, but 
over Nature ; not for this generation only, but for all 
posterity; not for England only, but for all mankind.' 

Among the various exploring expeditions in 
Queensland, that made by Sir George Bowen in 
H.M.S. 'Pioneer' in 1862 was signally important, 
for it led to the founding of the coaling station 
and settlement near Cape York, the value of which 
has been more highly appreciated every year since its 
creation. The various considerations which pointed 
to the necessity of a station in the extreme north of 
Queensland were summed up in a despatch from the 
Governor dated December 9, 1861 : 

' In a naval and military point of view, a post at 
or near Cape York would be most valuable, and its 
importance is daily increasing with the augmentation 



PROPOSED STATION NEAR CAPE YORK 215 

of the commerce passing by this route, especially 
since the establishment of a French Colony and naval 
station at New Caledonia. It has been pointed out 
on high authority, that a small armed steamer with 
a light draught of water (such as one of the gun- 
boats used in the Crimean and China wars), having 
a settlement at Cape York as her point d'appui, would 
command the whole of the commerce between the 
South Pacific and Indian Oceans. By establishing 
a signal post on one of the neighbouring hills, she 
might be warned of the approach of all ships, and 
of their number and character, while, " by making 
herself thoroughly acquainted with the neighbour- 
ing reefs and shoals, she might easily pick out 
tortuous and dangerous channels, which would afford 
her refuge and means of escape from a force superior 
in strength to herself." It is stated that the Admiralty 
intend shortly to increase the naval force on the 
Australian station. If so, it is hoped that a gunboat 
of light draught may be sent out for service at Cape 
York. In time of peace, she might keep up occa- 
sional communication between the proposed new 
settlement and the seat of Government at Brisbane, 
and might complete the surveys and charts of Torres 
Straits and of the Great Barrier Eeef. 

4 In a political point of view, a station at Cape 
York could not fail to extend the influence and 
prestige of Great Britain over the Indian Archipelago, 
while it would form a link between our possessions in 
Australia, India, and China, assure us the possession 



216 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of the north and north-east coasts of the Australian 
continent, " and, as it were, close the ring fence with 
which we have girt the fifth quarter of the globe." 1 

' The foregoing observations are eminently prac- 
tical, and applicable to the present time. It has 
been remarked, however, that we may confidently 
augur for a settlement at Cape York a future destiny 
of a higher and more important character than would 
result from the above considerations alone. Fifty 
years ago the somewhat similar position of Singapore, 
then also a barren promontory, inhabited only by 
wandering savages, was chosen by the genius of Sir 
Stamford Baffles as the future site of a great em- 
porium of commerce and navigation. Now it has 
been said, " the time must ultimately come when that 
great chain of islands, stretching from the east end 
of New Guinea to New Caledonia, shall be brought 
within the region of civilisation and commerce ; and 
when the veil that rests upon New Guinea itself shall 
be raised. Torres Straits will then be the channel 
of the commerce between these regions, as well as 
between the more remote and mighty ones which lie 
beyond them. It will resemble the Straits of Malacca 
in this respect, and another Singapore may be expected 
to rise on its borders, just where the converging streams 
of commerce are compressed into the narrowest and 
closest channel. This must be somewhere about 
Cape York, or the entrance of Endeavour Strait. It 
is here, indeed, if anywhere, that the true analogy is 

1 Voyage of H.M.S. 'Fly,' p. 366. 



PROPOSED STATION NEAR CAPE YORK 217 

to be sought for between Singapore and any point of 
Australia the narrowest strait, where, from physical 
necessity the widespread commerce of neighbouring 
seas must inevitably converge the pass through 
which one of the great highways of the world must 
necessarily run." l 

6 Your Grace will perceive from the enclosed 
Minute of Council, that the Government of Queens- 
land will be willing, with the sanction of the Colonial 
Legislature, to undertake the formation and manage- 
ment of a station at Cape York, and to support the 
civil establishment there, on conditions which will 
entail no trouble on the Imperial Government. Those 
conditions cannot, I think, be considered as other- 
wise than liberal and reasonable, and as strong proofs 
of the public spirit and of the attachment to the 
parent State, with which I have ever found the mem- 
bers of the Queensland Parliament to be animated. 
For this Colony, as such, has manifestly no direct 
or immediate interest in the foundation of a settle- 
ment at Cape York, which is twelve hundred miles 
from Brisbane, that is, further than Gibraltar is from 
London.' 

The Home Government was fully prepared to 
entertain the proposals of the Queensland Govern- 
ment ; and the Admiralty agreed that the Governor 
and the Commodore in command of the Australian 
Station should together proceed to Cape York. The 
following despatch describes their successful voyage ; 

1 Ibid. pp. 309-10. 



218 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : November 3, 1862. 

My Lord Duke, 

With reference to previous correspondence re- 
specting the projected station at Cape York, I have 
the honour to report that, in obedience to his in- 
structions from the Admiralty, Commodore Burnett, 
C.B., commanding the Queen's Naval Forces in 
Australia, received me on board Her Majesty's ship 
' Pioneer,' in More ton Bay, on August 27th ult., for the 
purpose of selecting, in conjunction with himself, 
the most eligible site for the proposed settlement. 

Falling in with the south-east trade, the prevailing 
wind during the greater portion of the year on the 
east coast of Australia, the ' Pioneer ' made a good 
passage under canvas inside the Great Barrier Reef, 
to Booby Island in Torres Straits, the furthest limit 
to the north-west of the jurisdiction of Queensland ; 
where we anchored on the evening of September 9th. 
Here we deposited an iron case for the letters gener- 
ally left on this rock by the passing ships of all 
nations, to be conveyed to their respective addresses 
by succeeding vessels. 

On September 10th we commenced our return 
voyage under steam, passing through Endeavour 
Strait, having passed through the Prince of Wales 
Channel on our outward track. From the 10th to 
the 22nd September the ' Pioneer ' was at anchor near 
Cape York, principally in Evans Bay and Port Albany. 



GOVERNOR'S VOYAGE TO CAPE YORK 219 

During these twelve days Commodore Burnett and I 
carefully examined, both by land and sea, the north- 
eastern point of the Australian continent, and its 
immediate vicinity. After full consideration, we 
both came to the conclusion that the proper site for 
the projected settlement is at Port Albany, for the 
nautical and other reasons so fully and clearly stated 
in Commodore Burnett's report to the Admiralty, of 
which I enclose a copy, with which he has furnished 
me. I beg to take this opportunity of recording 
my sense of Commodore Burnett's personal atten- 
tion to myself while on board Her Majesty's ship 
' Pioneer,' and also of the zeal and ability which he 
devoted to the important objects of our expedition. 
He has received the thanks of the Government of 
Queensland, as will appear from the enclosed Minute 
of the Executive Council, of which I beg that a copy 
may be transmitted to the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty. A piece of ground will, at the 
request of Commodore Burnett, be reserved at Port 
Albany as an arsenal and coal depot for the use of 
the Eoyal Navy. 

It will be seen that Port Albany combines almost 
all the advantages required for such a settlement as 
that proposed. Close to the landing-place there is 
good and safe anchorage, sheltered from all winds, 
for a limited number of vessels, while whole fleets 
might ride safely at anchor, at no great distance, in 
Evans Bay, during the south-east monsoon, or in 
Newcastle Bay during the north-west monsoon. On 



220 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

Albany Island, and on the opposite mainland, from 
which it is separated by a deep channel only one-third 
of a mile broad, there is also abundant pasturage 
for sheep, cattle, and horses, large tracts of soil 
suitable for gardens and for general cultivation, 
especially of cotton, sugar, and other tropical pro- 
ductions, plenty of timber for building and firewood, 
as also of stone and of coral for lime. From the 
peninsular position of Cape York and its neighbour- 
hood, the land receives the full influence of every 
breeze, hence the temperature is remarkably cool 
for the tropics, and healthy for Europeans. The 
thermometer was never above 85 during our expedi- 
tion. Above all, we found, though our visit was at 
the close of an unusually dry season, a plentiful and 
evidently never-failing supply of fresh water, both 
on Albany Island and on the neighbouring mainland. 
Commodore Burnett's report will be found very 
minute on this vital point, respecting which preceding 
accounts had been vague and unsatisfactory. Near 
the north-east point of Albany Island, a rill of pure 
water, fringed with the flowering shrubs and grasses 
of Australia, trickles over the cliff into a small 
natural reservoir, which was named the ' Fountain of 
Arethusa,' from its close resemblance to the Homeric 
fountain in Ithaca. 

It is proposed that the settlement shall be placed, 
in the first instance, near the anchorage at Port 
Albany. It will be named Somerset, in acknow- 
ledgment of the readiness with which the present 



SITE OF THE NEW SETTLEMENT 221 

First Lord of the Admiralty, the Duke of Somerset, 
has lent his aid to an undertaking of such great 
importance to the interests of the British Empire in 
Australia. If a better site should be discovered 
hereafter in the same quarter, the Government es- 
tablishment will be removed thither. 1 

Very friendly relations were established and main- 
tained with the small tribe of aborigines frequenting 
the neighbourhood of Cape York. I had provided 
myself with a number of hatchets, knives, fish-hooks, 
and other useful presents for them. They daily came 
off to the ship in their own canoes, bartering fish, 
turtle, tortoise-shells, &c., for biscuits and tobacco, 
and were often visited by us in their camps on shore. 
We were enabled to communicate with them by the 
help of the excellent vocabulary of their dialect printed 
in the appendix to the ' Voyage of H.M. Surveying Ship 
" Eattlesnake." ' Commodore Burnett agrees with me 
in the opinion that a party of some twenty marines, 
or armed police, will be amply sufficient for the pro- 
tection of the new settlement. 

The physical characteristics of these aborigines at 
Cape York differ in no essential respect from those of 
the same race elsewhere ; but their arms, canoes, and 
other implements are of a somewhat better descrip- 
tion, owing, probably, to their occasional intercourse 

1 Several years afterwards, when regular steam communication 
had begun, the settlement was removed from Albany to Thursday 
Island ; which latter is more directly in the track of vessels passing 
through Torres Strait, and is somewhat nearer the recently acquired 
British possessions in New Guinea. 



222 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

with the inhabitants of the islands in Torres Straits, 
who belong for the most part to the Papuan or New 
Guinea race a people of higher natural endow- 
ments. 

During the voyage to and from Cape York, the 
' Pioneer ' was frequently anchored off various points 
of the north-east coast of Australia. We landed and 
examined the most remarkable sites, which will, pro- 
bably, ere long be occupied by new settlements, since 
the tide of colonisation in Queensland is sweeping 
onward at the rate of about two hundred miles each 
year. One of the most important points which we 
visited is the plain at the mouth of the Endeavour 
Eiver, up which we rowed for several miles. This is 
classic ground to every Englishman, and especially to 
every English seaman, and to every Australian settler, 
for it was here that Captain Cook, in 1770, careened 
and repaired his ship, after the damages sustained 
during his long and perilous navigation among the 
coral reefs and unknown shoals of the east coast of 
Australia, of which he was the first discoverer. It 
would have cheered the heart of the illustrious navi- 
gator, amid the cruel distresses and anxieties which 
he has so pathetically described, if he could have fore- 
told that, within less than a century, in that ' Great 
Southern Land ' on the shores of which he first sug- 
gested a settlement, a British Empire would have 
arisen, already far surpassing, in wealth, in trade, 
and in all the arts which promote and adorn civilisa- 
tion, those American Colonies which in 1770 were 



COAST OF NORTHERN QUEENSLAND 223 

on the eve of throwing off their allegiance to the 
mother- country. 1 

The ' Great Barrier Eeef ' of coral, and the chain 
of islands which fringe for nearly one thousand miles 
the north-eastern coast of Queensland, form a natural 
breakwater, securing a smooth and delightful navi- 
gation, by what is called the ' inner route,' for vessels 
passing through Torres Straits. The establishment 
of a line of steamers between Australia and Singapore 
by this route is clearly only a question of time, the 
solution of which will be accelerated by the establish- 
ment of a settlement and coal depot near Cape York. 2 

The general aspect of the coast along which we 
sailed on. our outward and homeward tracks, for nearly 
three thousand miles, resembles that of Southern 
Italy and Greece. The mountain ranges of Northern 
Queensland have much of the picturesque outline 
and rich colouring of the Apennines in Calabria, 
and of the hills of Euboea and of the Peloponnesus, 
while the groups of islands through which we 
threaded our way often reminded Commodore Bur- 
nett and myself of the isles of the -ZEgean and Ionian 

1 The trade of the thirteen original American Colonies did not 
amount in 1770 to three millions sterling. In 1860, the trade of the 
single Australian Colony of Victoria exceeded twenty-five millions. In 
one of his Voyages, Captain Cook has recorded, with regret and pain, 
his witnessing the departure of one of the expeditions against the 
revolted American Colonies (Third Voyage, Vol. I. p. 9). A flourish- 
ing settlement, appropriately named Cooktown, and already, in 1889, 
containing several thousand inhabitants, has grown up near the mouth 
of the Endeavour River. 

2 This prediction was soon fulfilled, and a line of mail steamers 
has been running through Torres Straits for many years past (1889). 



224 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

seas. If Queensland be without the classical and 
historical associations of Greece, it enjoys a more 
luxuriant vegetation and a more salubrious climate, 
and possesses, of course, a territory more than forty 
times larger than that of little Hellas. 1 



The happy results of the occupation of Cape 
York have been since manifested in many ways, and 
not least in the securing the possession of Thursday 
Island, and thus holding the Torres Straits with a 
commanding naval and military position in case of 
war. 

On his return voyage Sir George Bowen visited 
some of the principal settlements in Northern Queens- 
land. 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : November 5, 1862. 

My Lord Duke, 

In continuation of former despatches, and with 
reference especially to the report of my first tour 
of inspection in the northern and central districts 
of Queensland, I have now the honour to transmit 
copies of the addresses presented to me on my recent 
official visits to the four northern harbours of Port 
Denison, Eockhampton, Gladstone, and Maryborough. 
Subjoined are my replies. 

My reception by all classes of the community was 

1 There are 678,000 square miles in Queensland, and 15,000 in the 
kingdom of Greece. 



VISIT TO POUT DEXISOX 225 

everywhere very cordial, and nothing could be more 
gratifying than the marks which met my eye on all 
sides of rapid and solid progress during the two years 
which have elapsed since my former visit. 

At that period, Eockhampton, founded on the river 
Fitzroy in 1858, was the farthest township towards 
the north. I reported at the close of the year 1860, 
that I was then about to open, in the recently dis- 
covered harbour of Port Denison, in Edgcumbe Bay, 
a shipping-place for the newly proclaimed pastoral 
district of Kennedy. Almost before my despatch 
could have reached the Colonial Office, the pioneer 
squatters were driving their flocks and herds before 
them into the interior ; and a flourishing township, 
called by the first settlers after my name, was rising 
on the hitherto unexplored beach of Port Denison. 
Already, after the lapse of less than two years, the 
wave of pastoral settlement has overflowed the entire 
Kennedy District, and has even surmounted the 
dividing range or watershed of the York Penin- 
sula ; for cattle already feed above four hundred 
miles due north of Eockhampton, in latitude 19 S., 
on the banks of the rivers which run, not into the 
Pacific, but into the Gulf of Carpentaria. In other 
words, during the short space of eighteen months, our 
pastoral settlers have practically added to the British 
Empire and pushed on the margin of Christianity 
and civilisation over a territory as extensive as Great 
Britain itself. 

The first white men landed at Port Denison in 

VOL. I. Q 



22G THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

1860, fighting their way through a tribe of hostile 
savages. 1 A township has already sprung up there, 
as towns spring up in Australia, almost with the 
rapidity of the prophet's gourd. In its inns and 
private houses, Commodore Burnett and I found most 
of the comforts and many of the luxuries of England ; 
its inhabitants have, indeed, already imported our 
national games. Scarcely had H.M.S. ' Pioneer,' 
which conveyed me thither on my return from Cape 
York, cast anchor in the Bay, when friendly challenges 
were addressed to the officers and crew, from the 
'Bowen Cricket Club,' to play a match on their 
ground on shore, and from the ' Bo wen Boat Club ' to 
row a race on the waters of the harbour. The ' Pio- 
neers ' w^ere easily defeated in one innings at cricket, 
and had a tough struggle to gain the victory even 011 
their own element over the amateur boatmen. I be- 
lieve that your Grace will not deem too trivial any 
details which may enable you to form a picture in 
your own mind of the life of our countrymen in this 
remote corner of tropical Australia, sixteen thousand 
miles from the parent State, and eight hundred miles 
distant from the seat of the Colonial Government at 
Brisbane. 

Most of the principal settlers in North-eastern 
Australia have been attracted from Victoria and New 
South Wales by the more liberal land legislation 
of Queensland. There is, however, a strong sprink- 

1 See the Report of Mr. G. E. Dalrymple transmitted with my 
despatch of December 8, 1800. 



FOREIGN SETTLERS IN QUEENSLAND 227 

ling among them of retired officers of the army and 
navy, weary of the routine of a mess-room or ward- 
room, of Oxford and Cambridge men preferring an 
adventurous life in the open air to the indoor labours 
of a profession, and of other gentlemen of birth and 
education recently arrived from England. I also found 
among the most prosperous squatters and merchants 
of Northern Queensland, numerous foreigners, several 
of them political exiles from their native lands on 
the continent of Europe, but all now naturalised 
British subjects, and firm in their loyalty to the 
Queen, and to their adopted country. For example, 
a Dane and a Dutchman are among the most suc- 
cessful squatters in the Kennedy district. Again, 
at the dinner given in my honour by the Mayor 
and Corporation of Eockhampton, the chief town of 
Northern Queensland, three of the toasts were pro- 
posed by foreigners. One of these gentlemen was a 
French Kepublican, a member of the ' Extreme Left ' 
in the National Assembly of 1848, who found it neces- 
sary to emigrate after the Coup d'etat of 1851, feeling 
(as he himself told me) that his only choice lay be- 
tween Australia and French Guiana. ' M. le Gouver- 
neur, cela vaut mieux que Cayenne, he remarked to 
me, pointing to the arrangements of the tables, quite 
as good as those of a public dinner at a country town 
in England, and laid out in a handsome public hall, 
erected almost on the very spot where in 1858, only 
four years ago, the first white men who settled on the 
banks of the river Fitzroy saw a tribe of aborigines 

u -2 



223 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

feasting on human flesh, and dancing their wild 
' corobborees.' Another toast was proposed by a 
German, formerly an officer in the Schleswig-Holstein 
army, who fled into exile after the victory of the 
Danes at Idstedt. A third toast was entrusted to the 
cadet of a noble family at Corfu, whom I recollected 
as by no means distinguished, when an Ionian citizen, 
for his attachment to the British Protectorate, but 
who now, as a naturalised British subject, is loud 
in his loyalty to the Queen. When these gentlemen 
were requested by the Chairman (the Mayor of Eock- 
hampton) to entertain the company after dinner by 
singing the national songs of their respective coun- 
tries, the French Eepublican sang the ' Marseillaise ' 
with great vigour. The German officer gave the 
revolutionary song of the Duchies ; while the Ionian 
noble poured forth Count Salomos' beautiful ' Hymn 
to Liberty' (3e y^wpt^w atro rrjv /cdi//t), wherein are some 
uncomplimentary allusions to the British Protectorate, 
which in Northern Australia were intelligible (I need 
scarcely say) to my ears alone. These songs appeared 
to be sung with much the same sentiment with which 
an Englishman of the present day repeats Scotch 
Jacobite poetry. All the three foreigners afterwards 
joined in a chant of ' God save the Queen,' declaring 
that they now regard that as their only national 
anthem, and that they yield in loyalty to no one 
among their fellow colonists the native-born British 
subjects around them. I found, on inquiry, that al- 
most nil the foreigners to whom I have alluded have 



PUBLIC DINNER AT ROCKHAMPTON 229 

married in the Colony, and that their children can 
speak no language but English. Is not their position 
a strong proof of what has been called the ' assimilat- 
ing power of the Anglo-Saxon race ' ? 

It appears to be the opinion of many persons in 
England that the duties of an Australian Governor are 
merely social and ornamental ; that he ' reigns ' but 
should not ' govern.' Certainly my experience here 
would go far to show that such a theory is decidedly 
opposed to the views and wishes of many of the Aus- 
tralians themselves, I have often found it difficult 
to confine myself strictly to the guardianship of Im- 
perial interests, and to avoid that authoritative inter- 
ference in the internal concerns of the Colony to 
which bodies of the colonists have frequently urged 
me. It seems, indeed, probable that the Governor of 
a Colony, in which all antagonism to the home authori- 
ties has been removed by the full concession of local 
self-government, can generally, if he performs his 
part well, exercise a more genuine and commanding 
influence than the Governor of a Crown Colony. 



Before concluding this sketch of the northward 
expansion of Queensland, portions of two letters 
written by Sir George Bowen a couple of years later 
may be quoted in illustration of the progress of the 
northern settlements : 



230 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

To the Eight Honourable Edward Card-well, M.P., 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. 1 

Government House, Brisbane : April 17, 1865. 

My dear Sir, 

In my letter to you by the last mail I mentioned 
tliat the first land sale at the new township named 
Card well was about to take place, and that speculators 
would l)e present from both Brisbane and Sydney. 
The upset price was 20/. per acre ; but the competi- 
tion was so active that all the lots put up to auction 
were sold at an average price of GOO/, per acre. 
In the same week took place also the first land sale 
at the new settlement at Cape York. Here again 
the upset price was 20/. per acre, but the price 
realised averaged only 150Z. per acre. This result 
means that the speculators in land consider that Card- 
well, from its central position and other advantages, 
has four times a better chance than Somerset of 
becoming one day the capital of a new Colony. The 
sums realised at the first land sales will fully repay 
my Government for the heavy expense of founding 
these two new settlements at so great a distance from 
Brisbane. It was certainly a grand invention of late 
years to sell instead of giving away, as formerly, the 
land in our Colonies, and thus to make colonisation 
pay for itself. I think the ' grant system ' alone was 
known to the ancients. Those who talk of the art of 
colonisation being one of the artes perditce would 

1 Afterwards Viscount Cardxvcll. He succeeded the Duke of New- 
castle at the Colonial Office. 



LETTER TO MR. CARDWELL 231 

seem to liave forgotten that English colonisation in 
Australia alone has spread, during the last twenty 
years, over a far greater space than the aggregate 
of all the Greek and Eoman colonies put together. 

The patriotic and inspiriting remarks which you 
made about our Colonial Empire when your consti- 
tuents at Oxford entertained you in last January, have 
been copied into the leading Queensland and other 
Australian journals. They have made a most favour- 
able impression, and have done much good. A young 
and rising Colony feels the same pleasure and en- 
couragement at praise from a leading statesman at 
home, as a young man of talent and ambition feels 
at any mark of approval from great and eminent 
personages. Such speeches as that which you re- 
cently delivered at Oxford are a ' cheap defence ' of 
the Empire. At one of the Australian dinners in 
London, the Duke of Newcastle called Queensland 
4 an infant in years, but a giant in strength, in efforts, 
and in aspirations.' These words are often quoted 
here, and will probably (like some of the sayings of 
Burke and Chatham about the old North American 
Colonies) long survive. 

To the Same. 

Government House, Brisbane : November 18, 1865. 

My dear Sir, 

My despatch herewith gives a full account of my 
recent official visit to all our ports from Brisbane 
to Cardwell, a distance of one thousand miles, and 



232 THE FOUNDING OP' QUEENSLAND 

shows the remarkable progress of this Colony. I 
was more than ever struck with the beauty of the 
situation of your town. The mountain range behind 
it, and the chain of hills which forms the backbone 
of Hinchinbrook Island in front of it, average from 
2,500 to 4,000 feet in height, and are clothed with 
magnificent forests almost up to their peaks. They 
vividly recall the picturesque outline and rich colour- 
ing of the mountains of Italy and Greece. The 
channel which divides Hinchinbrook Island from 
the mainland reminds me much of the Euripus be- 
tween Euboea and Boeotia. The town of Cardwell 
is rising in a position analogous to that of Ther- 
mopylae, that is at the north end of this Australian 
Euripus, where the mountains approach and slope 
down into the sea. 

On his discovery, in 1770, of the eastern part of 
Australia, Captain Cook named the more prominent 
features of the coast after the chief English states- 
men of his day. Thus he named Eockingham Bay 
after Lord Eockingham, the patron of Burke, and 
Cape Sandwich and Hinchinbrook Island in honour 
of Lord Sandwich, then the First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty. It will be seen that in the geographical 
nomenclature of Queensland I have followed to some 
extent the precedent set by the great navigator. 
Thus the town called after you will perpetuate your 
name in Australia : 



-nomen 



Hespcrid in magnd, si qua ea est gloria, signat. 



LETTER FROM MR. CARD WELL 233 

So, too, I may say with Virgil, 1 

Et nunc servat honos sedem tuus. 



In reply to the above letter, Mr. Card well wrote : 
* I am very proud to have nomen Hesperid in magnd ; 
and am much obliged to you for conferring on me a 
similar honour to that conferred in Virgil on Caieta, 
the Nurse of JEneas. But I feel that your great and 
vigorous Colony stands in no need of nursing ' ! 

1 Virgil, &n. VII. 3-5. 



234 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 



CHAPTER XII. 

DISSOLUTION OP THE FIRST PARLIAMENT REASONS FOR IT 
THE SECOND PARLIAMENT THE FIRST RAILWAYS LETTER 
TO MR. GLADSTONE THE ' TIMES ' AND 'EDINBURGH REVIEW' 
ON QUEENSLAND TESTIMONY OF THE COLONIAL PRESS. 

THE earlier years of Sir George Bowen's administra- 
tion in Queensland were naturally the most momen- 
tous. In founding States, as in beginning everything 
else, cest le premier pas qui coiite ; and so successfully 
had the first step been made, that the subsequent pro- 
gress was almost monotonously smooth and regular. 
The Home Government had shown its appreciation of 
the Governor's services by promoting him from the 
Commandership to the Grand Cross of St. Michael 
and St. George. The Queenslanders testified their 
satisfaction in numerous addresses, and by adopting 
the measures which the Governor and his Ministers 
recommended. Everything in the machinery of the 
State worked with singular ease ; and such differences 
of opinion as must always arise among men of inde- 
pendent character in no degree impaired the general 
good feeling and practical efficiency of the Council 
and Assembly. The most praiseworthy of legislatures 
must die, however, sooner or later ; and in 1863 the 
first Parliament of Queensland entered on its last 
session. It was dissolved rather before the expiration 
of its natural life, for reasons which are fully ex- 
plained in the subjoined despatch. 



REASONS FOR THE DISSOLUTION 235 

To the Duke of Newcastle. 

Government House, Brisbane : June 15, 1863. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to report that, on the 22nd 
ultimo, by the advice of my responsible Ministers, I 
dissolved the first Legislative Assembly of Queens- 
land. 

Soon after the commencement of the annual 
session of Parliament for 1863, it became evident 
that an appeal to the country would shortly become 
unavoidable. The Assembly had been elected on the 
first establishment of the Colony, and, according to 
the provisions of the Constitution Act, for five years. 
It was already in its fifth session, and it was argued, 
both in and out of Parliament, that a legislative 
body chosen in 1860, when our population was 
under twenty-five thousand, could scarcely be held 
to adequately represent the Colony in 1863, when 
our population exceeds fifty thousand souls. The 
statistical register, moreover, proved that during 
the same interval our trade and revenue, as well 
as our population, had more than doubled ; and 
it was contended that, seeing the very rapid and 
solid progress of this young community, a trien- 
nial Parliament in Queensland was practically more 
than equivalent to even a decennial Parliament in 
England. 

Matters were brought to a crisis owing to the 
introduction by the Government of a Bill to authorise 
the construction, by means of a loan, of a trunk 



236 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

railway leading from the head of the navigation of 
the river Brisbane towards the interior of the Colony. 
The incessant rains and heavy floods of the earlier 
part of this year had almost entirely suspended, dur- 
ing several months, all traffic between, the ports 
on the coast and the towns and pastoral stations in 
the inland districts. The existing tracks became im- 
passable for bullock drays, and the squatters could 
neither send down their wool nor bring up their 
supplies. Under these circumstances, it was very 
generally felt that the improvement of the internal 
communication had become an object of urgent 
necessity. The Government, moreover, had received 
a proposal for the construction of a light railway on 
the American model, at a rate not exceeding four 
thousand pounds (4,000/.) per mile thatis. x at a rate 
fully as cheap, if not cheaper, than that at which 
ordinary macadamised roads can be made in a country 
subject to be deluged by almost tropical rains, and 
where labour of all kinds is very dear. 

The Ministry proposed to Parliament to sanction 
a loan of nearly a million sterling, chiefly for the 
purpose of constructing the trunk railway referred to 
above, and of extending the electric telegraph from 
Brisbane to the northern ports of the Colony, and 
thence to a point near the head of the Gulf of Car- 
pentaria, where it would ultimately meet the pro- 
jected international line connecting Australia with 
Asia and Europe. Many politicians of all parties, 
however, considered that the Legislature would not 



STATE OF PARTIES IN THE ASSEMBLY 237 

be justified in saddling the community at large with a 
debt of this amount until the public should have had 
an opportunity of pronouncing its opinion upon the 
new policy. On this ground, strengthened, of course 
(as in all representative bodies), by a variety of party 
and personal feelings, several gentlemen, not usually 
found to act together, united in opposing the Kail- 
way Bill ; which was carried, on its second reading in 
the Assembly, only by the casting vote of the Speaker. 
Mr. Herbert and his colleagues then advised me to 
dissolve ; and I felt, after mature reflection, that no 
other course was open to me. Over and above the 
considerations already enumerated, it seemed not un- 
reasonable that the Ministers who had carried on the 
Government of the Colony ever since its first esta- 
blishment, and during the most critical period of its 
history, should have an opportunity of appealing to 
the electors before surrendering their places to new 
men. Moreover, such was the state of parties in the 
late Assembly, that it could hardly be said that there 
was any organised Opposition ready to assume office 
with any prospect of retaining it, even during the 
very brief term of ministerial life which is usual in 
most of the Australian Colonies. 

The Parliament was accordingly prorogued with 
a view to an immediate appeal to the country ; but I 
was requested to delay for a few hours the formal 
dissolution, as both Houses were desirous to attend 
once more in a body the annual levee held by all 
Governors in honour of the Queen's birthday. At 



238 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

the conclusion of that ceremony, I addressed the 
Legislature in the following words : 

4 Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Gentlemen of both 
Houses, In taking leave of the first Parliament of 
Queensland, I should not do justice to my own feel- 
ings if I were not to take this opportunity of express- 
ing my deep sense of your cordial co-operation on all 
occasions with myself, as the representative of the 
Queen, and of the signal services which you have 
rendered to this Colony by much wise and moderate 
legislation. It is easy to foresee that the first Parlia- 
ment will fill an honourable place in the annals of 
Queensland, long after all party feelings of the present 
day shall have been forgotten.' 

I submit that these brief remarks were natural 
in my position, and cannot fairly be accused of ex- 
aggeration. For it will be remembered that Queens- 
land is distinguished from all other British Colonies 
in two remarkable points. In the first place, it has 
been established and organised without any cost 
to the mother-country ; and, in the second place, 
this is the only Colony which was ever started in 
political life with full parliamentary and responsible 
government from the beginning, and Avitli almost 
absolute powers of control and disposal over a 
territory more than three times as large as France. 
In all our other principal dependencies, parlia- 
mentary government was adopted only after the 
community had already reached a comparatively 
advanced stage, when the various departments <>!' 



HIGH CHARACTER OF THE FIRST PARLIAMENT 231) 

the public service had been filled with experienced 
officials, and when a body of public men, inured to 
public life and fit to guide the deliberations of a 
constitutional legislature, had been formed in the 
old Councils and Assemblies. On the other hand, in 
Queensland, on its separation from New South Wales, 
there was scarcely a single man of practical experi- 
ence in either official or political life. A population 
of less than twenty-five thousand souls, dispersed over 
an area far exceeding that of most of the States of 
Europe, was suddenly called upon to provide mate- 
rials, not only for a responsible Executive Government, 
but for two Houses of Parliament. Most reflecting 
men in Australia held this to be, if a highly interesting, 
still a somewhat rash experiment. Yet it is now, I 
believe, generally admitted that the small body of 
graziers and merchants, of which two classes the first 
Parliament of Queensland was mainly composed, 
have falsified the predictions of their failure. Led 
by several gentlemen of acknowledged ability, they 
have shown much practical good sense, and an honest 
and intelligent zeal for the public welfare ; while the 
laws which they have enacted will certainly bear 
comparison with the legislation of the other Austra- 
lian Colonies. 



The second Parliament, elected from a much 
larger constituency, proved as practical as its pre- 
decessor, and being recruited from a wider area was 
fully alive to the importance of the extension of rail- 



240 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

way and telegraph, communication. The Main Trunk 
Eailway was immediately authorised, and the con- 
tract for its construction was undertaken by the great 
firm of Brassey & Co., who entertained the Governor 
and Parliament at a sumptuous luncheon to celebrate 
the opening of the first section. Many congratula- 
tory speeches were then delivered ; the Governor 
remarking that ' the Brasseys might almost apply to 
themselves what ^Eneas says in Virgil l : 

Qua regio in terris nostri non plena laboris ? ' 

Subsequent sessions of Parliament approved the 
extension of railways to the north and south, while 
telegraph wires were soon stretching from one end of 
Queensland to the other. When Sir George Bowen 
visited Eockhampton in September 1865 to turn the 
first sod of the Northern Eailway, which was to do for 
the northern districts of Queensland what the Main 
Trunk had already begun to effect for the southern 
districts, he said in reply to the address of the Cor- 
poration : 

'When I first saw Eockhampton, in 1860, it was 
a small hamlet of wooden huts with scarcely five 
hundred inhabitants, who had recently settled down 
in the primeval wilderness. I recollect well that 
what Lord Macaulay has termed " a rude kind of 
patriarchal justice, which was, however, better than 
no justice at all," was then administered in a canvas 
tent whenever a magistrate might happen to attend. 
On my second visit, in 1862, your population had 
trebled, and the hamlet had grown up into a thriv- 

1 &n. I. 460. 



THE NORTHERN RAILWAY 241 

ing township, with about fifteen hundred inhabitants. 
Now, on this my third visit, I learn with much plea- 
sure that your population has again more than 
trebled during the brief interval that has elapsed 
since my second visit. I see around me a flourishing 
town of nearly five thousand inhabitants, with public 
buildings of every kind churches, schools, a me- 
chanics' institute, a post office, a telegraph office, and 
numerous banks and warehouses. I find a Judge of 
the Supreme Court, surrounded by the leading mem- 
bers of the Colonial Bar, holding the assizes for 
Northern Queensland in a commodious and substan- 
tial court-house ; I am welcomed by a Mayor and 
Aldermen ; and I remark with great satisfaction in 
the wharves which line your noble river, in the well- 
ordered streets of your town, and in other signs of 
material prosperity, the rapid progress of those ad- 
vantages which municipal self-government, when 
prudently and vigorously administered, is certain to 
confer. 

' I entirely agree with you, Mr. Mayor and gentle- 
men, in attaching high importance to the great pub- 
lic work which is to be initiated this day. It is 
acknowledged in every quarter that the most press- 
ing need of the entire Colony is the improvement of 
our internal communications. With this object, the 
Colonial Parliament has decided that two trunk lines 
of railway shall be carried into the interior one for 
the southern districts, from the head of the naviga- 
tion of Moreton Bay, and one for the northern dis- 

vL. i. E 



242 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

tricts, from the head of the navigation of Keppel Bay. 
It is well known that in 1862, in consequence of my 
earnest representations, the Imperial Government 
annexed to our northern territory an additional area, 
larger than the United Kingdom, and that, during 
several years, I have spared no exertion to push on 
two enterprises calculated to be of great advantage to 
the interests of the north. I mean the establishment of 
steam communication through Torres Straits, and the 
extension of the electric telegraph from Bockhamp- 
ton to our north-western frontier, where it will meet 
the international line which will ultimately connect 
Australia with Asia and Europe. Both these projects 
received the sanction of the Colonial Legislature in 
its last session, and both will be carried into execu- 
tion forthwith by my Ministers.' 



A letter written immediately after this northern 
tour, gives Sir George Bowen's further impressions of 
what he saw : 

To the Eight Honourable W. E. Gladstone, M.P. 

Government House, Brisbane : November 18, 18G5. 

My dear Sir, 

You will probably feel some interest in the con- 
dition and progress of the beautifully situated town 
in Queensland of which you are the godfather. I 
venture, therefore, to enclose a copy of the addresses 
presented to me on my recent official tour of inspec- 
tion to the northern districts of this Colony, including 



LETTER TO MR. GLADSTONE 243 

an address from the Mayor of Gladstone, and another 
from the miners on the neighbouring goldfields. 
You will see that in my reply to the Mayor of 
your town, I quoted from a speech recently delivered 
by you at Liverpool. The present Mayor of Glad- 
stone is proud of being also a Lancashire man. 

I have just returned from this cruise of 2,000 
miles, all in the waters of Queensland. I was 
received with great cordiality at every seaport, 
especially by the Gladstonians, and also by the 
4 diggers ' on the goldfields in the vicinity, who in- 
vited me to a public banquet given in a large tent in 
the centre of the ' diggings.' The dinner, wines, and 
speeches were all equally good. You are doubtless 
aware that Australian gold-mining has now become 
a regular pursuit, without the recklessness and tur- 
bulence of former years. The deputation of the 
mining body who had been elected by their fellows 
to act as my hosts were all evidently men of sense 
and education. I am confident that you will also 
learn with interest that the Queensland Parliament, 
on my recommendation, has adopted in this Colony 
those Acts which you have recently passed through 
the Imperial Parliament for the improvement and 
extension of the Government savings banks, and for 
the granting annuities and life assurances on the 
security of the public revenue, and for ameliorating 
in other ways the condition of the working classes. 
You will see from the enclosed copy of my proroga- 
tion speech that I alluded to this subject in closing 

R 2 



244 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

the session for 1865. From the concluding para- 
graph of the same speech you will learn the wonder- 
fully rapid, but solid progress of Queensland during 
the six years of my administration. 

At the close of this year's session, both Houses 
presented me with addresses, voted without a single 
dissentient voice, in which after thanking me in 
warm terms for the services which they are so in- 
dulgent as to believe that I have rendered to this 
Colony, they assure me that 'your Excellency's 
prudent zeal for the interests and welfare of Queens- 
land have secured not only the respect due to the 
office which your Excellency fills, but also our per- 
sonal regard and gratitude.' This is a gratifying 
testimonial from the representatives of the people 
whom I have governed for six years. I need scarcely 
remind you that Queensland is distinguished in two 
remarkable points from all other British Colonies. 
(1) It was started with parliamentary government 
full-blown from the beginning. (2) It has been 
founded and organised without the cost of a shilling 
to the mother-country. (3) The Queenslanders take 
annually at the rate of about 22/. per head (a far 
larger proportion than is taken in any other part of 
the world) of English manufactures and other pro- 
duce of the British Isles. I submit that these facts 
ought to make this Colony popular in the House of 
Commons. 



STATISTICS OF PROGRESS 245 

The conclusion of the prorogation speech referred 
to in the foregoing letter contains the following satis- 
factory statement : 

'Since the establishment of Queensland in De- 
cember 1859 our European population has increased 
from less than 25,000 to above 90,000 ; that is, it has 
been augmented nearly fourfold, while our revenue 
and our trade (including imports and exports) have 
been more than trebled. During the same short 
period, cotton, sugar, and tobacco have been added 
to our list of staple products ; a line of new ports 
has been opened along our eastern seaboard from 
Keppel Bay to Cape York, a distance of a thousand 
miles ; while pastoral occupation has spread over 
an additional area at least four times larger than 
that of the United Kingdom. In 1859 our settlers 
had hardly advanced beyond the Darling Downs to 
the west, or beyond Eockhampton to the north. 
Now, in 1865, there are stations 700 miles to the 
w r est of Brisbane and 800 miles to the north of 
Eockhampton. These facts, derived from the official 
statistics, cannot fail to be interesting and instructive 
to our fellow countrymen at home, while they must 
be to you, as they are to me, a subject of honest 
pride and of devout thankfulness.' 

Commenting on this striking summary, the ' Times ' 
remarked (December 1, 1865) : 'In the earlier days 
of Australian colonisation it was supposed that the 
pastoral pursuits of the Colonies which lie within the 



246 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

temperate zone could no longer be prosecuted with 
success in latitudes lying within the Tropics, except in 
the case of some tableland raised a great height above 
the sea. This opinion continued to prevail until all 
the southern country having been taken up, pastoral 
enterprise must have ceased to extend itself unless 
the warmer regions of the north were invaded. To 
this happy necessity are due the rise and progress of 
the Colony of Queensland, which has not only come 
into existence under circumstances unforeseen and 
exceptional, but may fairly claim to be at this 
moment the model Colony among all our settlements. 
The statements of the increase and progress of this 
new settlement, as extracted from the speech of Sir 
George Bowen to his Parliament, are really surprising, 
accustomed as we are to the rapid developments of 
new societies. . . . Singular and striking as they are, 
they by no means exhaust the catalogue of the ex- 
ploits of which Queensland has to boast. Although 
possessed of responsible government, the Colony has 
presented a remarkable instance of concord and 
stability. While an Australian administration con- 
veys to the mind the idea of a perpetual crisis, 
Queensland has as yet known no change of Ministry. 
The Colony obtained responsible government in the 
same year as the Palmerston administration succeeded 
to office, and its Ministry has been equally durable. 
. . . Another circumstance, which an English tax- 
payer will consider perhaps equally gratifying, is that 
this fine Colony has been brought into its present 
state of order, prosperity, and good government, 
without the expenditure of a single shilling by the 
mother-country,' 



* TIMES' AND 'EDINBURGH REVIEW ON QUEENSLAND 247 

Iii similar terms the ' Edinburgh Eeview ' con- 
cluded a very able statement of the progress of the 
Colony up to 1863 : ' On every account, from its vast 
extent, from its fertile soil, from its delicious climate, 
from its extensive seaboard and abundant water- 
courses, from its judicious institutions, and from the 
wise and temperate spirit which has hitherto pre- 
vailed in its administration, Queensland deserves to 
be regarded as one of the most interesting and 
promising of those youthful States with which the 
maritime and colonial genius of England has studded 
the globe. Four years have not yet elapsed since 
the province of Moreton Bay assumed the rank of an 
independent Colony. The terms of service of its 
first Governor, Sir George Bowen, and of its first 
Minister, Mr. Herbert, have not yet expired : but 
these accomplished and fortunate rulers have already 
founded a State which cannot fail to rank amongst 
the freest and most prosperous communities on the 
face of the earth.' 

When, in accordance with the usual rule, Sir 
G. Bowen's term of office came to an end at the close 
of his sixth year of government, there was a wide- 
spread feeling of regret at his expected loss, and anxiety 
as to his successor. The following leading article 
from one of the Queensland newspapers l expresses 
no more than the general opinion of the colonists. 
It reads like an indiscriminating panegyric ; but 
Australians are not given to speak so well of their 
Governors without sufficient cause. 

4 Whoever may be appointed to succeed the present 

1 Queensland Daily Guardian, October 31, 1865. 



248 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

Governor of Queensland will find the office no sine- 
cure if he attempts to imitate Sir G. F. Bowen. His 
Excellency has managed to steer his way clear through 
all the windings of local party politics, strong sectional 
jealousies, and personal antipathies has visited and 
placed himself in direct contact with the people of 
every important town in the colony has heard all 
sorts of complaints, mixed with all sorts of people, 
listened and replied to all kinds of addresses, yet 
through all he has held his own, and is without 
question the most popular man between Brisbane and 
Cape York. This would be no easy task to perform 
under any circumstances. In the case of Queensland, 
however, the difficulties are more than ordinary. His 
Excellency found the Colony small in numbers, poor 
in circumstances, and its inhabitants only unanimous 
in their strong desire to have a Government and 
a Governor of their own, and to manage their affairs 
in their own way, coupled, moreover, with a high 
notion of their capabilities as legislators, all the 
stronger because unaccompanied by any practical 
knowledge of legislative duties. Out of this rather 
unpromising material, " his Excellency, with the 
advice of his Executive Council," has manufactured 
a very respectable Legislature, has visited and re- 
visited the different parts of the Colony, in order to 
make himself practically acquainted with the localities 
and the wants and wishes of their inhabitants, has 
gradually reduced t^ie discordant elements to some- 
thing like order, aiid instead of becoming weary of 
the work, he rather seems to like it, and becomes 
more genial and good-tempered the more he has to 
do. In his late northern tour it is perfectly astonish- 



TESTIMONY OF THE QUEENSLAND PRESS 249 

ing how he could find the time to visit all the places 
lie visited, talk to all the persons introduced to 
him, preside, or be the honoured guest, at so many 
public dinners, propose or respond to all the toasts, 
and write replies to all the addresses which were 
poured in upon him, conciliate everybody and com- 
mit himself to nobody and yet he did it. The 
whole secret of his success seems to be that lie 
is every inch an Englishman, possessing a perfect 
reverence for English institutions, modes of thought, 
and courses of action a lover of personal liberty 
and manly outspokenness, of fair play and straight- 
forward dealing ; and he is so well convinced of the 
existence of the same qualities among the bulk of the 
people he is placed over that he is quite content to 
look on, "and only give an order now and then, or a 
word or two of advice when it seems necessary. 
These are the qualities he always appeals to when 
addressing the people, and he never appeals in vain.' 



250 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

THE GOVEENOK'S TEEM OF OFFICE EXTENDED FINANCIAL CEISIS 
THE GOVEENOE SUCCESSFULLY EESISTS THE PEOPOSED ISSUE 
OF INCONVEETIBLE LEGAL TENDEE NOTES APPEOVAL OF HEK 
MAJESTY'S GOVEENMENT OPINION OF LOED NOETON PEOMO- 
TION TO NEW ZEALAND FAEEWELL ADDEESSES FEOM THE 
QUEENSLAND PAELIAMENT AND OTHEE PUBLIC BODIES 
DEMONSTEATIONS OF EESPECT AND ESTEEM ON THE GO- 
VEENOE' S DEPAETUEE. 

As a special mark of the Queen's favour, and in 
appreciation of the success with which he had con- 
ducted the affairs of the young Colony in the difficult 
position of its first Governor, Sir George Bowen's 
term of office was prolonged from the customary six 
to eight years. Hardly, however, had this extension 
become known when an event occurred which for 
the moment threatened to undermine the popularity 
which six years of hard work and unfailing good 
humour had built up. So far, there had never been 
a clashing of rights and powers between the Go- 
vernor and his Ministers. But in 1866 there arose 
one of those questions involving the prerogative of the 
Crown, which every Governor is bound to take up, 
ne quid detriment* respublica capiat. The constitu- 
tional reasons for his conduct are given in the follow- 
ing despatch ; other grounds for his action are ex- 
plained in the subsequent letter to Mr. Eobert 
Lowe, M.P. 



FINANCIAL CRISIS 251 

To the Right Hon. Edward Cardwett, M.P. 

Government House, Brisbane : July 20, 1867. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to report that the recent mone- 
tary crisis and commercial panic in England have 
been the means of causing a financial and political 
crisis in Queensland. 

The July mail is about to be closed ; and I have 
time at present to submit to you only the outline of 
what has taken place. The negotiation of a fresh 
loan of about a million sterling, sanctioned by the 
Queensland Legislature in last May, was undertaken 
by the Sydney branch of the Agra and Masterman's 
Bank, which bound itself to furnish fifty thousand 
pounds (50,000/.) monthly for the prosecution of the 
railways and other reproductive works in this Colony. 
The heads of the intelligence which arrived from 
England by the July mail reached Brisbane by 
telegraph on the llth instant ; and among them 
was reported the stoppage of the Agra and Master- 
man's Bank. The Colonial Treasurer (Mr. Bell), on 
behalf of my responsible advisers, informed me on 
the following day that he proposed to issue ' incon- 
vertible Government notes, and to make them a legal 
tender in this Colony.' After he had fully explained 
his project, I informed him that I regretted that I 
could not sanction it, and that, if a Bill authorising 
such issue were to pass the Colonial Parliament, I 
should feel obliged, in conformity with my instruc- 



252 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

tions, to reserve it for the signification of Her Majesty's 
pleasure thereon. Nevertheless, the Colonial Trea- 
surer, though in two separate interviews I pointed 
out the above facts, insisted on his project, and 
gave notice of his intention to introduce a Bill to 
authorise the issue of legal tender notes in the 
Assembly on the following day, and to move the 
suspension of the Standing Orders, so that it might 
pass forthwith. 

Under these circumstances, the action taken by 
the Treasurer appeared to me to make it my im- 
perative duty to address the Vice-President of the 
Executive Council (i.e. the Premier), to the following 
effect : 

' I need scarcely say that nothing can be further 
from my desire or intention than to interfere in the 
slightest degree with the freedom of debate, or with 
any of the other undoubted privileges of the Houses 
of Parliament. But (to omit other considerations), it 
appears to me that I should be justly liable to the 
charge of a want of due courtesy towards the two 
branches of the Colonial Legislature, from whom the 
Governor, as the Eepresentative of the Crown, has in- 
variably received the most loyal respect and support, if 
I were to approve the introduction by one of my Minis- 
ters, or if I were in any way whatsoever to become a 
party to the introduction, at the present crisis, of a 
Bill to which (as the Treasurer was made fully aware 
on Thursday morning last), I feel precluded by the 
Queen's Instructions from signifying the Eoyal Assent. 



PROPOSED INCONVERTIBLE LEGAL TENI>ER NOTES 253 

To engage the attention of the Parliament with a 
measure which cannot become law would seem to be 
equivalent to occupying unprofitably valuable time, 
which could be far better employed, during the exist- 
ing emergency, in discussing and passing measures 
which can be brought into immediate operation. 

' I earnestly hope that you and your colleagues 
will see your way to asking forthwith the sanction of 
the Legislature to the issue of Treasury Bills (like the 
Exchequer Bills of England), coupled with the im- 
position of that additional taxation which you have 
(as I understand) already determined to propose. 
This is the course which has been usually adopted 
with success in monetary difficulties, both in the 
mother-country and in the principal British Colonies. 
It appears that Queensland is as yet the most lightly 
taxed community in Australia. 

' The measure proposed by the Treasurer, as ex- 
plained to me by himself, is a Bill to empower the 
Government to issue inconvertible notes, and to make 
those notes a legal tender. It is obvious that I am 
required by the sixth section of my Instructions to 
reserve for the signification of Her Majesty's pleasure 
any Bill of the above-mentioned nature. For the 
fourth clause of that section prescribes the reservation 
of " any Bill whereby any paper or other currency 
may be made a legal tender, except the coin of the 
realm or other gold or silver coin." And the eleventh 
clause of the same section prescribes the reservation 
of " any Bill of any extraordinary nature and im- 



254 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

portance, whereby our prerogative, or the rights and 
property of our subjects not residing in the Colony, 
or the trade and shipping of the United Kingdom and 
its dependencies, may be prejudiced." 

' Now, with regard to this latter clause, I must 
make the following remarks : 

' (1) The measure proposed by the Treasurer is of 
an " extraordinary nature and importance " ; for he 
admits that he knows of no precedent for it in any 
British community. 

' (2) That measure may affect " the Queen's Pre- 
rogative " ; for it is a well-known maxim that ques- 
tions of coin and currency belong to the sovereign 
power in every State. We cannot legislate in our 
local Parliament on matters of this kind against the 
general policy established by the Crown and by the 
Imperial Parliament for the government of the whole 
British Empire. 

' (3) That measure may prejudice the rights and 
property of British subjects not residing in this Colony, 
and the trade of the United Kingdom and its depen- 
dencies, for (as you truly observed in my presence 
to the Treasurer on Thursday last), a large propor- 
tion of the capital now in Queensland belongs to 
British subjects resident in the United Kingdom, and 
in other British Colonies, and their interests (as well 
as the credit of the Colony), may be gravely compro- 
mised by the proposed measure.' 

In fact, the Managers of the Banks in Brisbane 
state that the proposed issue of ' inconvertible legal 



THE GOVERNOR SUCCESSFULLY RESISTS 255 

tender notes ' would be equivalent to a forced loan 
on the British capital in the Colony. 1 

The Premier (Mr. Macalister) urged in reply, that 
it was necessary to prosecute the public works in 
Queensland, so as to give employment to the poorer 
classes, and that the only feasible way of raising 
money immediately would be to issue the proposed 
' legal tender notes.' This conclusion was denied by 
almost all men in Queensland whose opinions are 
entitled to much respect on a financial question. A 
popular cry was, however, got up at Brisbane by the 
usual means of agitation through the press and other- 
wise, in favour of the Government proposal, just as 
violent and illegal methods of raising money for an im- 
mediate purpose were recently applauded by a section 
of the people of Victoria. My Ministers persisted in 
their project, and pressed me to engage to sanction it 
on the ground that this was one of the cases of ' urgent 
necessity ' contemplated in the sixth section of my 
Instructions as dispensing the Governor from reserv- 
ing Bills. 

I reminded, however, my Eesponsible Advisers, 
that they had not furnished me with any data what- 
soever proving the alleged necessity for setting the 
Queen's Instructions at naught, and that all the in- 
formation within my reach pointed to less exception- 
able schemes as far preferable. I added that there 

1 See 'Evidence given before the Select Committee on Financial 
Arrangements.' Ordered by the Legislative Assembly to be printed, 
July 17, 186G (Votes and Proceedings for I860, p. 949). 



256 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

could hardly exist an ' urgent necessity ' for the 
adoption of expedients of an extraordinary and ques- 
tionable nature, until the financial position of the 
Colony should have been fully examined by the 
Legislature, and the simple,' ordinary, and legitimate 
measures usually adopted during financial emergen- 
cies elsewhere had been tried here and proved to be 
failures. 

I further added that, of course, my objections 
applied to the Bill proposed by the Treasurer, and as 
explained to me by himself. It would be my duty to 
examine it carefully when it should have passed the 
two Houses of Parliament, and had been presented to 
me for the Queen's assent ; and I would signify that 
assent forthwith to any measures adopted by the 
wisdom of Parliament, provided that they be not 
repugnant to the letter and spirit of the Queen's 
Instructions. I concluded in the following terms : 

' You are well aware, my dear Mr. Macalister, 
that in matters of purely colonial policy, I have 
always deferred to the advice of my Constitutional 
Ministers for the time being, although my own per- 
sonal opinion has sometimes differed from theirs on 
practical questions of importance. 

'But the present is a case in which Imperial 
interests are concerned, and I must do my duty to the 
Crown ; which, as I believe, is in this as in most 
other instances identical with my duty to the Colony, 
and with the true interests of the people of Queens- 
land/ 



RESIGNATION OF MINISTERS 257 

These arguments did not, however, seem to prove 
satisfactory to the Ministers, for soon afterwards they 
tendered their resignation in a body. At first I 
declined to accept it, stating, that 

' It seems a most unusual course for Ministers to 
tender their resignation, practically because, in one 
single case, in which Imperial interests are concerned, 
the Governor felt it to be his duty (for reasons 
assigned) to inform his Ministers that he must act in 
conformity with the Queen's Instructions. 

' The Governor fears that the motives of the 
Ministers will be liable to grave misapprehension if 
they resign their trust at the present crisis on a wrong 
issue, and in direct contradiction to the recent and 
public declaration of Mr. Macalister, viz. that they 
would retain their offices so long as they should 
appear to possess the confidence of the Parliament. 

' The Governor cannot accept the resignation 
tendered to him on a ground of such nature. 

' The Ministers will, of course, introduce such 
measures as they think proper ; and the Governor 
will reserve all action until the proposed Bills shall 
have been passed by Parliament and presented to 
him for the Eoyal assent. 

' The Governor has much pleasure in reciprocating 
.towards the Ministers their expressions of personal 
good-will.' 

The Ministers, nevertheless, again tendered their 
resignation on the following day, when I felt con- 
strained, though reluctantly, to accept it. 

VOL. i. s 



258 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

It lias been alleged, botli in and out of the Legis- 
lature, that their real motive was to escape a paiiia 
mentary defeat which they knew to be imminent, and 
to resign on a question which at the present moment 
is so popular with a portion of the town electors as is 
this question of ' legal tender notes,' or ' greenbacks,' 
as they are usually called in the American phrase. 
However this may be, my late Ministers and I parted 
in mutual good humour, and I shall be prepared 
to- co-operate with them as cordially as before, should 
the course of parliamentary proceedings again place 
them in office. 

I now entrusted Mr. Herbert 1 (who has not yet 
left the Colony) with the task of forming a new 
Administration. He will have many difficulties to 
contend with ; but he believes that he will be able 
to arrange with the local banks for the advance of 
sufficient sums of money for the public works on 
the security of our debentures, which can be pledged 
for that purpose under the provisions of a recent Act. 

It will be seen that the point on which I have 
taken my stand is, not the character of the policy of 
my Ministers in which I, of course, leave them quite 
untrammelled ; but that I must not, to enable them 
to carry out a special object, act contrary to the 
letter or spirit of my Instructions, which are, in- 
deed, a part of the constitutional law of the Colony. 

I trust that the course which I have steadily and 

1 Mr. Herbert had shortly before resigned office, urgent private 
affairs reqiiiring his presence in England. He was succeeded as 
Premier by Mr. Macalister. 



NEW MINISTRY 259 

firmly pursued throughout these transactions, and in 
disregard of much pressure of various kinds, will 
meet with your approval. That course seems to be 
in accordance with the judgment and feeling of a 
majority of both Houses of the Colonial Parliament, 
and of the educated and dispassionate portion of the 
community, without distinction of political party or 
of social class. 

July 21. 

P.S. Since this despatch was written, Mr. Her- 
bert has formed a Ministry which seems to be sup- 
ported by a large majority of both Houses of the 
Colonial Parliament. In the Legislative Council, 
there is hardly any opposition to it at all ; and in the 
Assembly, it appears that Mr. Herbert has at present 
about eighteen votes out of thirty- two. , Both Houses 
passed last night a Bill authorising the issue of three 
hundred thousand pounds (300,000/.) in Treasury Bills 
(like the Exchequer Bills of England), which sum is 
estimated as sufficient to carry the Colony through 
the present financial crisis. 



To the Eight Honourable R. Lowe, M.P, 1 

Government House, Queensland : August 21, 1866. 

My dear Lowe, 

Knowing the interest which you take in Austra- 
lian affairs, -I venture to address you on the subject 

1 Afterwards Viscount Sherbrooke, G.C.B. He expressed his entire 
concurrence with Sir G. Bowen's action. 



260 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

of tlie recent financial and political crisis in Queens- 
land now happily over but which has caused much 
excitement throughout these Colonies. 

The Agra and Masterman's Bank had engaged 
to negotiate the sale of the Queensland Debentures, 
and to advance upon them 50,000/. monthly fur the 
prosecution of our railways and other reproductive 
works, which the Legislature had authorised to be 
constructed by loan. I may say, en passant, that I 
have diligently striven, so far as a Constitutional 
Governor can interfere in such matters, to check the 
extravagance arising out of the constant ' log-rolling ' 
of a Colonial Parliament, and to introduce the prac- 
tice of local self-government by District or Provincial 
Councils and Municipalities. I have been able to do 
much in this direction, but not all that is wanted. 
The sudden failure of the Agra Bank during the com- 
mercial panic in London stopped our supplies, and 
threatened to stop our public works, and so to reduce 
to destitution a large number of workmen and their 
families, many of them skilled artizans, brought out 
from England with the prospect of constant employ- 
ment. The obvious remedy for our temporary finan- 
cial embarrassments was the issue of Treasury Bills 
bearing interest, like the Exchequer Bills of England. 
But the late Treasurer, at the instance of some irre- 
sponsible advisers, obstinately insisted on an issue of 
' inconvertible legal tender notes,' like the assignats 
of the first French Eevolution and the greenbacks of 
the recent Civil War in America. A still closer pre- 



LETTER TO LORD SHERBROOKE 261 

cedent may be found in the forced paper currency of 
some of the original American Colonies, which was 
so strongly condemned by Adam Smith (' Wealth of 
Nations,' Book II. chapter 2) and prohibited by the 
Act 4 George III. cap. 34. In Queensland it was de- 
liberately proposed to make the new paper currency 
a legal tender, and to force the banks, the public con- 
tractors, the members of the Civil Service, and all 
public creditors whatsoever, to accept it in payment 
of the Government obligations at par, though, of 
course, it would have become enormously depreciated 
in a short time. It was also proposed to accept the 
' greenbacks ' at the Treasury in payment of all taxes 
except customs. It would be superfluous to point out 
the disastrous consequences, familiar to all political 
economists, which would have resulted from the adop- 
tion of a policy of this nature. It appeared that this 
was one of the extreme cases in which the Governor 
of a Colony possessing parliamentary government 
would be justified in interfering to save the Colony 
from itself. On the other hand, it has been argued 
that Colonial interests are the concern, not of the 
Governor, but of the local Ministry and Parliament. 
I felt desirous to avoid even the appearance of iden- 
tifying the representative of the Queen with either 
political party, or of obstructing in any way the pro- 
ceedings of either ; and therefore I based my objec- 
tions to the i legal tender notes ' (as you will see from 
my correspondence with my late Ministers, of which 
I enclose a copy) mainly on the fact that I am re- 



262 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

quired by the Eoyal Instructions to reserve any Bill of 
the nature proposed for the signification of the Queen's 
pleasure thereon in short, I based my objections on 
Imperial not Colonial grounds. The populace of Bris- 
bane was told by a few stump orators that an issue of 
unlimited ' greenbacks ' would create unlimited funds 
for their employment on public works, while at the 
same time it would rain the bankers, squatters, mer- 
chants, and other capitalists those objects of the 
jealous dislike of a democracy. A so-called ' indig- 
nation meeting ' was held, at which the Governor and 
the majority of the Legislature (which was also hostile 
to ' greenbacks ') were denounced in violent terms ; 
several leading members of Parliament were ill-treated 
in the streets ; and threats were even uttered of burn- 
ing down Government House, and treating me ' as 
Lord Elgin was treated at Montreal in 1849.' 

I need scarcely say that I am not to be intimidated 
in the discharge of my duty. Besides, all the educa- 
tion, property, and intelligence of the Colony were 
on my side. In common with both Houses of the 
Colonial Parliament I steadily and calmly held my 
course, and in a few days, indeed in a few hours, 
public confidence and tranquillity were restored. The 
late Ministers made my refusal to sanction the issue 
of ' greenbacks ' a pretext for resigning in the midst 
of the financial crisis, though their real object was 
universally believed to have been a desire to make a 
little political capital, and to avoid a parliamentary 
defeat, which they knew to be certain. Mr. Herbert, 



APPROVAL OF H.M.'S GOVERNMENT 263 

wlio liad been Premier for the first six years of the 
political career of Queensland, resigned office some 
months back, as his private affairs required shortly 
his presence in England. As he had not yet left the 
Colony, I sent for him ; and he formed a new Ministry, 
and carried at once an Act authorising the issue of 
Exchequer Bills, which have found a ready sale in 
Australia, and will extricate us from our temporary 
embarrassment, when coupled with retrenchment, 
economy, and additional taxation. 

As Mr. Herbert was obliged to leave for England 
by the August mail, it became very desirable to form 
a strong Government, by a fusion of parties, so as to 
be able to carry the new taxes and other measures 
urgently required. By inflexibly maintaining, with 
regard to the party conflicts of the Colony, that 
neutrality which belongs to the Sovereign whom I 
represent, I have been enabled on this, as on many 
other occasions, to intervene as mediator in contro- 
versies which would otherwise have become irrecon- 
cilable. After some negotiation, a coalition Ministry 
has been successfully formed, and the crisis is over. 

I trust that the stand which I made, in spite of 
various kinds of pressure, in defence of the preroga- 
tives of the Crown, and of the authority of the 
Eoyal Instructions, will be appreciated in England. 
The overwhelming majority of the education, intelli- 
gence, and property of all the Australian Colonies is 
on my side. 



264 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

The Earl of Carnarvon, who had succeeded Mr. 
Car dwell at the Colonial Office, conveyed in the 
following despatch his entire approval of the conduct 
pursued by Sir George Bowen during the financial 
crisis. 

Downing Street : September 26, 1866. ' 

Sir, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt 
of your Despatch of the 20th of July, in which you 
inform me of the resignation of your advisers, and 
of the return of Mr. Herbert to office. 

It seems that your late Ministers proposed to in- 
troduce into Parliament a Bill authorising the issue 
of inconvertible Government notes, and making such 
notes a legal tender; that you thereupon informed 
them that you would be precluded by your Instruc- 
tions from assenting to such a law, except under cir- 
cumstances of urgency such as had not yet been 
proved to you to exist ; and that, after having in vain 
tried to alter your resolution, they tendered to you 
their resignation, which you ultimately found your- 
self constrained to accept. 

Understanding these to be the circumstances of the 
case, I have no hesitation in approving entirely your 
refusal to adopt a course at variance with your 
Instructions ; and I do not permit myself to doubt, 
that in the course you have adopted, you will receive 
that support which you appear to anticipate from the 
Colonial Legislature. 



END OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS 265 

To an English Statesman. 

Government House, Brisbane : November 20, 1866. 

My dear Lord, 

I am grateful to Lord Carnarvon for conveying 
to me so promptly and in such explicit terms his 
approval of my conduct in refusing to act at variance 
with the Queen's Instructions in the matter of the 
proposed issue of l inconvertible legal tender notes/ 
I have already shown his despatch to my Ministers, 
including the Premier, who, like his colleagues, 
entirely acquiesces in the decision of Her Majesty's 
Government, and regrets that he ever allowed him- 
self to be persuaded to take up the so-called ' green- 
backs ' or assignats. The truth is that the leading 
politicians in Australia are generally ready to defer 
to the ex cathedra judgment of the Home Government 
on points connected with the legal and constitutional 
relations between the mother-country and her prin- 
cipal dependencies. And the overwhelming majority 
of the property, education, and intelligence of each 
of the Australian Colonies is ready to rally round 
the Queen's Eepresentative in support of the autho- 
rity of the law, provided that there be some assur- 
ance that the Governor will be upheld by the Home 
Government. All depends upon this point. A pro- 
minent and influential politician here lately remarked 
to me : ' If the trumpet of Downing Street give an 
uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself for the 
battle ? ' 

The little temporary excitement of two months 



266 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

ago is now almost forgotten, and men of all parties 
and classes generally applaud or acquiesce in the 
action which I felt it to be my duty to take. Still, 
no one who has not himself tried it, can know how 
painful and embarrassing is the position of a Colonial 
Governor if he is not sure of the approval and sup- 
port of his official superior. I would hazard the 
remark that the result of the late session proves 
beyond doubt that I was not too sanguine when I 
confidently anticipated the support of the Colonial 
Legislature. Since the adjournment which took place 
at the end of last July in consequence of the Minis- 
terial crisis, not a single voice was raised in either 
House of Parliament in favour of an issue of 6 in- 
convertible legal tender notes,' or to question my 
conduct. On the other hand, it will be seen from 
my despatches by this mail that the additional taxa- 
tion, and the other measures for securing the revenue 
and credit of the Colony, which I suggested from 
the beginning, were adopted almost without dissent. 

Of course, no constitutional ruler can expect to 
be able to carry out all his plans for the public good ; 
but I submit that I am far from being reduced to 
that pathetic complaint of the Persian noble in 
Herodotus, which Dr. Arnold was so fond of 
quoting : e)($icr777 Se 681^77 eort TWV iv 
a (f>poveovTa 



1 Herodotus, ix. 16. Thus translated in Grote's History of Greece 
(Vol. V. page 214) : ' Truly this is the most hateful of all human suffer- 
ingsto be full of knowledge, and, at the same time, to have no power 
over results.' 



OPINION OF LORD NORTON 267 

The crisis was soon over ; and the good sense of 
the majority of the Queensland ers soon recognised 
that in exercising an undoubted Imperial right their 
Governor had also saved them from a step fraught 
with disastrous consequences. Had the legal tender 
notes been issued, all debts, even Government loans 
from England, loans received in gold, might have 
been paid back in depreciated paper ; with the in- 
evitable result of the destruction of the credit of 
the Colony and the impossibility of raising in future 
the money necessary for the construction of the 
railways, harbours, and other public works. That 
Sir George Bo wen firmly resisted this measure, at 
the risk of his popularity, was one of the greatest 
boons that he conferred upon the Colony ; and it 
is not too much to say that his example saved not 
only Queensland but the other Australian Colonies 
from jeopardising their credit by the issue of incon- 
vertible paper money. What one Governor had suc- 
cessfully accomplished, another could do ; and so 
Australia heard no more of the legal tender note. 
Sir George was able to assure Lord Carnarvon a year 
later that 'almost everybody here now agrees with 
my policy respecting the proposed issue last year of 
" greenbacks," and that the support which your Lord- 
ship accorded to me in that affair has put a stop to all 
schemes of meddling with the currency, both in this 
and in the other Australian Colonies.' 

We may here quote an extract from the book on 
' Colonial Policy ' published in 1869 by Mr. Adderley, 
Parliamentary Under-Secretary for the Colonies (now 
Lord Norton) : 

4 Sir George Bo wen, the first Governor of Queens- 



268 THE FOUNDING OF QUEENSLAND 

land, is a man of such high public spirit, energy, 
and intelligence that he has kept the Colony always 
in active interest about its public questions, and 
this country in full information of its proceedings. 
... A ministerial crisis occurred in 1866 on the 
question of issuing inconvertible paper currency 
as legal tender, in a scheme for raising a million 
sterling to meet monetary difficulties ; which propo- 
sition Sir G. Bowen firmly resisted as contrary to 
the Queen's Instructions, and indeed to the spirit of 
Imperial legislation, which from the first adopted 
Adam Smith's arguments against paper money being 
permitted as legal tender. . . . He soon outlived the 
popular resentment against this necessary and legiti- 
mate exercise of the prerogative. The chief danger 
of the democratic spirit of colonial constitutional 
freedom, is not that it chafes too violently against 
the barriers placed against it, so much as that it is 
always making sacrifices to local popularity in dis- 
pensing public resources.' 



Towards the close of 1867, Sir George Bowen was 
promoted to the unusually difficult Government of New 
Zealand, as a mark of the Queen's appreciation of his 
eight years' service in Queensland. When his fare- 
well Message was read to both Houses of Parliament, 
telling them of his ' deep sense of their constant, 
loyal, and cordial co-operation with him, as the re- 
presentative of the Queen,' and declaring that he for 
his part had ' earnestly laboured, throughout the eight 
years of his administration, to perform his duty to 
the best of his judgment and ability,' and that in the 



FAREWELL ADDRESSES NEW ZEALAND 269 

future lie would always ' regard with proud and 
grateful interest the progress of the Colony where he 
and his family had received so much sympathy and 
respect ' ; the two Chambers cordially joined in a reply 
reciprocating to the full the Governor's good wishes 
and expressions of esteem, and adding : ' Through- 
out the lengthened period of your Excellency's ad- 
ministration, you have exercised your judgment and 
ability to the utmost in furthering the interests of 
Queensland ; and as we believe that the Colony has 
thereby been much benefited, we take this opportunity 
of tendering your Excellency our thanks. While 
your Excellency will continue to watch our future 
progress " with proud and grateful interest," it will 
be no less our privilege to watch, with equal regard, 
the future career in your Excellency's new sphere of 
action, of a public officer so long and so intimately 
associated with us.' 

Other addresses were of a more personal nature, 
and spoke of the Governor's departure less as the 
change of a ruler than as the loss of a friend. 

Early in January 1868, Sir George and Lady 
Bowen, with their children, three of whom had been 
born at Brisbane, embarked for New Zealand, amid 
a hearty public demonstration of respect and esteem. 
His name must remain for ever inseparably connected 
with the history of the great Colony of which he was 
the first Governor. 



PAKT III. 
NEW ZEALAND 

1868-1873 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

CONDITION OP NEW ZEALAND ON THE ARRIVAL OP SIR GEORGE 
BOWEN ADDRESSES OP WELCOME THE FENIAN MOVEMENT 
VISIT TO A MAORI CAMP THE AUCKLAND GOLDFIELDS 
CAPTAIN COOK. 

THE history of New Zealand has been often written. 
First discovered and named in the seventeenth century 
by the great Dutch navigator Tasman, its coast was 
carefully examined towards the close of the eighteenth 
century by the great English navigator Cook. In the 
early part of the nineteenth century, a few traders and 
missionaries established themselves at various points, 
but no attempt was made at systematic colonisation 
until 1840, when an assembly of Maori chiefs ceded 
to the British Crown the sovereignty of their country 
by the Treaty of Waitangi. There soon arose between 
some of the native tribes and the colonists quarrels, 
generally to be traced, directly or indirectly, to disputes 
about land, which led to the two Maori wars the first, 
which lasted from 1845 to 1848, and the second, which 
lasted, with little intermission, from 1860 to 1870. l 

Of all British Colonies, New Zealand was assuredly 
the most difficult to govern when Sir George Bowen 
was appointed in 1868. The second Maori war, 

1 It may here be observed, once for all, that the narrow limits of 
these volumes will allow of the insertion of but a small part of the 
despatches of Sir G. Bowen and of the other Governors of New Zea- 
land. The rest will be found in the great mass of papers respecting 
that Colony which have been presented to the Imperial Parliament. 
VOL. I. T 



274 NEW ZEALAND 

which had already lasted for eight years, was only 
slumbering, and the Maoris had not been really 
beaten. Nevertheless, the Home Government had 
withdrawn almost all the regular troops, and had 
resolved to remove the last British soldier, and to 
leave the colonists to carry out their own views, and 
to fight their own battles. Under such circumstances 
the obvious policy was one of conciliation ; it was 
' alike more politic and more humane,' as Sir George 
Bowen frequently urged, to outlive than to fight the 
Maori race, which was gradually dying out, while 
the colonists were fast increasing. ' Our race is 
gone like the Moa,' the Maoris pathetically exclaimed, 
referring to the gigantic ostrich of New Zealand, 
which is now extinct. The new Governor exerted 
himself earnestly to procure the adoption by his 
Ministers and Parliament of the friendly and bene- 
ficent measures, the chief elements of which are 
explained in the despatches and addresses printed 
below. 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, 
Secretary of State for the Colonies. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 

February G, 18G8. 

My dear Duke of Buckingham, 

I found your letter here on my arrival yesterday 
(February 5). My reception at Wellington by all classes 
of the community was very hearty. My predecessor, 
Sir George Grey (who remains at his beautiful island 
of Kawau, 1 near Auckland), has, moreover, written 

1 A good description of Kawau will be found in Mr. Froude's 
Oceana (chap. 18). Among its many attractions, not the least is the 



POLICY OF 'MUTUAL FORBEARANCE ' 275 

to me in very friendly terms, and I need scarcely say 
that I have cordially reciprocated his courtesy. 

My position here is necessarily one of extreme 
difficulty and delicacy; but the full explanation of 
your Grace's views in your letter will be of great 
assistance and support to me. Perhaps I may be 
pardoned if I say that I am one of those who believe 
it to be the clear duty of a Governor, whatever his 
personal opinions or feelings may be, to carry out 
loyally the instructions of the Secretary of State. 
Bat I am thoroughly convinced that the policy of 
' mutual forbearance ' which you intend to enforce 
both by precept and example, is the only policy 
which can terminate the present difficulties, or even, 
perhaps, permanently maintain the existing connexion 
between the mother-country and New Zealand. It is 
certain, at all events, that in your own words, i con- 
tinuing discussion would only keep alive the differ- 
ences which have arisen between the Imperial and 
Colonial authorities, and which experience shows to 
be of a nature that correspondence is more likely to 

collection of animals which Sir G. Grey has brought thither from the 
different Colonies which he has governed. There are zebras, antelopes, 
and ostriches from the Cape ; kangaroos, wallabies, and emus from 
Australia, and so forth. We may here repeat the story, well known 
in New Zealand, of a conversation between an English statesman (A) 
and a distinguished colonist (B). A. said, ' What a pity it is that Sir 
G. Grey keeps wallabies in his island ! ' B. ' Why should he not ? it is 
a very innocent amusement.' A. ' Sir, I am sorry to perceive that your 
Colonial morality is lax. I am informed that there is a whole seraglio 
of wallabies.' B. ' You do not seem to be aware that a wallaby is a 
small kind of kangaroo.' A. ' Oh ! you have taken a weight off my mind. 
I thought that, as a mulatto is a half-caste between a white and a Negro, 
so a wallaby is a half-caste between a white and a Maori ! ' 

x 2 



276 NEW ZEALAND 

intensify than to remove, especially when carried on 
at a distance of half round the world.' 

I dare not conceal from you, moreover, that the 
leading men here object to the tone far more than to 
the substance of many of the despatches from home, 
during the last four or five years. All who have 
lived much in our dependencies know that English 
colonists in general, even more than other men, are 
governed by the heart rather than by the head. It 
is quite possible to lead them, but it is equally foolish 
and dangerous to attempt to drive them, or even 
to treat them with what seems to their sensitive 
amour propre a want of due consideration. I have 
already had several long conversations with my 
Ministers, and I am bound to say that nothing can 
be better than their demeanour towards me person- 
ally ; and that they seem inclined to meet in a proper 
spirit my endeavours to throw oil on the troubled 
waters, by assuring them that there can be no inten- 
tion on the part of the Imperial authorities to treat 
New Zealand with neglect ; and that your desire is to 
disconnect yourself with all that is unpleasant in 
the past, and, looking forward, to lead the Home 
and Colonial Governments into a line of friendly co- 
operation. 

To the same. 

Government House, Wellington : March 5, 1868. 

My Lord Duke, 

Among the manifold and urgent questions which 
have necessarily pressed themselves on my attention 



CONDITION OF THE MAORI RACE 277 

during the month which has now elapsed since 
my assumption, on the 5th ult., of the Government 
of New Zealand, I have given much thought and 
care to that very complicated and difficult but highly 
interesting subject, the present condition and future 
prospects of the Maori race. 

By my desire the Minister for the Native Depart- 
ment (Mr. J. C. Eichmond) has addressed to the 
principal officers and agents of the Government 
throughout the Colony a circular directing each of 
them to furnish, for the information of the Governor, 
a detailed report on native affairs in his district. 
This report is to contain as full a history as possible 
of the last few years, and of the events that have 
come under the personal cognisance of each Govern- 
ment agent. Eeliable information is called for as 
to the actual number of the Maoris ; the causes and 
influences affecting their increase or decrease ; their 
feelings towards Europeans generally ; their physical 
and moral condition ; the rise, objects, progress, 
and tendency of the ' Hau-hau ' * movement ; the 
opinions of the Maoris in respect of the recent 
war ; of the removal of the Imperial troops ; of the 
suppression of the late outbreaks of rebellion on the 
East Coast of the North Island, and elsewhere ; and 
of the prospect of the permanent restoration of peace. 
Finally, the several agents of Government are re- 

1 This was the name of the wild and fanatical rites adopted by those 
Maoris who had fallen away from Christianity. It was the religious 
phase of the political and racial movement against the Colonial 
Government. 



NEW ZEALAND 

quired to notice the working of the recent Acts of the 
New Zealand Legislature, in reference to the lands, 
the education, and the parliamentary representation 
of the Maoris ; and, generally, to supply such further 
information as may appear likely to be useful in 
forming an accurate opinion on the present state of 
native affairs. 

Te Puni, the well-known chief of the Ngatiawa 
tribe (now in extreme old age, but to whose protec- 
tion the early settlers in this part of New Zealand 
were formerly much indebted), and the other principal 
Maoris resident near Wellington, attended my first 
levee. I have also received, as the representative of 
the Queen, numerous addresses of respect and welcome 
from the loyal chiefs and tribes in all parts of both 
islands ; from the powerful clan of the Ngapuhis, at 
the Bay of Islands, in the extreme north ; from the 
small remnant of Maoris in Otago, in the extreme 
south ; from various chiefs of Taranaki and Wanganui, 
and of the shores of the central lake of Taupo. 

It would, of course, be as yet presumptuous in 
me to pronounce any judgment on native questions. 
It is obvious, however, that the old institutions and 
rites of the Maoris have crumbled away ; and so, it 
is to be feared, has, to a deplorable extent, their 
recently adopted Christianity. When I visited Te 
Puni a fortnight ago at his own village, the old chief 
told me, in the presence of the Bishop of Wellington 
(Dr. Abraham), that he believed that he was now 
almost the only real Christian in his tribe, for most 



TAWHIAO, THE SO-CALLED MAORI KING 279 

of his kinsmen had become either ' Hau-haus ' or 
drunken profligates. It is, moreover, a significant 
fact that the so-called Maori King has lately re- 
nounced his baptismal name of Matutaera (Methu- 
selah), and openly adopted the heathen appellation 
of Tawhiao. He is stated to have taken no notice 
whatsoever of certain overtures that were made to 
him before my arrival, with the object of inducing 
him to give his submission to the ' Queen's Son ' (the 
phrase by which the Duke of Edinburgh is known to 
the Maoris), during the approaching visit of His 
Eoyal Highness to New Zealand. With regard to 
this sullen and hostile isolation, a loyal chief, at a 
recent interview, addressed me in the following 
terms : ' Governor ! Tawhiao is now like a single 
tree left exposed in a clearing of our native forests. 
If you attack it with fire and steel, it will fall on you 
and crush you ; but if left alone, it will ere long wither 
and die. My word to you, Governor ! is to leave 
Tawhiao alone.' This is, in fact, the policy of my 
present Government. 



One or two examples of the many Maori addresses 
of welcome to the new Governor may here be given. 
They are translated literally. 

The first is an address from the powerful chief of 
Taupo in the interior of the North Island : 



280 NEW ZEALAND 

To Sir George Bowen, Governor of New Zealand. 

4 Tapuaehantni, Taupo : December 18, 1867. 

Friend, 

' Salutations. I have heard that you are coming to 
this island, to New Zealand, to be a parent to us, and 
to take care of us, that is, of the whole of this island. 

' father ! salutations. Come on shore, come to 
your land, New Zealand, and to your people ; come 
to see the evil and the good of this island. 

* friend ! salutations. My desire is this, that you 
should travel through your island, and also through 
our settlements. 

' Enough. From your friend, 

'TE POIHIPI TUKAIRANGI.' 

Address from the chiefs of Otaki, in the South : 

' Otaki : February 20, 1868. 

' father, Governor Bowen ! salutations. Here 
are we writing this our letter of love to you ; for you 
are to be the Governor for us all, for the Maoris, 
and for the Pakehas. That is why our hearts are 
glad at your coming to New Zealand. 

' Welcome hither, father ! to us your children ; 
although we be foolish children, do you teach us. 
We have received instruction at the hands of the 
other Governors, your predecessors ; but we, this 
people, the Maoris, still abide in our ignorance. You 
are the sixth Governor. 

' Welcome hither to us ; be kind to us with the 
great kindness of our gracious mother the Queen. 

' father ! we enclose herewith a copy of our 
letter to the Government for you to see ; it depends 



DIFFICULTIES OF THE COLONY 281 

on yourself whether you bring the son of the Queen 
here to see us. 

' That is all we have to say. 

' Your friends, 
' TAMIHANA TE KAUPARAHA, 1 and others/ 



To an Official Friend. 

Wellington, New Zealand : March 8, 1868. 

You speak in your last letter of the difficulties 
with which I shall have to contend in New Zealand. 
They are indeed great and manifold. As to the 
Maori question, you might say to me in the words of 
Horace : 2 

Motum ex Metello 3 consule civicum, 
Bellique causas, et vitia, et modos, 
Ludumque Fortunes, gravesque 
Principum* amicitias, et anna 

1 Tamihana te Kauparaha is the son of the famous chief of that 
name, who was long opposed to the English at the first settlement of 
New Zealand. Three generations of this family illustrate the progress 
of the Maoris. The grandfather of Tamihana had killed and eaten men, 
and was himself killed and eaten, ' like a fine old Maori gentleman, 
one of the olden time.' The father of Tamihana had killed and eaten 
men, but died in his bed, a convert to Christianity. Tamihana himself, 
while fighting for the Crown, has killed men, but has not eaten them, and 
is a zealous Christian and loyal friend of the English. He is the last of 
his race of a long line of chieftains and warriors; and when the 
Duke of Edinburgh came to Wellington, he presented to ' the son of the 
Queen of England and of New Zealand,' with not ungraceful emotion, 
the mere of his ancestors, which they had borne for many centuries, 
and in many battles, but which there was no one to inherit. The 
mere, or jade sceptre, of a Maori chief is analogous to the hereditary 
a-KYj-rrrpov of an Homeric king. 

2 Carm. II. 1. 3 Governor Gore Browne. 

4 Sir G. Grey and General Cameron, who were at strong variance 
with each other. 



282 NEW ZEALAND 

Nondum expiatis l uncta cruoribus, 
Periculoscz plenum opus alece, 
* Tractas, et incedis per ignes 

Suppositos cineri doloso. 

The fact is that the Maoris have not really been 
conquered, and they know it. The smouldering flame 
of discontent may at any moment burst into a con- 
flagration. Again, the commercial depression and 
general poverty of the present period are very dis- 
tressing. They have prevailed in Australia also ever 
since the monetary crisis of 1866, but they are 
aggravated here by the sudden cessation of the mili- 
tary expenditure ; by the crushing weight of taxation 
to pay the interest of the war debt, and of the extrava- 
gances of former Governments ; by the cruel disasters 
caused by the recent hurricanes and floods, and by 
several other causes. In fact, the financial state of 
the Colony gives me more anxiety than even the 
native question which, indeed, is closely connected 
with it. 

Among our other embarrassments, the Fenians 
have ' cropped up ' among the Irish on our southern 
goldfields, and have started, I believe for the first 
time in this quarter of the globe, a rabid Fenian 
newspaper at Hokitika. The principal Government 
officers write in terms of great alarm about the 
impending outbreaks there. My Ministers will 
doubtless support me in acting with firmness in the 
event of any open breaches of the law ; but there 

1 No full utu (as the Maoris say), or expiation, had yet been made 
for the blood shed in the war. 



FENIAN MOVEMENT THE MAORIS 283 

is no general police force in New Zealand, as in each 
of the Australian Colonies. The ' Centralists,' as the 
party akin to the ' Federalists ' in America are called 
here, scarcely disguise their hopes that the downfall 
of the provincial system will be accelerated by riots 
on the goldfields, which there is now no efficient 
force to repress ; just as some of the colonists hardly 
conceal their wish that the remnant of the Maori race 
should be allowed to accelerate their own extinction 
by the Government permitting, if not encouraging, 
the internecine strife to which they are prone, when 
not banded against the English settlers. 

There are, among our New Zealand politicians, 
many men of ability and accomplishments, over whom 
any English Statesman might be proud to preside ; 
and our social relations are very pleasant. I hope to 
do much good by bringing the leading families of all 
parties together on the neutral ground of the Govern- 
ment House. 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Wellington : March 17, 18G8. 

My Lord Duke, 

In continuation of my previous despatches re- 
specting the present condition of the Maoris, I have 
the honour to transmit herewith a map showing 
the distribution of the several native tribes in New 
Zealand. With few exceptions they are all resi- 
dent in the Northern Island. I annex a nominal list 
of these clans, and of the principal chiefs ; together 



284 NEW ZEALAND 

with a statement of the estimated number of each 
tribe at the present time, and of its attitude, whether 
loyal or hostile to the Government, with other ex- 
planatory remarks. These documents have been 
carefully prepared at my request, in the department 
of the Native Minister, by officers of great experi- 
ence in Maori affairs. On my arrival here, I found 
that no full or accurate documents of this kind were 
on record ; and yet it is obvious that without such 
aid no accurate knowledge can be acquired, and no 
adequate opinion can be formed on the state of New 
Zealand, especially in England, at the distance of 
half the circumference of the globe. 

It will be seen that the lands confiscated some 
years ago for rebellion are estimated in the aggregate 
at nearly three millions five hundred thousand 
acres ; but that a large portion of this territory has 
been already restored to the former owners on their 
submission ; while another large portion has been 
appropriated as compensation for the services of 
friendly natives. The titles to certain lands on the 
East Coast of the Northern Island have been long in 
dispute, and are now under investigation before the 
proper legal tribunal, in pursuance of Acts passed 
by the New Zealand Parliament in 1866 and 1867. 1 
I am informed that it is probable that in a majority 
of cases the present holders will be confirmed in 
possession of the lands which they now occupy. 

1 East Coast Land Titles Investigation Act, No. 27 of 1866; par- 
tially amended in 1867. 



CAUSES OF THE DECREASE OF THE MAORIS 285 

The total Maori population is estimated now, in 
1868, at about forty-five thousand ; of which number 
all, except from fifteen hundred to two thousand, 
reside in the Northern Island. Ten years ago, in 
1858, a Government census returned the total Maori 
population at fifty-six thousand ; twenty years ago, 
in 1848, the Maoris were estimated at about one 
hundred thousand. 

The causes which have contributed to produce 
this rapid and deplorable decay have been discussed 
at length by several writers of ability and local 
experience. I would refer more particularly to the 
works of Mr. Fox, 1 formerly Prime Minister of this 
Colony ; and of Dr. A. S. Thomson, 2 who was resi- 
dent in New Zealand for many years as surgeon to 
the 58th Eegiment. Mr. Fox shows that the gradual 
disappearance of the Maoris is not to be attributed 
in any large degree to their intercourse with Euro- 
peans, for ' that, for the most part, has led to the 
adoption of better food, better dwellings, better 
general habits of life. The one great cause has 
been, and is, their utter disregard of all those social 
and sanitary conditions which are essential to the 
continuing vitality of the human race ; this cause 
was in existence long before there was an European 
in the islands ; and there is little doubt that the race 
was on the decrease when Cook first landed there.' 
Dr. Thomson observes : ' The extinction of aboriginal 

1 War in New Zealand, pp. 255-61, by Mr., now Sir W, Fox, K.C.M.G. 

2 New Zealand, Past and Present, Part III., chap. 1. 



286 NEW ZEALAND 

races has been often caused by evil treatment ; the 
hands of the early settlers in America, the West 
Indies, Tasmania, Australia, and Africa, are not clean 
from this imputation ; but as far as the story of New 
Zealand has yet been unrolled, the pioneers of civi- 
lisation, and the majority of the English, Irish, and 
Scotch settlers in the islands, have, with some few 
exceptions, acted towards the natives in a spirit of 
Christianity unknown to the Saxon colonists in 
Ireland, the Norman invaders of England, and the 
Spanish conquerors of America.' 

It is to be hoped that the general restoration of 
peace and the prohibition of inter-tribal wars ; the 
gradual individualisation of property in land now 
held in common ; the progress of trade and friendly 
intercourse between the European settlers and the 
Maoris ; the increasing use of animal food and 
wheaten flour ; the schools, hospitals, roads, and other 
institutions, by means of which the Colonial Govern- 
ment is endeavouring to promote the civilisation of 
the natives ; will all contribute to arrest the further 
decay of the yet surviving remnant of a most 
interesting race. 



Sir George Bo wen visited Auckland, 1 the former 
capital and most populous city of New Zealand, in 
March 1868, and was welcomed with a ' magnificent 
reception,' not only by thousands of his fellow 

1 The seat of Government was removed in 1864 from Auckland to 
"Wellington on account of the more central position of the latter city. 



THE MAORI CHIEF TAIPARI 287 

countrymen, but also by the principal Maori chiefs 
of the northern districts, ' headed by Eruera Patuone, 
who, with his brother Tamati Waka Nene, has ever 
been the firm friend of the English in peace, and 
their brave ally in war. While I was rowed ashore,' 
added the Governor, ' these chiefs, and the numerous 
assemblage of Maoris of both sexes that surrounded 
them on the pier, presented a sight in the highest 
degree picturesque and affecting; as they chanted 
their national songs of welcome, at the same time 
waving their mantles in the air, after the traditional 
custom of their race.' 

During a visit to the goldfields of the province of 
Auckland, Sir George had the opportunity of meeting 
a large and representative gathering of Maoris, as he 
relates in- the following extracts from a despatch : 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Auckland : April 14, 1868. 

There is one particular and suggestive fact con- 
nected with the town of Shortland at the goldfields, 
viz. that it is rising on ground belonging to the in- 
fluential Maori chief Taipari. He declines to sell his 
land ; preferring, with a view to its rapid increase in 
value, to let it in lots on building leases. But he has 
made liberal gifts of sites for churches for the Angli- 
cans, the Eoman Catholics, the Presbyterians, and the 
other principal Christian communions ; as also for a 
public hospital, a cemetery, a park, and other public 
purposes. He employs Englishmen to survey and lay 
out roads and streets, and to construct drains, culverts. 



288 NEW ZEALAND 

and the like. In short, he appears to me, on the one 
hand, as capable of maintaining his just rights, 
and, on the other, as desirous to improve his property, 
as any English landlord. Taipari's income, from rents 
and mining licences, is already at the rate of nearly 
4,000/. sterling yearly. He has caused a commo- 
dious house, in the English style, to be built for him- 
self on a slope commanding a beautiful prospect over 
the sea, and the rising town. Taipari's example, and 
the knowledge of the wealth which he is acquiring by 
allowing the colonists to occupy his land on equi- 
table terms, are beginning to exercise a beneficial in- 
fluence over many of his Maori countrymen, who 
have hitherto lived in hostile isolation. 

I had at first intended to limit my tour on this 
occasion to the goldfields ; but while I was at Short- 
land I learned that a large meeting of Maoris, com- 
posed partly of loyal tribes arid partly of Hau-hau 
fanatics, adherents of the so-called Maori King, had 
assembled at Ohinemuri, about thirty miles up the 
Eiver Thames ; with the object, principally, of con- 
sulting whether the miners should be permitted to 
search for gold in that quarter. I was advised by the 
Government officers, and others best qualified to 
judge on a subject of this nature, that much public 
benefit might result from my proceeding, without 
notice, to the place of meeting ; not to treat expressly 
of public affairs, but, as it were, to receive, on behalf 
of the Queen, the homage of the assembled Natives ; 
many of whom had been recently in arms against the 



VISIT TO MAORI MEETING AT OIIINEMUHI 289 

Crown. Accordingly, I went up the Eiver Thames 
in a small Government steamer, and anchored off 
the Maori encampment, which presented a very pic- 
turesque sight, with the flags of the several tribes 
flying over their tents. After a slight hesitation, 
all these flags were lowered before the Governor's 
flag ; and I was invited by a deputation of chiefs to 
come ashore. I landed amid general shouts and 
songs of welcome from the Hau-haus as well as from 
the friendly Natives ; and was conducted to a seat 
placed for me in the centre of the camp. On my 
right and left were ranged about four hundred of the 
loyal Ngatimaru and other tribes ; while immediately 
in front was a nearly equal number of Maoris who 
were engaged against the Government in the war. 
The customary war dance, equivalent to a military 
guard of honour elsewhere, was led by Taraia, the 
famous chief of the Ngatitameras, who presided 
over the last great cannibal feast held (in 1843) in 
New Zealand, and who is one of the few survivors of 
times and manners which have now well-nigh passed 
away. Taraia afterwards excused himself to me for 
his rather feeble dancing, which he ascribed to his 
four-score years, and not to any want of loyalty on 
his part. On the conclusion of the war dance, I was 
addressed in the usual fashion by the leading Maoris 
present in a series of speeches. 1 The Hau-hau chiefs 

1 It should be explained that at the Koreros, or conferences with the 
Maoris, the Governor and the native chiefs respectively speak each in his 
own language ; and that the speeches are translated, sentence by sen- 
VOL. I. U 



290 NEW ZEALAND 

avoided committing themselves expressly to any par- 
ticular course of policy ; but since my return to 
Auckland I have been assured that my visit and the 
speech which I addressed to the meeting have pro- 
duced a favourable impression, and have paved the 
way to several arrangements and concessions calcu- 
lated to preserve the peace of the district and to 
extend the authority of the law. In particular, it is 
stated that the minds of my audience were disabused 
of a prevalent notion that the arrival of the new 
Governor would lead to alterations in the law, and to 
a reversal of the policy pursued of late years by Her 
Majesty's Government. In my reply to their speeches, 
I reminded them, in their own figurative language 
(which is as necessary to produce a good impression 
on the Maoris of the present day as on the Scotch 
Highlanders of 150 years ago), that ' Governors and 
Maori chiefs, like other men, are mortal, and pass 
away, like the changes of the seasons ; whereas the 
law remains the same for ever, even as the sun 
shines in heaven both in summer and in winter. 
I have come here to uphold the law. If any man be 
aggrieved, let him state his grievance in a lawful 
manner, and justice will be done him whether he 
be Pakeha or Maori.' And again : ' The Queen is 
always glad to hear that her Maori children are living 
in peace and harmony with her European children. 
It is, and always has been, the desire of the Queen 

tence, by a Government interpreter. This system enables the Governor 
to watch the effect of his words, and to modify them accordingly. 



THE AUCKLAND GOLDFIELDS 291 

that there should be one law for both Pakelia and 
Maori. The word of the Queen is that the Pakeha 
and Maori should be united as one people.' 

We here quote an extract from a subsequent de- 
spatch respecting the Auckland goldfields : 

'Most of the gold hitherto exported from New 
Zealand is the produce of the goldfields of the 
South Island during the last ten years ; but the 
earliest discovery took place so far back as in 1852, 
about twenty miles north of the mouth of the Eiver 
Thames. Much excitement at that time arose among 
both the Colonists and the Natives, and fears of a 
dangerous collision between the two races w T ere 
entertained. However, Te Taniwha, the principal 
chief of the district, convened a meeting of his 
countrymen to decide the terms on which the 
Europeans should be allowed to dig for the precious 
metals on Maori land. Lieutenant-Go vernor Wyn- 
yard, Chief Justice Martin, Bishop Selwyn, and other 
prominent English functionaries and settlers were 
invited to be present ; and, through the influence of 
Te Taniwha, an equitable arrangement was promptly 
made, the requisite permission being granted by the 
Maoris on payment of a moderate licence fee by each 
miner. Mr. Swainson, formerly Attorney-General of 
New Zealand, has put on record in his " New Zealand 
and its Colonisation," a graphic description of the 
remarkable scene presented by the above-mentioned 
meeting. He writes : " The presence of the aged 



292 NEW ZEALAND 

chief Te Taniwha, 1 his remarkable appearance, and 
the occasion itself, gave to the assemblage an 
unusual interest. Though bowed down and enfeebled 
by age, the old man still retained the use of his 
faculties, and in a remarkable degree possessed that 
bold outline of head and face which formerly dis- 
tinguished the chieftains of the country. There 
stood the last living link between the past and 
present of New Zealand ; one who in time long past 
had himself stood face to face with England's great 
navigator, and who still lived to tell of Captain 
Cook's first visit to New Zealand ; how the natives 
all thought that his ship was a whale with wings, and 
that his crew were gods ; how for some time he, Te 
Taniwha himself, then but a little boy, was afraid to 
go on board ; how Captain Cook spoke little less 
than the other officers but took more notice of the 
children, patting them kindly on the head. 2 And 
now this venerable chief, as the crowning act of a 
long and eventful life, and confiding in the justice of 
the British Crown, came forward to welcome the 
Queen's vicegerent to the new-found fields of gold. 
When the first specimens were shown him of the gold 
discovered on his land he said he should now be 
content to die ; that he had lived many days, but 
that this was the brightest of them all. He did not 

1 Te Taniwha died in 1853. 

2 On another occasion, Te Taniwha further related that Captain 
Cook, on landing, almost invariably walked rapidly about, waving his 
right hand to and fro, doubtless scattering the seeds of Europe in the 
soil of New Zealand. (See Thomson's New Zealand, chap. 9.) 



II.R.II. THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH 293 

seem to value the consideration of the gain the dis- 
covery would bring him, so much as the thought that 
his land, the land of his ancestors, should be the 
first to produce the precious metal for which the 
white man so eagerly sought. Glancing at the time- 
honoured peak above him, and turning to the setting 
sun, he appeared to commune with the generation 
that he had outlived." 



The expected visit of the Duke of Edinburgh was 
unavoidably postponed by the attempt to murder him 
at Sydney by a Fenian assassin (named O'Farrell), 
who was tried before the Supreme Court, convicted, 
and hanged, though the Duke himself interceded for 
his life. Moreover, the New South Wales Parliament 
passed a very stringent Act which at once put an end 
to the Fenian movement in that Colony. 

To the Earl of Belmore, K.C.M.G., Governor of 
New South Wales. 

Government House, Auckland, New Zealand : April 4, 1868. 

My dear Lord Belmore, 

I am much obliged by your kind letter of 
March 20, which brought me the first reliable intelli- 
gence we got here respecting the state of the Duke of 
Edinburgh. As in Australia so in New Zealand, the 
news of the murderous attempt on the life of His Eoyal 
Highness has excited general horror and indignation, 
and has called forth enthusiastic expressions, at public 



294 NEW ZEALAND 

meetings and otherwise, of the loyalty and patriotism of 
the overwhelming majority of the community. Public 
opinion will support me in the most energetic 
measures to stamp out Fenianism at Hokitika, on the 
goldfielcls of the South Island where a procession 
was held (before the arrival of the news from Sydney) 
in honour of the Manchester Fenians. I have sent 
thither H.M. ship ' Falcon ' with a detachment of the 
18th Eegt. on board, to support the civil power in case 
of necessity. The ringleaders of the Fenians, and 
the editor of their organ, the ' New Zealand Celt,' have 
been arrested on a charge of sedition, and if the 
existing laws do not prove sufficient for the emer- 
gency, I have no doubt that the New Zealand Parlia- 
ment will grant further powers. 

Writing on the same subject to the Duke of 
Buckingham, Sir George said : 

' There is a strong Fenian agitation among the 
Irish on our southern goldfields, and I have received 
notices that there is a secret society determined to 
assassinate the Governor, as such, and not from any 
personal ill-feeling ! I am warned to adopt precau- 
tions for my safety. Lord Belmore writes to me that 
his life also has been threatened. Neither of us at- 
taches much importance to these warnings or threats, 
though others do so. At all events, it would be 
worse than useless to adopt any precautions, for 
no man can protect himself against assassins, who, 
like O'Farrell, the Fenian who wounded the Duke of 



FENIAN MOVEMENT SUPPRESSED 295 

Edinburgh at Sydney, are ready to sacrifice their own 
lives. I shall make no change in my manner of life, 
nor say anything publicly on the subject of the 
threatening letters.' 



The Fenian ringleaders in New Zealand were tried, 
found guilty, and punished by fine and imprisonment ; 
and the energetic measures adopted on this occasion 
stamped out the movement. It should be mentioned, 
as a characteristic trait of the loyal Maoris, that several 
of their chiefs expressed to the Governor their in- 
dignation at the attempt on the life of the ' Queen's 
Son,' and offered, when the Duke of Edinburgh 
should visit New Zealand, to seize the few Fenians 
in that Colony and carry them off to the mountains. 



296 NEW ZEALAND 



CHAPTEE XV. 

VISITS TO THE MAORIS MEETINGS AT WAITANGI AND IN THE 
VVAIKATO TAMATI WAKA NENE ANALOGY BETWEEN THE 
MAORIS AND THE SCOTCH HIGHLANDEES THE SO-CALLED 
MAOBI KING TAURANGA THE GATE PAH THE EAST COAST 
NAPIER BISHOPS SELWYN AND PATTESON SHIPWRECK 
OF THE ANGLICAN BISHOPS. 

A VOYAGE in H.M.S. < Brisk' to the Bay of Islands, 
in the northern districts, proved singularly interest- 
ing. ' All the Maoris of the north,' reported the 
Governor (May 4, 1868), ' that could be assembled 
at short notice, met me, to the number of about 
three hundred, at Waitangi, 1 on the spot where the 
meeting of February 5, 1840 so momentous in its 
results was held. 

' It will be remembered that the chiefs who first 
addressed the meeting at Waitangi, in 1840, strongly 
dissuaded their countrymen from the cession of their 
national independence ; and that the majority yielded 
at length to the authority and eloquence of Tamati 

1 ' Waitangi ' means ' Weeping Water,' and is the picturesque 
native name of the beautiful cascade near the spot where the cession 
of New Zealand to the British Crown was agreed to in 1840. It has 
since been remarked by a Maori chief that this name was prophetic of 
the blood and tears which were shed in the two wars between the 
Colonists and the Natives. 



MEETING AT WA1TANGI 297 

Waka Nene, who urged that the sovereignty of the 
Queen would bring with it the blessings of Christianity 
and of civilisation. It has been often stated, and 
it is generally believed here, that without the 
support of this celebrated chief, the British Govern- 
ment could not have been established in New Zea- 
land in 1840, nor maintained during the war of 1845- 
48. It was with deep interest that I and the other 
Englishmen present at the recent meeting saw this 
loyal subject of our Queen, this constant friend and 
brave ally of our race now in extreme old age 
arise, and striking his staff on the ground, proceed to 
remind his Maori countrymen that, standing on that 
very spot, he had counselled the fathers of the present 
generation to place themselves under the shadow of 
the Queen and the law ; that he knew he had 
counselled them well ; and now exhorted the sons of 
his former hearers to dwell in peace and brotherhood 
with each other and with the Colonists.' 

Writing three years later of the death of this chief, 
Sir George Bowen made some well-deserved comments 
on his services. 

To the Secretary of State. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
August 23, 1871. 

My Lord, 

It will be observed that, in the speech with which 
I opened the present session of the Colonial Parlia- 
ment, there occurs the following paragraph : ' You 



298 NEW ZEALAND 

will concur with me in regretting the death of the 
celebrated chief, Tamati Waka Nene, alike dis- 
tinguished for his loyalty to the Queen and for his 
friendship with the English, and who, whether in 
peace or war, did more than any other chief in New 
Zealand to establish the Queen's sovereignty and to 
promote colonisation.' In their addresses in reply 
to my speech, both Houses reciprocated the feeling 
thus expressed, and the same sentiment is universal 
throughout this Colony. 

Tamati Waka Nene, the principal chief and most 
famous warrior of the great clan of the Ngapuhis, long 
the most powerful in New Zealand, died at the Bay 
of Islands on the 4th instant, lamented alike by the 
English and by the Maoris. His age must have been 
above eighty years, for he was an elderly man when 
he procured the cession of the sovereignty of these 
islands to the British Crown, by the Treaty of 
Waitangi, in 1840, and when he fought so gallantly 
for the Queen in the Maori War of 1845-48. His 
last illness was short and not severe. A few weeks 
previously he had paid me a visit at Auckland, arid 
he was then still erect in stature and unclouded in 
mind. His dying words were earnest exhortations 
to his countrymen to live in peace and union with 
the English; and his last wish was that he should be 
buried, not, like the old heroes of his race in heathen 
times, in a remote cavern of the mountains, but in 
the English churchyard at the town of Eussell. This 
last wish was assented to by his family and his clan, 



TAMATI WAKA NENE 299 

and the funeral took place on the llth instant, ac- 
cording to the rites of the Church of England, to 
which Nene had been, for more than thirty years, a 
sincere and faithful convert. His coffin was borne to 
the grave by twelve of the leading Colonists of the 
north, who have owed so much to his good offices, 
while his chief surviving clansmen and the Govern- 
ment officers of the district were pall-bearers. Had 
it been possible for me to leave Wellington during 
the session of the Colonial Parliament, I should have 
gone myself to the Bay of Islands to pay the last 
mark of respect to him. 

In my despatch of May 26, 1870, written after 
my second visit to the northern clans, I gave some 
description of the Ngapuhis and of their country, and 
mentioned that Tamati Waka Nene always spoke 
' with grateful emotion of the silver goblet presented 
to him several years ago by the Queen, in recognition 
of his services to the British Crown. As he has out- 
lived his own children, he has bequeathed it as an 
heirloom to the family of the late Mr. Eussell, a re- 
spectable settler at Hokianga, who married his niece, 
and there it will be carefully preserved. The best 
writer who has hitherto compiled the annals of New 
Zealand remarks that as many noble Spanish houses 
in Peru and Mexico boast of their descent from 
the Incas and from Montezuma ; and as many leading 
families in Virginia are proud of the connexion of 
their ancestors with Pocahontas and the Bed Indians 
of a former age ; so the time may yet come when 



300 NEW ZEALAND 

tlie descendants of some of the first English settlers 
in this country will be proud of having in their 
veins the blood of Tamati Waka Nene, and of other 
Maori chieftains and warriors who were the loyal 
friends and brave allies of their forefathers.' 



In May 18G8, the Governor made an official 
tour in the Waikato district, in the centre of the 
North Island. He was accompanied by Mr. Eich- 
mond, the Minister for Native affairs. ' The Maoris 
of the Waikato Confederation,' writes Sir J. E. Gorst, 1 
' have been of late years regarded as the most im- 
portant in New Zealand. Their pre-eminence over 
other tribes is due, not to any intrinsic merit of their 
own, but solely to their geographical position. Their 
greatness has grown up with the settlement of Auck- 
land, the richest in the North Island, which lies at 
their feet, and has been for many years at their mercy. 
The land on which they live is fertile, and difficult to 
be invaded ; while at their backs they have a rugged, 
inaccessible country a retreat where they can set 
our civilised armies at defiance. When New Zealand 
was first colonised, no one supposed that in the end 
we should have to fight the Maoris for the possession 
of the soil. The early settlers confidently pushed 
their way into the heart of native districts ; home- 
steads of a few hundred acres, isolated in the midst 
of Maori villages, were bought without apprehension 
by European farmers, and inhabited in security fry 

1 In his clever book entitled The Maori King. Sir J. Gorst was for 
some years a police magistrate in New Zealand. 



OFFICIAL TOUR IN THE WAIKATO 301 

their wives and children. The Government did not 
hesitate to purchase blocks of land cut off by inter- 
vening native territory from the main settlements, 
which were retailed in small farms to settlers, wi'h- 
out a suspicion that the latter were being thereby 
doomed to ruin. And now that a quarrel has at last 
arisen between the races, the consolidation of our 
OW T II territory and the formation of a defensible 
frontier between European and Maori land impera- 
tively demand conquest, which must entail bloodshed 
and suffering upon both sides.' 

Extracts follow from Sir George Bowen's despatch 
on the subject of his tour in the Waikato : 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Wellington : June 30, 1868. 

My Lord Duke, 

It will be remembered that, after some severe 
fighting at Eangariri and elsewhere, during the 
campaigns of 1863 and 1864, General Cameron took 
possession of the great Waikato plain ; and that 
military settlements have since been formed there 
on the plan adopted by the Colonial Legislature. I 
wish to draw attention to the field now open in the 
Waikato, especially for agricultural settlers of ex- 
perience, and possessing some capital. 

I was received everywhere throughout my recent 
tour, by the colonists and by the Maoris alike, with 
addresses of welcome and other cordial demonstra- 
tions of loyalty to the Queen and of good will to 
myself, as Her Majesty's representative. The princi- 



302 NEW ZEALAND 

pal settlers of this district, and also those Maori chiefs 
of the Waikato who have remained loyal to the 
Crown during the war, had assembled to meet me at 
Ngaruaw&hia, the old Maori capital, which was occu- 
pied by the English troops in December 1863, and 
is now the centre of the military settlements. It is 
situated at the distance of about seventy-eight 
miles from Auckland, at the confluence of the rivers 
Waikato and Waipa ; and the native name of Ngarua- 
wahia, commemorating this ' meeting of the waters,' 
seems likely to outlive the new official designation 
of Newcastle. Here the triumphal arches formed of 
the beautiful ferns and flowering shrubs of the New 
Zealand forests, in the erection of which the colonists 
had vied with the Natives to do honour to the new 
Governor, the British cheers mingling with the 
Maori chants of welcome, and at night, the bonfires 
and fireworks of the Europeans lighting up the 
national dances of the Natives, all combined to 
present a most suggestive scene. 

On the day after my arrival, the usual meeting 
was held by the Natives, when Wi te Wheoro and 
other leading chiefs addressed me in complimentary 
speeches, full alike of the shrewd diplomacy and of 
the figurative language of their race. This meeting 
was held near the tomb of Potatau te Whero Whero, 
who was elected in 1857 to be the first King of the 
Maoris. This tomb is much dilapidated ; and I pro- 
mised, on behalf of the Colonial Government, that 
it should be restored and kept in repair, ' in honour 



RECEPTION AT THE OLD MAORI CAPITAL 303 

of a famous chief of the old time, who never made 
war on the Queen, and who lived for many years in 
peace and harmony with his English neighbours.' 
In my reply to the address of the Waikatos, I ex- 
horted them to bury in the grave of Potatau all 
feelings of hostility to the English It will be recol- 
lected that Potatau died before the commencement 
of the late war, and that his son and successor, 
Tawhiao, a man of little force of character, soon fell 
into the hands of a few ambitious chiefs and fanatical 
native prophets, animated by bitter hostility against 
the Europeans, and setting the Queen's authority and 
laws at utter defiance. 

From Ngaruawahia I proceeded to the new town- 
ship of Hamilton, where I was received by another 
body of the European settlers and by the Ngatihaua 
clan, to which belonged the eminent chief Tarapipipi 
te Waharoa, better know in parliamentary papers 
and official records by his Christian name of William 
Thompson, and by his sobriquet of the ' Maori 
Warwick,' or the ' King-maker ' ; for he was the lead- 
ing and controlling mind of what is termed the ' King 
movement.' He died in 1867; and his clansmen, 
though mostly engaged against the Government 
during the war, have now returned to their villages, 
and are living on peaceful terms with the Europeans. 
His son, and the other chiefs of the tribe, came to 
welcome me at the Hamilton meeting ; and it was 
interesting and gratifying to see the military settlers 
and the Ngatihauas, so lately arrayed in arms against 



304 NEW ZEALAND 

each, other, and in many cases showing the scars of 
wounds received in recent fights, intermingled in a 
friendly manner, and cordially uniting in the demon- 
strations made in honour of the Governor, as the 
representative of their common Sovereign. 

During my tour in the Waikato, I visited the 
remains of the Maori pahs and field-works, especially 
those at Mere-Mere and at Eangariri, before which 
so many of our officers and soldiers fell. An English 
high-road now traverses, and the posts and wires 
of the electric telegraph surmount the moulder- 
ing trenches and rifle-pits, already overgrown with 
wild shrubs and fern. I am assured that the Colonial 
Government will take measures for the proper preser- 
vation of the graveyards at Eangariri and the other 
scenes of former contests, where many British soldiers 
rest near their Maori foemen. 

Major Heaphy, V.C. (a distinguished officer of 
the Colonial Militia), has described the confiscated 
lands where the military settlements have been 
planted, and also the territory of King Tawhiao and 
his immediate adherents, now enclosed by an auMti, 
or boundary, which no European is allowed to cross 
on pain (after due warning) of death. Your Grace 
will, of course, recognise in the Maori aukdti a ' pale,' 
in the sense familiar in Irish history, with this im- 
portant difference, however, that in Ireland the 
'pale' was set up by the colonists against the 
natives, whereas in New Zealand it is set up by the 
natives against the colonists. It has been often ob- 



THE MAORI AUK ATI, OR ' PALE ' 305 

served that it is a lamentable fact that, after all the 
expenditure of blood and treasure which has taken 
place in this country, the Queen's writ can hardly be 
said to run in the purely Maori districts of New 
Zealand in the reign of Queen Victoria, any more 
than it ran in the Celtic districts of Ireland in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and in the Celtic districts 
of Scotland in the reign of Queen Anne. Indeed a 
close historical parallel has been frequently drawn 
between the social condition of the Maori Highlands 
at the present day, and that of the Scotch Highlands 
down to the middle of the eighteenth century, when 
a general reconstruction of society followed the sup- 
pression of the rebellion of 1745, and the subsequent 
breaking up of the system of clanship, and abolition 
of tribal tenures and of the hereditary authority of 
the chiefs. It is well known that the regular troops 
and the colonial forces fought with the accustomed 
gallantry of English soldiers throughout the two native 
wars, whenever they encountered the Maoris in the 
open field, and whenever they could bring them to 
close combat in the fortified pahs ; but that, owing to 
the great difficulties presented by the mountains and 
forests of the interior of New Zealand ; to the Maori 
system of fighting in tauas, or war parties, dispersed 
over a wide extent of natural fastnesses ; and to a 
variety of other causes, there has been no Culloden 
in New Zealand history. Like the Jacobite clans that 
adhered to the Stuart King before 1745, so the tribes 
that support the Maori King still stand aloof in sullen 

VOL. I. X 



306 NEW ZEALAND 

and hostile isolation. Again, the feuds which formerly 
raged in Scotland during several generations between 
the Campbells and the Macgregors, between the Mac- 
kintoshes and the Macdonalds, and many other High- 
land clans, find their counterpart in the feuds long 
raging in several parts of the North Island of New Zea- 
land ; as, for example, between the Ngapuhis and the 
Barawas, and between the Arawas and the Ureweras. 

It would be easy, though tedious, to multiply 
proofs and illustrations of the close resemblance in 
many points of the Maoris of the present day to the 
Scotch Highlanders of a former age. 1 I may, perhaps, 
be permitted to glance at three such points of resem- 
blance, which recent events have brought under my 
notice. 

(1) In March last, a herd of cattle belonging 
to Messrs. Buckland and Firth, of Auckland, was 
driven off by a party of Maori marauders, but was 
afterwards restored on the application of those gentle- 
men to Tamati Ngapora, the uncle and chief coun- 
cillor of King Tawhiao. The details of this case, 
even in the most minute circumstances, would, if told 
at length, read exactly like that chapter of ' Waver- 
ley ' which relates how the cattle of the Baron of Brad- 
wardine, when carried off by the Highland cateran, 
Donald Bean Lean, were restored through the influ- 
ence of Fergus Mclvor, the chief of the clan. 

1 It is a curious fact that both the Scotch Highlanders and the Maoris 
are divided into about twenty principal clans, with numerous sub- 
divisions. 



THE MAORIS AND THE SCOTCH HIGHLANDERS 307 

(2) Lord Macaulay 1 and Sir Walter Scott 2 have 
recorded, on the authority of official documents, how 
' a band of Macgregors, having cut off the head of an 
enemy, . . . carried the ghastly trophy in triumph 
to their chief. The whole clan met under the roof 
of an ancient church. Every one in turn laid his 
hand on the dead man's scalp, and vowed to defend 
the slayers.' It will be recollected that the fanatical 
Hau-haus carried about, in a similar manner, the head 
of Captain Lloyd of the 57th Regiment, and, as it is 
feared, of others of their English victims. 

(3) It is stated 3 that the Highlanders under Mont- 
rose were so deeply imbued with the prevalent belief 
that the issue of a battle would be in favour of the 
side which first shed blood, that, on the morning of 
one of their victories, they murdered a defenceless 
herdsman, whom they found in the fields, merely to 
secure this omen in their favour. The Maoris hold 
the same superstition. When the Hau-haus attacked 
Napier, in 1866, they were defeated w~ith severe loss. 
One of the wounded prisoners remarked to Mr. 
McLean, 4 the Superintendent of the Province of 
Hawke's Bay, that the issue would have been different 
if the Maoris had followed the advice of their seers, 
and killed an English shepherd whom they found tend- 
ing his flock on the morning before the fight. 

It should not be forgotten that if the Maoris of 

1 History of England, chap. 18. 

8 Preface to the Legend of Montrose. 

3 See note to the Lady of the Lake, Canto IV. 

4 Afterwards Sir Donald McLean, K.C.M.G. 

x 2 



308 NEW ZEALAND 

the present time resemble the ancient Highlanders in 
some of their savage customs and dark passions and 
superstitions, they resemble them equally, not only in 
their patriarchal and tribal system of government, 
but also in personal courage, strength, and endu- 
rance ; in love of war and military exercises, and of 
martial dances and songs ; in liveliness of fancy, in 
natural shrewdness of character ; and, it may be 
fairly added, in courtesy, hospitality, and good 
humour, so long as no offence is given to their 
national pride or to their individual self-esteem. 

In discussing Maori affairs the practical question 
always arises, what prospect is there of a renewal of 
hostilities by Tawhiao and his partisans ? The Maori 
King now resides chiefly at Tokangamutu, a place 
about eighty miles south of his former capital at 
Ngaruawahia ; and a glance at the map will show that 
he occupies a commanding position in the centre of 
the island, from which he could send forth war parties 
in several directions to the attack of the English 
settlements. Eespecting the probable intentions of 
the ' King natives ' (as they are termed), I find con- 
flicting opinions to exist among those best qualified 
to judge ; and, with my very short experience in this 
country, it would be presumptuous in me to express, 
or even to form, as yet, any positive opinion of my 
own on this important question. It is, however, my 
duty to report that friendly natives have sent several 
warnings to the Government to the effect that the 
' King tribes ' are inclined to begin afresh a desultory 



QUESTION OF RENEWAL OF HOSTILITIES 309 

warfare, and are waiting only for a favourable oppor- 
tunity, such as would be afforded by any relaxation 
of vigilance on the part of the detachments of armed 
constabulary which now protect the settlements in 
the interior, or by the immediate withdrawal of the 
single regiment of regular troops which now garrisons 
the principal towns. I am further informed that the 
Arawas and other tribes that have fought gallantly 
and suffered much for the Crown are disposed to 
regard the entire removal of the Queen's troops with 
alarm and dissatisfaction ; as a sign that they can 
expect .henceforward little moral or physical support 
against their hostile countrymen ; and that, in their 
own phrase, ' the Queen is riri (i.e. displeased) with 
the Pakehas ' ; in other words, that the Imperial 
authorities are opposed to the colonists. It has been 
represented, in short, that the loyal clans in New 
Zealand at the present day would view the entire 
withdrawal of Imperial troops with feelings similar 
to those with which the Hanoverian clans in Scot- 
land, 150 years ago, while exposed to the vengeance 
of their Jacobite neighbours, would have regarded 
the removal of the English garrisons from Inverness, 
Fort William, and Stirling. 

The latest reliable intelligence tends to show that 
there exist among the disaffected tribes two parties ; 
one, headed by Tawhiao and his family and kinsmen, 
disposed to moderate counsels ; the other, headed 
by the Hau-hau prophet Hakaria, of a more un- 
compromising spirit. If Tawhiao is the Maori Saul, 



310 NEW ZEALAND 

Hakaria is the Maori Samuel. It will be recollected 
that the ' King-maker,' Te Waharoa (William Thomp- 
son), whose mind was deeply imbued with the history 
and phraseology of the Old Testament, publicly 
justified, in a letter addressed to Governor Gore 
Browne in 1860, the election of a Maori King, by 
citing, among other scriptural texts, Deuteronomy xvii. 
15 : ' One from among thy brethren shalt thou set 
king over thee ; thou mayest not set a stranger over 
thee, which is not thy brother ' ; and many of the 
leading politicians of New Zealand are convinced that 
the ' King movement,' in its early stages, might have 
been made an instrument 'for elevating the native 
race, by the introduction of institutions subordinate 
to, and in harmony with the European Government 
of the Colony.' It has been suggested that a native 
province might have been created, to be ruled, like 
the territories of the semi-independent rajahs in 
India, nominally by a great Maori chief, but really 
by the advice and influence of a British Resident 
or Commissioner. All, however, appear to be now 
agreed that the opportunity for any arrangement of 
this kind has been lost; and that Tawhiao and 
Hakaria are surrounded by fierce and bloody fanatics, 
almost resembling their Malay forefathers when 
' running a-muck,' or Highland prophets with the 
' second sight ' urging a foray on the Sassenach. A 
distinguished colonist, who is generally believed to 
be more intimately acquainted with the natives of 
New Zealand than is any other European, lately re- 



POLICY OF FIRMNESS AND CONCILIATION 311 

marked to me that one of their seers may, any morn- 
ing, allege that he beheld in a dream the Maoris 
hewing the Pakehas to pieces, and that the next day 
a war party of Hau-haus may rush on the nearest 
British settlement to prove the truth of the vision. 
Much loss of life and property may be inflicted by 
such outbreaks among the scattered homesteads in 
the districts bordering on the territory of the hostile 
tribes ; but the settlers in those parts will always, as 
on several former occasions, assemble speedily for 
their own protection, and they will be supported by 
all the strength of the Government. 

On the whole, it appears to be very generally 
agreed that, since the authority of the Crown and of 
the law was not established throughout the interior 
of this country while there was an army of above 
10,000 regular troops in New Zealand, the attitude of 
the colonial authorities towards Tawhiao and his 
adherents must and ought to be, in the main, defen- 
sive ; that it is at once more politic and more humane 
to outlive the ' King movement/ than to endeavour 
to suppress it by the strong hand ; that the turbulent 
natives should receive every encouragement to live 
peaceably ; but that murderous onslaughts (such as 
that at Patea), whether on the English settlers or on 
the friendly Maoris, should be punished with the 
rigour necessary to prevent a recurrence of unpro- 
voked aggressions. 

There are many peaceful and civilising influences 
at work, even among the disaffected tribes. It is 



312 NEW ZEALAND 

well known that the chiefs of clans in the Scotch 
Highlands discovered, in a former generation, that it 
would be to their personal benefit to abolish the 
tribal tenure of the soil, and to convert their clans- 
men into tenant-farmers ; in a word, to transform 
themselves from patriarchal chieftains into feudal 
landlords. It is equally interesting and encouraging 
to find that many of the Maori chiefs, including 
several who were hostile to the Government, have 
begun to follow, unconsciously, this example. They 
have learned that they cannot effect their object 
without procuring legal titles for their lands, and 
placing them under the protection of the courts of 
law. This policy has been already adopted in 
numerous instances ; and the fanatical Hau-haus, 
starving and shivering in sullen seclusion on their 
hills and morasses, are beginning (it is said) to feel a 
salutary desire for the comforts and luxuries enjoyed 
by numbers of their countrymen, who have sold or 
leased a portion of their lands to the English settlers, 
and are now well fed, w T ell clothed, and well lodged 
on the regular incomes thus acquired. In the single 
province of Hawke's Bay, yearly rents exceeding in 
the aggregate twenty-six thousand pounds, paid by 
pastoral settlers, are divided annually among about 
200 Maori families, the owners of the soil. In a 
former despatch, 1 I mentioned that Taipari and other 
chiefs derive a considerable revenue from the fees 
paid by the miners on the northern goldfields ; and 

1 See above, page 287. 



ADDRESS FROM THE WAIKATOS 313 

it may not be altogether impertinent to add that, in 
the neighbourhood of Auckland, one or two Maoris 
have already begun to preserve the game on their 
lands, and, like Highland lairds, to let their shootings 
for the season to English sportsmen. 



The address, referred to above, of the Ngatihaua 
clan, at Hamilton, in the Waikato, May 21, 1868, 
and the Governor's reply, are subjoined. 

'Salutations to you, Sir George Bowen, the 
Governor for this Island. It is good for you to come 
to Waikato to see your people of the two races, the 
Maori and the European. You have been sent by 
our Queen to be a protector for New Zealand, to 
cause good to go forth over this island, so that it 
may prosper, and that men may return to the good 
customs which formerly existed ; that the wars be- 
tween the Maoris and the Europeans may cease. 

6 Salutations to you, Governor ! May you be 
a barrier against the evils of this island ; may you 
be strong to uphold good within this island, and to 
put down the evil of both the Maoris and the Euro- 
peans. The hearts of our people are dark on ac- 
count of the misfortune which has happened to the 
son of the Queen, and which prevented our seeing 
him, for we greatly desired to have beheld that young 
Prince ; but it cannot be helped, when evil has be- 
fallen him. 

' We now pray to God to carefully protect you, 
your wife and children, during the days of your 
residence among us in New Zealand ; and we hope 
that you may enjoy health, so that you may be able 



314 NEW ZEALAND 

to perform all lawful acts, and that good may result 
to all persons throughout the whole of this island. 

Reply of the Governor. 

6 my Friends ! I am very glad to see here 
assembled the people of Ngatihaua, and I thank 
you for coming so far to welcome me, and for your 
loyal speeches. I have heard and read much of your 
late chief Wiremu Tamihana, who was long foremost 
among Maoris in the arts of peace. I have also heard 
that none are more distinguished than your tribe for 
bravery in war. War has now ended, and I see with 
pleasure Maori and Pakeha meeting here in mutual 
trust and friendship. The energies which have been 
employed in strife may now again be directed to 
those arts which Wiremu Tamihana once loved ; and 
Pakeha and Maori may emulate each other in making 
this beautiful land more beautiful still by covering it 
with gardens and orchards with cornfields, pastures, 
and towns. This is the desire of the Queen, who has 
sent me to be her representative ; this is my desire, 
and the desire of the Ministers, of the Legislature, and 
of all the Europeans in New Zealand. If my coming 
among you can in any way bind closer the friendship 
of the two races, it will be my greatest pleasure often 
to visit the places where they dwell together. I hope 
next year I may be able to see you in your own 
villages, and to stay longer among you. Meantime 
let your work be untiring to spread peace and good- 
will to bring back the stray sheep of the Maori race. 



REPLY OF THE GOVERNOR 315 

My hand and the hand of xny Government is stretched 
out to receive them. 

' I had hoped that the coming of the Prince, the 
Queen's son, might have been the occasion of ending 
all bitterness and anger. His visit has been prevented 
by evil men, but it will rejoice the heart of the Queen 
to know how wide and how warm have been the 
indignation and sympathy excited by the crime 
against her son. He has requested me to say to both 
races how great is his sorrow that he could not visit 
New Zealand. 

' As for what was said by one of the speakers 
respecting the Waikato river, hearken ye to my 
word. The river is, and always has been, the common 
highway of both races of the Pakeha and of the 
Maori. All who go up and down upon the river on 
their lawful errands will be protected by the law. 

' With regard to what was said respecting the 
land, listen again to my word. The Government 
gave due warning that those who rebel against the 
Queen and the law, would be punished by the loss of 
their lands. But large reserves of land have been 
made in the Waikato, and also at Mangere near 
Auckland, and in many other districts, with the 
object of rewarding the loyal, and of providing homes 
and subsistence for all those who desire to return to 
the paths of peace and quietness. Let all such apply 
to the Government in the lawful manner, and full 
provision will be made for them. 

' And now, my friends ! in conclusion, I thank 



316 NEW ZEALAND 

you for your good wishes for myself, for my wife, 
and for our children. Your loyal and friendly words 
will strengthen my hands to labour strenuously for 
law, peace, and union.' 



The following despatch describes the Governor's 
return voyage from Auckland to Wellington by the 
east coast of the North Island : 



To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Wellington : July 1, 1868. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to report that I left Auckland 
on the 5th, and reached Wellington on the 21st ult., 
after a very interesting voyage, during which I 
visited the principal ports, English settlements, and 
native tribes on the East Coast of the North Island of 
New Zealand ; spending also several days at Napier, 
the capital of the province of Hawke's Bay. No- 
thing could exceed the cordiality of my reception 
alike by the Europeans and by the Maoris on this as 
on my other official tours. Addresses full of expres- 
sions of loyalty to the Queen, and of welcome and 
goodwill to myself, were everywhere presented by 
both races. 

The harbour of Tauranga is the best between 
Auckland and Wellington ; and the township on its 
shores is now the centre of one of the military settle- 
ments. It will be recollected that the regular troops 
and naval brigade suffered very severe loss at the 



THE GATE PAH 317 

assault, in 1864, of the pah erected by the Ngaiter- 
angi tribe three miles from Tauranga, and generally 
known as the Gate Pah, from its commanding the 
entrance to the inland districts at a point where the 
road passes along a narrow tract of firm ground 
between two extensive swamps. The Ngaiterangis 
were afterwards completely defeated at Te Eanga, 
four miles further in the interior ; and they have 
since, for the most part, returned to their villages, 
and are living peaceably. Enoka te Whanake 1 and 

1 Enoka te Whanake had commanded the Maoris (less than 400 
strong) who garrisoned the Gate Pah, which was besieged by a com- 
bined force of some 3,000 soldiers, and seamen of the Naval Brigade. 
At the assault, the 43rd Kegiment alone lost 14 out of 24 officers ; and 
three officers of the Naval Brigade were also killed. The senior naval 
officer (afterwards an admiral), while leading on his men very gallantly, 
fell (luckily for himself) into the Maori rifle-pit, in which was Enoka 
te Whanake, from whose lips Sir G. Bowen heard what happened. The 
Maori chief said : ' Suddenly the Pakeha captain tumbled in among my- 
self and five of my clansmen ; he made a stroke at me with his sword, 
which I parried with my tomahawk, and he was thrown down by my 
warriors, when he burst into a loud fit of laughter ! Of course we thought 
him mad, and as we Maoris look on madmen as tapu (sacred), instead 
of killing him, we crept ourselves into the next rifle-pit, and left him 
alone ; so that when the fighting was over, he was pulled out unhurt 

by his own men.' The fact is that Captain J had been formerly 

wounded severely in the muscles of his throat, and when excited he 
could not help exploding after the fashion of the ' Laughing Jackass ' of 
Australia ; from which bird he derived his sobriquet. His laugh saved 
his life. It may here be mentioned that Colonel Booth of the 43rd was 
mortally wounded inside the Gate Pah, and that a Maori fetched 
water to slake his dying thirst. When the Maoris evacuated the Pah 
on the following day, it was found that his body had not been rifled, and 
that even his watch and purse were safe. This touching incident is 
thus related by Canon Curteis in his Life of Bishop Selwyn, page 177 : 
' When our troops had stormed the formidable Gate Pah, and been 
repulsed, several wounded officers were left inside. One of them was 
tenderly cared for, all through the dreary night, by one of the Maoris 
who defended the Pah, Henare Turatoa by name. He had been edu- 



318 NEW ZEALAND 

others of the principal chiefs who fought against the 
Crown during the war had assembled to welcome me 
on my landing at Tauranga ; and the English settlers, 
with excellent taste and good-feeling, invited them to 
the public dinner which they gave in my honour. 
Captain Palmer, E.N., and the officers of Her 
Majesty's ship ' Eosario,' were also present. After 
the customary loyal and patriotic toasts, and the 
health of the Governor had been disposed of, the 
chairman (one of the leading military settlers) gave, 
' Our guests, the Maori Chiefs lately our brave 
enemies in war, and now our friendly neighbours in 
peace.' All the Europeans stood up, and applauded 
heartily ; and when the cheering had subsided, the 
five Maoris rose in succession, and returned thanks, 
in the English fashion, with the natural fluency, 
humour, and eloquence of their race. A more 
cordial feeling could not have been exhibited by 
English and Eussian officers meeting at the close of 
the Crimean war, than was exhibited at Tauranga by 
the military settlers and the Maoris, who four years 
ago had been arrayed in arms against each other. The 
many high qualities of the Maoris prevent Englishmen 
from regarding these ' foemen worthy of their steel ' 
with that mingled contempt and dislike with which 



cated by the bishop, till quite lately, at St. John's College, near Auck- 
land. And now, when his dying enemy feebly moaned for water and 
there was none within the Pah, this noble warrior crept down at the 
imminent risk of his life, within the line of English sentries, filled a 
vessel with water, and bore it back to refresh the parched lips of the 
expiring Englishman.' 



VISIT TO THE ARAWAS 319 

our countrymen unfortunately too often regard the 
dark-skinned races in other parts of the British Empire. 
From Tauranga I proceeded to Maketu, where 
I was received by a large assemblage of the Arawas, 
who fought gallantly for the Crown throughout the 
war, and who are now much harassed, in conse- 
quence, by the Hau-haus and by the wild tribe of 
the Ur ewer as, which holds the neighbouring moun- 
tains. After witnessing the customary war-dance 
(which was admirably performed at Maketu), and 
listening to addresses from the principal Arawa 
chiefs, I replied in a speech, of which the substance 
will be found in the annexed report. I explained 
that owing to the near approach of the session of 
the Colonial Parliament at Wellington, I was unable 
at that time to visit the hot lakes . and springs 
(resembling the Geysers of Iceland) in the country 
of the Arawas, but that I hoped to return next 
summer, and then to travel thither over the road 
which they had made by their own labour in expec- 
tation of the proposed visit of the Duke of Edin- 
burgh. I added that I had acquainted the Imperial 
Government and his Eoyal Highness with this proof 
of the devotion of their tribe, and that I was con- 
fident that it would be graciously acknowledged. 
Like the Xgapuhis and other loyal tribes, the 
Arawas expressed, through their leading warriors, 
unbounded indignation at the attempt to assassinate 
the ' Queen's son ' ; and entreated ' to be led against 
the Fenians.' 



320 NEW ZEALAND 

After this Maori Korero (a ceremony correspond- 
ing somewhat to the Durbars of British India), 
I visited the pah, or fortified village of Maketu, 
and the whares, or dwellings of the principal chiefs. 
I then inspected the school for their children, which 
has been established by the Arawas, assisted by the 
Colonial Government, under the provisions of the 
* Act 1 to regulate and provide subsidies for Maori 
schools.' Though this school had been open for only 
seven months, and the teaching is entirely in English, 
the master being a former corporal of the 12th 
Eegiment, I found the Maori children quite as 
proficient in reading, writing, arithmetic, and in the 
other branches of primary education, as English 
children of the same age, and under similar circum- 
stances, would be. It was very gratifying to observe 
the intelligent interest evidently taken in the exami- 
nation by the managing committee of fourteen Maoris, 
who were all present. No efforts will be wanting on the 
part of the Colonial Government to extend an efficient 
system of schools throughout the native districts. 

After leaving Maketu, I visited Opotiki, also in 
the Bay of Plenty, as it was named by Captain Cook. 
Opotiki was the scene of the cruel murder, in 1865, 
of the Eev. C, S. Volkner (the resident Church of 
England Missionary), by the fanatical Hau-haus, 
under the prophet Kereopa, who devoured a portion 
of the body of his victim. To punish this and other 
similar atrocities (including the murder of Mr. 

1 No. 41 of 1867. 



OPOTIKI WHITE ISLAND POVERTY BAY 321 

Fulloon, and his crew), an expedition of colonial 
Militia and friendly natives was organised. This 
force was completely successful, routing the Hau- 
haus at every point. A portion of their land was 
confiscated ; and the township of Opotiki, with the 
fertile plain surrounding it, was allotted to military 
settlers. Owing to the frequent incursions of the Hau- 
haus and Ureweras, it is still found necessary to 
maintain about eighty of these settlers on permanent 
pay, and to station them in two blockhouses, com- 
manding the entrance of the passes leading from the 
mountains into the plain. Attended by a small escort 
of Volunteer cavalry, I rode over the confiscated land, 
which, when law and order shall have been fully 
established, will probably support a flourishing settle- 
ment. I also held a Korero with the small neighbour- 
ing tribes of the Xgaitai and Ngatiwhakatohea. 

On my voyage from Opotiki round the East Cape, 
I landed on the curious volcanic cone, which rises in 
the centre of the Bay of Plenty. In the middle of the 
huge crater there is a lake of hot sulphureous water, 
and clouds of steam (whence the name of White 
Island) are constantly sent up from a number of 
boiling springs. There is no animal life whatsoever, 
and scarcely any vegetable life, on this lone and 
gloomy islet. 

I visited next Turanganui, named Poverty Bay 
by Captain Cook, because the hostility of the natives 
prevented him from procuring supplies there, But 
a fertile plain extends behind the township situated 

VOL. I. Y 



822 NEW ZEALAND 

near the mouth of the river, which here falls into the 
sea, and several enterprising settlers occupy farms 
upon it. The local Volunteer troop of cavalry quickly 
assembled, and escorted me ten miles inland, to the 
ruins of the mission station, so long presided over by 
the Bishop of Waiapu (Dr. William Williams), but 
from which that prelate and his family were driven by 
the Hau-haus during the recent war. These fanatics 
were afterwards defeated and dispersed by a party 
of the colonial forces ; but they succeeded in destroy- 
ing the mission buildings, and in laying waste the 
once flourishing gardens and orchards. The Bishop 
of Waiapu now resides at Napier. The few Maoris 
living near Turanganui assembled to welcome me. 
They belong chiefly to a hapu, or section, of the 
Ngatiporo tribe. 

My next stage was Napier, the capital of the pro- 
vince of Hawke's Bay, where I received a hearty 
welcome from all classes of the community. During 
my residence at Napier, I was the guest of the 
Superintendent, Mr. Donald McLean ; and was enter* 
tained by the settlers at a public dinner. I annex 
reports of my speeches at the Koreros held with the 
Ngatikahungunu tribe, the owners of a large territory 
in the south-eastern part of the North Island. As 
was mentioned in a former despatch, 1 a sum of twenty- 
six thousand pounds is annually paid as rent by the 
pastoral settlers to about two hundred families of this 
tribe. Tareha, Karaitiana, and the other principal 

1 See above, p. 312. 



THE EAST COAST NAPIER 323 

chiefs, are thus enabled to live in comfortable houses, 
built in the English fashion, and to drive in English 
carriages about their well-cultivated farms. They 
have erected a Maori Club at Napier, as their place 
of meeting when they visit that town. Instead of the 
national dances with which I was greeted elsewhere, 
I was received by the Ngatikahungunus with guards 
of honour, composed of the native militia, all well 
armed and well drilled in the English fashion, and 
commanded by chiefs wearing the uniform of English 
staff officers. It will be remembered that when the 
Hau-haus advanced in 1866 to the attack and 
plunder of Napier, they were routed in a sharp and 
decisive action by the colonial forces, combined with 
these loyal native allies. 

It will be seen that during the first five months of 
my administration, I have visited all the principal 
European settlements and friendly native tribes in the 
North Island, with the exception of those at Taranaki 
and Wanganui, both of which places I hope to visit in 
the early part of next year. I shall of course remain 
at the seat of the general Government at Wellington 
during the annual session, which I shall- open on the 
9th instant. At the close of the session, I intend to 
proceed on an official tour to Nelson, Marlborough, 
Canterbury, Westland, Otago, and Southland, the 
principal districts of the South Island. I thus expect 
to make myself personally acquainted, during the first 
twelve months of .my administration, with all the chief 
centres of population in this Colony. 

Y 2 



324 NEW ZEALAND 

[ENCLOSURE IN THE ABOVE DESPATCH.] 
The Speech of the Governor to the Arawas, at the 
Meeting at Maketu, June 6, 1868. 

my friends, chiefs and people of the Arawas ! 
this is the word of the Queen, and of me, the Governor 
,and representative of the Queen. I thank you for 
your loyal speeches, and for the hearty welcome which 
you have accorded to me to-day. Ever since I came 
to New Zealand I have longed to visit your tribe and 
your wonderful country, so richly endowed by nature, 
and the fame of which has gone forth so far. I have 
heard and read much of your loyalty to the Queen, 
and of your friendship for your neighbours of Euro- 
pean blood. Your bravery in war is celebrated 
throughout New Zealand, and my heart rejoices to 
learn that you are now determined to become equally 
celebrated in the arts of peace. It is well that the 
children of the Arawa should set an example to all 
the Maori tribes by their good works. I have heard 
that you are making provision for the education of 
your youth by founding schools. The Government 
will help you in the terms of the law ; and here let 
me say, that I am glad to see so many children in 
your settlements, which blessing is mainly due to the 
temperance and sobriety of your lives. You recollect 
that the Holy Scriptures say, ' Blessed is the man who 
has his quiver full of them.' I hope to-day to visit your 
school at Maketu, and to visit your other settlements 
and schools next year in the summer time, when I 
shall travel to see your beautiful lakes and hot-springs. 



GOVERNOR'S SPEECH TO THE ARAWAS 325 

over the road which your loyalty has induced you to 
make for the Queen's son, the Duke of Edinburgh. 
I have already written to the Queen and to the Prince 
to inform them of this proof .of }'our hospitable devo- 
tion ; and I know that they will rejoice at it, and will 
write letters to thank you, so soon as the tidings reach 
England. You know already the deplorable cause 
which prevented the Queen's son from visiting New 
Zealand. He has requested me to inform you that 
he deeply regrets, that his heart is very dark, that 
he has been prevented from visiting his Maori friends, 
and assuring them of the royal affection which the 
Queen his mother bears to them. The desire of the 
Queen is, that her Maori children, and her Pakeha 
children, should be governed by the same laws, and 
should become, as it were, one people. The Queen also 
hopes that all dissensions amongst the Maoris them- 
selves may cease. Some of you have referred to these 
dissensions. my friends ! hearken to my words ; 
let not the land be a cause of strife among yourselves, 
but refer your difficulties to the courts and to the 
magistrates, who are equally friends to all parties, 
and have no interest but to do justice to all alike. 

I am gratified at the wishes which many of you 
have expressed in your speeches, that I should stay 
longer at Maketu. The parliament (Eunanga) is 
soon to meet at Wellington to deliberate for the wel- 
fare of both the Maori and the Pakeha. I must visit 
Wellington for these deliberations, but, as I have 
said already, I hope to return in the summer. 



NEW ZEALAND 



i And now once more, my friends ! I thank you 
for your welcome, and I pray that God, the giver of 
all good, may grant you happiness and prosperity. 



Any sketch of Sir G. Bowen's life in New Zealand 
would be very incomplete which should not refer 
to his friendship with Bishop Selwyn, who, like him- 
self, felt a warm interest in the Maoris ; and with 
the other Anglican Bishops, especially with Bishop 
Patteson, the head of the Melanesian Mission, whom he 
had known at Oxford, and with whom he maintained 
an affectionate intercourse. The Bishop had been 
an honoured guest at the Government House, before 
he sailed in 1871 on his last missionary voyage, when 
he met a martyr's death at the hands of the natives 
of Nukapu, a small island in the Melanesian group. 

A remarkable incident occurred when Bishop 
Selwyn held his last Synod at Wellington, after his 
translation to Lichfield. Sir G. Bowen drove the 
Primate and his suffragan Bishops to the pier, where 
they embarked in a small coasting steamer which was 
to take them back to their respective dioceses. Ee- 
ference was made to the belief of seamen (a tradition 
probably of Jonah), that a Bishop on board ship is likely 
to bring ill luck ; and, strange to say, four hours after 
leaving Wellington, the steamer conveying the five 
Bishops struck on a rock near the shore, filled, and, in 
a short time, sank. Fortunately, Bishops Selwyn and 
Abraham had rowed in the Cambridge College races, 
and now got out a boat and brought their brethren 
on shore ; (humanly speaking) saving their lives, 
and the lives of those shipwrecked with them. 



32' 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

RENEWAL OF THE MAORI WAR TITOKOWARU AND TE KOOTI 
MASSACRE AT POVERTY BAY POLICY OF THE GOVERNOR HE 
PROCEEDS TO WANGANUI, AND ADDRESSES THE ASSEMBLED 
CLANS, WHO TAKE UP ARMS FOR THE QUEEN DEFEAT OF 
THE REBELS CAPTURE OF NGATAPA TRIAL OF THE MAORI 
PRISONERS THE GOVERNOR'S COMMENTS ON THE STATE OF 
AFFAIRS, AND PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS. 

SIR GEORGE BOWEN reported in August 1868, that 
the state of affairs which, on his arrival in New 
Zealand in the previous February, he found existing 
in the districts occupied by the hostile Maoris, was 
described by the most competent judges as ' a doubt- 
ful armed truce.' This truce was broken in the 
latter months of 1868 by dangerous and simulta- 
neous outbreaks on the West coast of the North Island 
under Titokowaru, and on the East coast under Te 
Kooti. The former chief at first gained some suc- 
cesses over the colonial Militia and Volunteers, re- 
pulsing with severe loss their attack on his pah, called 
Te Ngutu-o-te.Manu, or the Hawk's Beak. But a still 
more dangerous outbreak was led on the East coast 
by Te Kooti. This latter chief, with about two 
hundred Maori prisoners of war, had been sent, under 
the administration of Sir G. Grey, to the Chatham 
Islands, a dependency of the Colony distant some 
400 miles from Wellington, In October 1868, 



328 NEW ZEALAND 

they surprised and disarmed the guard of colonial 
Militia ; seized a small English merchant vessel in 
the harbour ; and forced the crew, on pain of 
death, to land them near Turanganui (Poverty Bay). 
Here Te Kooti was joined by large numbers of the 
disaffected clans ; and on the night of November 10th, 
he fell on the small English settlement, and butchered 
the sleeping or barely awakened men, women, and 
children, with every circumstance of horror and 
brutality. Whole families were destroyed, and their 
flaming houses served as their funeral pyres. Full 
details will be found in the Governor's despatches 
and in the reports of the colonial officers. On 
December 7, 1868, Sir G. Bo wen wrote : 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

My Lord Duke, 

In my despatch of the 17th ult. I reported the 
arrival at Wellington of the first news of the cruel 
massacre by the Hau-hau rebels on the 10th ult., of 
a number of English settlers and friendly natives at 
Turanganui (Poverty Bay), and the first steps taken 
by the Government to succour the survivors of that 
massacre. 

There is no official report to forward of this 
catastrophe, for one of the earliest victims was the 
resident magistrate of the district, Major Biggs, a 
gentleman who had rendered much good service 
both in his official capacity, and also as an officer of 
the colonial forces. 

In the absence of any official report, I now 



MASSACRE AT TURANGANUI (POVERTY BAY) 329 

transmit statements made by persons who have 
escaped from the massacre, and others competent to 
supply authentic details. Some episodes in this 
tragedy are very affecting ; for example, the refusal 
of Mrs. Biggs to fly and save her own life, when 
implored to do so by her wounded and dying hus- 
band ; and the murder (accompanied with savage 
barbarities), by his side, of her and of her infant 
child ; and of a faithful maid-servant, who had also 
refused to fly. I would also refer to the providential 
rescue of Mrs. Wilson, through the agency of her 
son, a boy of eight years of age. It will be seen 
that her husband, Captain Wilson, ' fought bravely 
for his family, but succumbed to overpowering odds. 
The murderers dashed out the brains of Mrs. 
Wilson's baby against the floor, and after the head 
had become a pulpy mass, placed it in her arms 
before attacking the mother.' This unfortunate lady 
was then pierced with several bayonet thrusts, and 
left for dead ; but she was afterwards kept alive 
for some days by her little boy, who had concealed 
himself during the massacre, and who finally con- 
trived to reach the nearest post of the Militia with a 
card, on which his mother had traced these words : 

' Could some kind friend come to our help, for 
God's sake ! I am very much wounded, lying at a 
little house at our place. My poor son James is with 
me. Come quick. ALICE WILSON. 

4 We have little or no clothing, and are in 
dreadful suffering.' 



330 NEW ZEALAND 

A detachment of the colonial forces found Mrs. 
Wilson ' in an outhouse, attired in a chemise only, 
which was saturated with blood from six bayonet 
wounds. ... In Archdeacon Williams' house she 
will obtain the repose so much needed after the fiery 
ordeal she has passed through ; and it is possible she 
may yet recover.' 1 

In my despatch 2 of the 1st July ult. I reported 
that I visited Poverty Bay in June last. It is sad to 
contemplate the terrible fate w r hich has fallen upon 
the then flourishing homesteads, where I was re- 
ceived with so hearty a welcome. Many of the 
atrocities perpetrated, especially on the women and 
children, are too shocking for description. Suffice it 
to say that nothing more horrible took place during 
the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Moreover, the massacre 
at Poverty Bay has excited throughout New Zealand 
and the Australian Colonies feelings similar to those 
excited by the massacre at Cawnpore throughout 
India and the United Kingdom. 



The renewed outbreaks of the hostile Maoris were 
not really so alarming as the defection at this crisis 
of the hitherto friendly clans. After the removal of 
the Imperial troops from the field, and the recent 
repulse of the colonial forces by Titokowaru, they 
had retired to Wanganui, where they remained in 
their camp in gloomy irresolution. It was generally 
felt in New Zealand that if all the Maori clans should 

1 This unfortunate lady died shortly afterwards. 

2 See above, pp. 321 22. 



WITHDRAWAL OF THE 1MPEIIIAL TilOOPS 331 

unite against the colonists the latter would certainly 
be driven from the open country, and, at the utmost, 
be able to hold only two or three of the chief towns in 
the North Island. The Duke of Cambridge, as Com- 
mander-in-Chief, had strongly protested in the House 
of Lords against the removal of the last soldier while 
a war against the Queen's authority was still raging. 
Lord Carnarvon, and many other leading members of 
both Houses, supported the same view. On the other 
hand, both Houses of the New Zealand Parliament 
petitioned that one regiment of Imperial troops should 
be retained, as a garrison for the chief towns, and to 
keep up in the native mind the prestige of Imperial 
protection ; and they pledged themselves by Act to 
defray the entire cost of that regiment. As will be 
seen from his correspondence, Sir G. Bowen concurred 
with the Parliament in this petition, on Imperial as 
well as on colonial grounds ; for a large portion of the 
local Legislature and Press, in the first outburst of their 
indignation at what was styled their desertion by the 
mother-country, were inclined to favour a Declaration 
of Independence, and to seek the protection of the 
United States of America. 1 About this time an English 
Statesman was reported to have gone so far as to make 
a statement in the Imperial Parliament, to the effect 
that ' if the colonists of New Zealand disliked the policy 
of the Imperial Government, they were so free that 
they might at once leave the Empire.' When this 
statement reached New Zealand, one of the Colonial 
Ministers expressed the general feeling by observing 

1 It is stated in Mr. Froude's recent book on the West Indies 
that some of the English Colonists there, conceiving themselves to be 
neglected and ill-treated by the Imperial Government, are now inclined 
in i'avour of annexation to the United States of America. 



332 NEW ZEALAND 

that ' he supposed it was considered complimentary 
to the colonists to tell them that they were so free 
that they might change their allegiance and nation- 
ality at pleasure ; but that it would really have been 
more complimentary, as well as more constitutional 
and more patriotic, to tell them that England would 
spend her last soldier and her last shilling to keep them 
in the Empire, as the Northern States had told the 
Southern States in the recent Civil War in America.' l 
After honestly stating his own opinion, Sir G. 
Bo wen, directly he was instructed that Her Majesty's 
Government had finally decided on the entire removal 
of the troops, loyally acquiesced in that decision. 
He wrote : ' I hold it to be the paramount duty of 
every Governor to obey the orders of Her Majesty's 
Government, and that he should do this not merely 
ministerially, but loyally, striving his best to pre- 
vent any mischievous results which he may have 
foreseen.' Accordingly, the discontented party were 

1 Just at this somewhat inopportune moment, there happened to 
arrive in New Zealand, the United States' corvette ' Kearsage,' which a 
few years previously had sunk the Confederate cruiser ' Alabama.' 
Sir George Bowen invited the Captain to the Government House, 
placed a horse at his disposal, and asked him to join his riding party 
daily. ' Well, Governor,' said the Captain, I thank your Excellency ; 
but the fact is that I was never across an animal in my life, except 
once when I rode a donkey up Mount Vesuvius, and the cuss nearly 
kicked me off into the crater. However, I guess I can ride the cross- 
trees of a man-of-war against any British or other officer.' It is an 
interesting fact that Sir G. Bo wen was informed by his guest, that after 
the sinking of the ' Alabama,' Captain Semmes was seen in the sea, 
keeping himself afloat by a life-belt and a plank. The victors could, of 
course, have easily made him prisoner, but they preferred to let him 
escape on board a passing English vessel, for they feared that in the 
then exasperated state of feeling in the Northern States, he might be 
tried and hanged for treason by the Civil Courts ; a fate from which 
they wished to save a gallant enemy. 



SIR GEORGE BOWEN'S POLICY 338 

persuaded to await the decision of the Home autho- 
rities on the alternative proposal, viz. that England 
should guarantee a loan of a million sterling for 
the defence of New Zealand by the Colonial Govern- 
ment. This alternative was finally conceded. But 
immediate action was required in the very critical 
position of the Colony, at a moment when it was 
generally feared that the entire Maori race would 
unite against the colonists. Sir George Bo wen suc- 
cessfully urged on his Ministers that the proper policy 
to adopt was practically that of William III. after the 
complete defeat of the English troops in 1689 at the 
battle of Killiecrankie, when the king entrusted Lord 
Breadalbane with a Commission and a sum of money ; 
the result of which was that the victorious Highland 
clans either remained quiet, or joined the new Govern- 
ment. Sir George further determined to forthwith 
proceed in person, accompanied by his Prime Minister, 
Mr. Stafford, 1 to Wanganui, and there to address the 
assembled clans, calling on them to take up arms once 
more for the Queen. It was an anxious time ; for 
the rebel Maoris had advanced within a few miles of 
Wanganui, sweeping away the English settlements. 
However, the action of the Governor was completely 
successful. On November 17 he was able to report 
from Wanganui as follows : 

4 At this moment the head-quarters of the colonial 
forces, under Colonel Whitmore, are in a redoubt on 
the Kai-iwi Eiver, about ten miles north-west of Wan- 
ganui. The head-quarters of the rebels under Tito- 

1 Afterwards Sir Edward Stafford, G.C.M.G. 



334 NEW ZEALAND 

kowaru appear to be a few miles farther, just within 
the dense forest, which extends, at a short distance 
from the sea, almost from Wanganui to Taranaki. 
The plan of the Colonial Government at present is to 
hold the line of the Kai-iwi with a chain of redoubts 
and blockhouses, and thus to cover the town of 
Wanganui, and the well-cultivated lands around it. 
Neither in this, nor in any preceding war in New 
Zealand, have either the regular or the colonial 
forces been able to prevent marauding parties of 
Maoris from sweeping the country near the " bush," 
and destroying the houses and property of the 
settlers. Titokowaru has already murdered or 
driven off all the farmers to within a short distance 
of our fortified posts. The men, having lost in a 
few days the fruits of the industry of many years, 
are, for the most part, under arms in the redoubts ; 
while their families have taken refuge in Wanganui. 
It is a piteous sight which the streets of this town 
now present, destitute women and children flocking 
in for food and shelter. Moreover, two nights ago a 
false alarm was raised by a mounted patrol, which had 
heard the yells of a party of marauders, that Titoko- 
waru was attacking the town in force. The militia and 
volunteers stood to their arms, and assembled at their 
respective posts ; while the women and children ran 
for refuge to the fortified barracks and block-houses. 
'This afternoon I paid my official visit to the 
Maori camp at Putiki. I was rowed across the river 
by the chief Te Kepa and a crew of Maoris. On 



SUCCESSFUL VISIT TO THE. MAORI CAMP 335 

landing I was received by the assembled clans with 
shouts and chants of welcome, and with the cus- 
tomary war-dance, which was no mere pageant, for 
the warriors who there brandished their rifles and 
tomahawks have fought bravely for the Crown 
during the struggle of the last eight years. Then 
followed a feast after the native fashion ; and then 
the Korero, or conference. All the leading chiefs ad- 
dressed me in suggestive and characteristic speeches. 
There was much blame cast on several of the officers 
of the Government, and much recrimination among 
the Maoris themselves. I annex a summary of my 
speech, acknowledging their former services ; exhort- 
ing them to treasure in their hearts the last words of 

o 

their great chief Hori Kingi, who on his deathbed 
desired his tribe to live in peace and unity with the 
English ; and calling upon them to forget all strife 
and jealousy among themselves, and to take the field 
once more for the Queen and the law. I reminded 
them, moreover, that they owed to the English the 
introduction of Christianity, and that now was the 
time to show their sense of that inestimable blessing. 

o 

It will be perceived that, in response to my appeal, 
' the brave chief Te Kepa sprang forward and said 
that he w r as ready to obey the Governor's commands, 
and lead a new taua, or war party, to be called the 
Governor's taua, and to be enrolled for permanent 
service. Several other chiefs declared that they 
would follow Te Kepa.' 



336 NEW ZEALAND 

This may be called the main turning-point of the 
Maori war. Eeinforced by the loyal clans, Colonel 
Whitmore, 1 the commander of the colonial forces, was 
enabled to take the field again, and after several sharp 
skirmishes, to drive Titokowaru back into the forests 
of the West Coast. He then proceeded to the East 
Coast ; and on January 10, 1869, captured Ngatapa, 
the chief stronghold of the rebels who had perpetrated 
the Poverty Bay massacre. We subjoin the despatch 
of the Secretary of State commenting on this exploit ; 

Downing Street : Apiil 2, 1869. 

Sir, 

I. have received your despatches, in which you 
report the operations of the colonial forces under 
Colonel Whitmore against Te Kooti and his followers, 
and the success which has attended those operations 
by the taking of Ngatapa. From the plans which 
accompany your despatches, this rebel stronghold 
appears to have been very formidable by nature, and 
strengthened by the defensive works which the 
Maoris throw up with a skill and precision closely 
allied to science. 

The operations which have been attended with so 
successful a result were conducted in a skilful and 
energetic manner by Colonel Whitmore, who, profit- 
ing by his experience in savage warfare at the Cape 
and in New Zealand, appears not to have neglected the 
military precautions which professional training shows 
to be necessary on such service, nor to have failed to 

1 Afterwards Sir George Whitmore, K.C.M.G. 



CAPTURE OF NGATAPA 337 

display the perseverance and determination essential 
to the accomplishment of a difficult enterprise. 

I have read with satisfaction the reports of 
Colonel Whitmore in which he brings to notice the 
conduct of the colonial forces : their patient perse- 
verance in approaching the place, and the energy 
and courage they displayed when the assault was 
given, reflect credit on all engaged; and Her 
Majesty's Government learn with great satisfaction 
that the colonial forces have proved that they are 
capable of successfully dealing with armed rebels. 

The native chief Eopata seems to have largely 
contributed to the success of the enterprise ; and his 
conduct and that of his people show how important 
and valuable the assistance of native auxiliaries may 
be made for all defensive purposes. 

The presence of Mr. Eichmond, a member of your 
Government, was no doubt a most useful assistance 
to Colonel Whitmore ; and I gladly recognise the 
services rendered by that gentleman. 1 

It is satisfactory to know that the colonial force 
displayed the humanity and forbearance towards the 
women and children taken in the rebel stronghold 
which ought to distinguish troops under all circum- 
stances. I consider the whole operation to have 
been skilfully and creditably conducted. 

I cannot doubt that this success will have the 

1 When the driver of one of the Government ammunition carts was 
wounded at the capture of Ngatapa, Mr. Eichmond, the Minister for 
Defence, himself caught the reins, and took the place of the disabled 
man. 

VOL. I. Z 



338 NEW ZEALAND 

effect of restoring security to the East Coast of the 
Colony, and of producing a very marked impression 
throughout the Maori country. 



Te Kooti effected his escape from Ngatapa, arid 
for some time carried on, like Titokowaru, a guerilla 
warfare in the mountains. But he was pursued and 
defeated by our brave Maori allies at Tokano and 
elsewhere. Moreover, the Colonial Government 
adopted the policy of Lord Chatham and General 
Wade, and pacified the Maori, like the Scotch High- 
lands, by engaging some of the clans to fight the rest, 
and by paying the natives generally (including hun- 
dreds of those recently in arms against the Crown), 
to make roads opening up their own mountains 
and forests, and thus rendering future rebellions 
difficult. 



We here reprint extracts from the Governor's 
despatches respecting the trial before the Supreme 
Court of the Colony of the Maori prisoners from the 
bands of Te Kooti and Titokowaru. Sir George Bo wen 
and his ministers adhered from the beginning to the 
maxim ' that the grass soon grows over blood shed 
on the field of battle, but never over blood shed on a 
political scaffold.' Accordingly, ' they determined 
that, under the peculiar circumstances of this country, 
no capital sentence should be carried out against 
Maoris convicted only of having carried arms against 
the Colonial Government.' They farther rejected the 
proposals urged in many quarters for superseding 



TRIAL OF THE MAORI PRISONERS 339 

(as had been done in other Colonies) the ordinary 
tribunals by the establishment of Courts-Martial. As 
Sir G. Bowen reported : ' To omit many other con- 
siderations, we felt that there was no reason to sup- 
pose that the Supreme Court and the Civil j uries were 
unable or unwilling to administer, with a severity 
sufficiently deterrent, impartial justice to both races 
of the inhabitants of this country. 

' Out of the total number of nearly one hundred 
prisoners, more than twenty of the least criminal were 
discharged, no evidence against them having been 
tendered on the part of the Crown ; while the remain- 
ing seventy pleaded guilty, or have been convicted 
after long and patient trials before the Supreme Court. 

' The Judge who presided (Mr. Justice Johnston) 
has written to me that the general result of these 
trials has been, in his opinion, " most satisfactory " ; 
and that " they will prove of great service to the 
Colony, as showing the true intentions and objects of 
the rebels. The real nature of the West Coast rebel- 
lion has been made manifest Te Kooti's professed 
object clearly having been to exterminate the ad- 
herents to the Government of both races, and to 
enjoy the plunder." Mr. Justice Johnston further 
reports that the prosecutions were very well con- 
ducted by the Attorney-General on behalf of the 
Crown ; that the prisoners were very ably defended 
by the counsel provided for them at the expense of 
the Colonial Government ; and that the demeanour 
of the jurors left nothing to desire.' 

The Governor forwarded a copy of the Proceedings 
of the Executive Council, in which the sentences on 
the Maori prisoners were carefully considered. 

z 2 



340 NEW ZEALAND 

4 It will be seen,' lie reported, ' that it was finally 
determined that the sentence of death should be 
carried into effect only in. the person of Hamiora te 
Peri, the most aggravated case in the opinion of the 
Judge who presided at the trials. This man was not 
a Chatham Island prisoner, nor a member of Te 
Kooti's tribe. It could not therefore be urged, in 
palliation of his crimes, that he was avenging his 
imprisonment, or that he was influenced by the 
feelings of clanship. He voluntarily joined te Kooti 
soon after his landing, evidently from the mere love 
of blood and plunder, and was clearly proved to have 
taken an active part in the cruel murders of unarmed 
men, Europeans and Maoris, and of women and 
children, in the Poverty Bay massacre. These atro- 
cities are as much abhorred by the natives generally 
as by the colonists, and the fate of Hamiora te Peri 
excited no sympathy among his own countrymen. 
He was executed on the 16th instant, within the 
precincts of the gaol at Wellington, and exhibited 
craven fear on the scaffold. I am assured that this 
is the only known instance of any Maori having ever 
met death, under any circumstances whatsoever, ex- 
cept with stern indifference or with calm and decorous 
fortitude. 

' On the grounds fully explained in the enclosed 
Minute of Council, the capital sentences of three 
other members of Te Kooti's bands (Heteriki, Eewi, 
and Matene) have been commuted to penal servitude 
for life, with the prospect of further remission in the 



SENTENCES OF MAORI PRISONERS 341 

event of good conduct. These men will be kept to 
hard labour in the gaol at Wellington. 

4 The remaining convicts, seventy-three in number, 
being prisoners from the bands of Titokowaru on the 
West Coast, were not found to have been directly 
concerned in murders or other heinous atrocities ; 
consequently, their sentences have been commuted, 
according to the measure of the guilt of each indi- 
vidual, to various terms of penal servitude, in no 
instance exceeding seven years, " on the under- 
standing that there will be, after careful consideration 
of the special circumstances in each case, a further 
remission ; and that if tranquillity is restored, with 
a reasonable prospect of permanence, and if these 
prisoners behave well, a general amnesty will be 
granted." ' 

The following extract from a semi-official letter 
will help to illustrate the preceding narrative : 

To an Official Friend. 

Wanganui, New Zealand : November 17, 1868. 

I write to you from Wanganui, one of the earliest 
English settlements in New Zealand, and now a town 
of about 3,000 inhabitants, and the centre of the 
disturbed districts on the West Coast. Titokowaru 
has killed or driven off (indeed he is reported to 
have eaten off some of them) all the farmers within 
a short distance of this town. The survivors have 
fled into Wanganui. It is said in the local press 



342 NEW ZEALAND 

that the present state of this town vividly recalls 
the descriptions of the European cantonments in 
India during the Mutiny of 1857. But I apprehend 
that long familiarity with danger has produced here 
a certain amount of insensibility. One of the ladies 
who, with her family, narrowly escaped from the 
Hau-haus three days ago, when their house in this 
neighbourhood was destroyed, said to me this morn- 
ing that this was the fourth time during the last 
twenty-five years that she had had to fly for her life 
in New Zealand ; but that she knew that our English 
race would prevail in the end. However, the massacre 
of the settlers at Poverty Bay, on the 10th instant, w^as 
as shocking as anything that ever occurred in India. 
It may, perhaps, be asked why I have left per- 
fect safety at the seat of Government at Wellington, 
to come ' to the front ' at -this perilous crisis, when 
Titokowaru has sworn that he will get my head, to 
send it round to the various tribes, as a trophy of 
victory, according to the ancient Scotch, and modern 
Maori custom. I am aware, of course, that common- 
places may be spoken on this subject, and that if 
a civilian gets killed by exposing himself to danger, 
people only remark, ' Que diable allaitil faire dans 
cette galereV The fact is that after the check ex- 
perienced by Colonel Whitmore on the 7th instant, 
mainly owing to the withdrawal of the native con- 
tingent, through the mutual jealousies of the chiefs, 
our Maori allies all retired to their camp near 
Wanganui. I was assured on all sides that my 



THE GOVERNOR'S VISIT TO THE MAORI CAMP 343 

presence here would go far towards restoring con- 
fidence to the panic-stricken townspeople ; while it 
would afford the only chance of inducing the natives 
to take the field again on our side ; probably, of 
preventing them from joining the enemy. 

Since the above was written, I have paid my visit 
to the camp of the Wanganuis and the other assembled 
clans ; and I am happy to say that, in response to 
my address, Te Kepa Eangihiwhinui and several others 
of the bravest warriors sprang forward, and promised 
to take the field again with the colonial forces. The 
Korero was very Homeric. Kepa is the Achilles, and 
Mete Kingi the Ulysses of New Zealand ; and their 
speeches and those of their respective adherents were 
very suggestive and characteristic. 



Her Majesty's Government signified in emphatic 
terms their approval of Sir G. Bowen's conduct in 
proceeding to Wanganui at this dangerous crisis, and 
of the language which he addressed to the assembled 
clans. 



The following despatch contains comments on 
the state of native affairs, with practical suggestions. 

Jo the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Wellington : December 7, 1868. 

My Lord Duke, 

It may probably be interesting to your Grace to 
read the opinion of the present condition of affairs in 



344 NEW ZEALAND 

this Colony entertained by so able, experienced, and 
dispassionate a person as Sir George Arney, the 
present Chief Justice of New Zealand. He had lately 
been at Wellington, as President of the Court of 
Appeal, and on his return voyage to Auckland, where 
he generally resides, he encountered the vessel carry- 
ing some of the fugitives from the cruel massacre of 
English settlers perpetrated at Poverty Bay on the 
10th ultimo. The Chief Justice sums up his opinion 
in the following terms : ' I will not venture to specu- 
late on what may be done ; but of this I feel 
convinced, that the Colony must brace itself up to 
hold its own until the time may arrive when the 
native race may feel constrained to respect us in our 
strength, as they now despise us in our weakness. 
Meanwhile, I do not envy you having to take up the 
government of this beauteous country at precisely 
that period of its histoiy when, I believe, it has been 
left more embarrassed in its finances, more crippled, 
relatively, in its power, and more exposed, from its 
advanced settlements and increased cultivations, to 
the savagery of the Maori race than it has been left 
to any preceding Governor. I only hope that we may 
find our respite from destruction in the distracted coun- 
sels and divided allegiance of the natives ; the mass of 
whom know full well that they have received little 
wrong and much good from the settlers.' 

Since the control of native affairs, including, prac- 
tically, the conduct of the present and of future Maori 
Wars, was transferred in 1862 from the Governor 



PARLIAMENTARY DIFFICULTIES 345 

to the Ministers of the Colony for the time being, 
a number of able public men have succeeded each 
other in office in New Zealand, all doubtless animated 
with a sincere desire to promote the welfare of their 
adopted country. But if the exigencies of parlia- 
mentary government have sometimes embarrassed 
elsewhere the conduct of even foreign wars, it will be 
easily understood that those exigencies have created 
still greater difficulties in the conduct of the internal 
Maori war : when, as in New Zealand, the legislature 
is so equally divided between the two conflicting 
political parties that neither of them can make sure 
of a working majority of more than two or three votes 
in the House of Eepresentatives ; when almost every 
leading member of both Houses has a native policy of 
his own, and is swayed by various kinds of personal 
and local feelings and interests. Under such circum- 
stances, as will be manifest without entering into any 
details, there can be but little consistency of policy 
or unity of action. 

A portion of the population of the Northern 
Island of New Zealand, under the pressure of the 
long-continued Maori War and of the recent disasters, 
would regard with complacency the suspension of 
the existing constitution 1 in this island, or at least a 
return to the system in force up to the year 1862, 
under which the Governor personally possessed the 

1 A prominent member of the New Zealand Parliament lately ex- 
claimed, ' What an absurdity it was to set up the British Constitution 
in a country where all the landed gentry are savages, and, for the most 
part, hereditary or relapsed cannibals ! ' 



346 NEW ZEALAND 

control of native affairs. Former experience, however, 
has proved that (in the words of Mr. Merivale) ' the 
suggestion of establishing in the same Colony re- 
sponsible government for the settlers, and a separate 
administration of native affairs under the Imperial 
authorities, is unpractical. There cannot be two 
governments in the same community ; certainly not, 
unless some mode can be devised of having two 
public purses.' 

It has often been observed that the immediate 
causes of the Indian Eebellion of 1857-8 were 
mainly: 1. Eeligious and national fanaticism. 2. The 
recent reduction in the number of the English troops 
employed in India. 3. The annexation of the entire 
territories of the King of Oude. So the main causes 
of the long continuance of the Maori War, which has 
now raged in New Zealand, with some periods of in- 
termission, ever since 1860, are generally believed 
to be : 1. The outbreak of the Hau-hau fanaticism 
in connexion with the national, or (as it is termed), 
the 'native king movement.' 2. The removal of the 
English regiments before any tender of submission 
was made by, or any peace was ratified with, the 
Maori King, and the tribes which adhere to him. 
t>. The confiscation of a small portion of the terri- 
tories of the rebel natives. 

With regard to the first of these three causes, it 
may be observed that the religious and national 
fanaticism of the Hau-haus is analogous to the perio- 
dical outbreaks of a similar nature among the Malays 



CAUSES OF THE PROTRACTED WAR 347 

(who are probably of kindred race with the Maoris), 
and among the Hindoos and Musulmans of India. It 
may not be altogether impertinent to mention that the 
' lily ' fills the same place in the mysterious proclama- 
tions of the Maori King, as the ' lotus ' filled in the 
missives of some of the native princes in Hindostan. 

With regard to the second of the causes mentioned 
above, it is often a matter of surprise, both here and 
in England, that two experienced generals, succes- 
sively at the head of nearly 10,000 regular soldiers, 
and 5,000 of the colonial Militia, and with all the 
means and appliances of modern warfare, should not 
have succeeded in subduing King Tawhiao and his 
adherents, who are believed to have never brought 
into the field more than two thousand fighting men 
at the same time. But it should be recollected that, 
in the opinion of all competent judges, New Zealand 
presents as difficult obstacles as Abyssinia to an in- 
vading army attempting to penetrate the mountains 
and forests of the interior ; while the Maoris are, 
beyond all comparison, more formidable enemies than 
the Abyssinians. It has often been observed that 
the British army did not lose a single man even at 
the capture of the royal fortress of Magdala, whereas 
the loss of the regular troops and of the naval 
brigade has been heavy before every Maori village 
and earthwork ; while at the Gate Pah near Tau- 
ranga, in 1864, the 4ord -Regiment lost more officers 
(fourteen out of twenty-four that went into action), 
than any single regiment lost at Waterloo. In a 



348 NEW ZEALAND 

word, it seems to be very generally agreed that the 
conquest of King Tawhiao and the Hau-haus would 
have been a much greater military feat than .the con- 
quest of King Theodore and the A>yssinians. 

Few will probably be found to advocate another 
aggressive war in the interior of New Zealand. It is 
generally felt that we must content ourselves with pro- 
tecting our existing settlements, and punishing the 
cruel outrages and massacres recently perpetrated. 
For these purposes, as also to prevent the horrors of a 
war of race and extermination between the colonists 
and the Maoris, to serve as a nucleus for the colonial 
forces, and to maintain in the eyes of the natives the 
prestige of the Queen's name and of Imperial power 
and authority, a small garrison of Her Majesty's 
troops is of proved value. 

Of all the painful feelings excited by the present 
condition of New Zealand, perhaps the most painful 
is connected with the effect produced on the minds- 
of the loyal natives by the official announcement in 
the midst of the most dangerous crisis that has ever 
occurred in the history of this community, to the 
effect that the last British soldier will be removed in 
next February from New Zealand. It is, of course, 
impossible to explain to the Maoris the grounds of 
the complete change which has taken place of late 
years in the views of the Imperial Government with 
regard to the military protection of the Dependencies 
of the Crown ; or the mixed motives which induced 
one of the conflicting parties in the New Zealand 



EXTRACT FROM 'GREATER BRITAIN' 349 

Legislature to advocate the so-called ' self-reliant 
policy,' without taking any steps to create a per- 
manent or effective defence force. 

It may appear strange to superficial or ill-in- 
formed observers that the English settlers in the North 
Island are unable of themselves to subdue the Maoris, 
seeing that their numbers are nearly as two to one, 
about 80,000 colonists to 45,000 Maoris. 1 But it will 

1 We may compare the following remarks on this question of the 
author of Greater Britain (Part II. c. 5), who visited New Zealand 
during the war : ' Savages though the Maoris be, in irregular warfare 
we are not their match. At the end of 1865 we had of regulars and 
Militia 15,000 men under arms in the North Island of New Zealand, 
including no less than twelve regiments of the line at their " war 
strength " ; and yet our generals were despondent as to their chance of 
finally defeating the warriors of a people which men, women, and 
children numbered little over 40,000 souls. Men have sought far and 
wide for the reasons which led to our defeats in the New Zealand wars. 
We were defeated by the Maoris as the Austrians by the Prussians, 
and the French by the English in old times, because the victors were 
the better men. Not the braver men, when both sides were brave alike ; 
not the stronger ; not, taking the average of our officers and men, the 
more intelligent ; but capable of quicker movement, able to subsist on 
less, more crafty, more skilled in the thousand tactics of the bush. 
Aided by their women, who, when need was, themselves would lead 
the charge ; and who at all times dug their fern- root and caught their 
fish ; marching where our regiments could not follow, they had, as 
have the Indians in America, the choice of time and place for their 
attacks ; and while we were crawling about our military roads upon the 
coast, incapable of traversing a mile of bush, the Maoris moved securely 
and secretly from one end to the other of the island. Arms they had, 
ammunition they could steal, and blockade was useless with enemies 
who live on fern-root. When they found that we burnt their pahs, 
they ceased to build them ; that was all. When we brought up 
howitzers, they went where 110 howitzers could follow. It should not 
be hard, even for our pride, to allow that such enemies were, man for 
man, in their own land, our betters. All nations fond of horses, it has 
been said, flourish and succeed. The Maoris love horses, and ride 
well. All races that delight in sea are equally certain to prosper, 
empirical philosophers will tell us. The Maoris own ships by the score, 



350 NEW ZEALAND 

be remembered that the Maoris were not subjugated 
during the years when an English army of nearly 
ten thousand regular soldiers, in addition to the 
colonial forces, was employed in this island. More- 
over, the great majority of the settlers in New 
Zealand are emigrants from the labouring classes 
in England, and had probably never carried arms of 
any kind until they found themselves enrolled in the 
colonial Militia. On the other hand, every Maori is 
a born soldier ; strong, fleet, and intrepid ; accus- 
tomed from his infancy to the use of weapons, and 
to the sight of blood; and trained to great skill in 
bush fighting by the guerilla warfare of the last 
eight years. Again, the colonists occupy settlements 
placed chiefly along and near the sea-shore. They 
occupy, as it were, the circumference of a circle, 
whereas the Maoris are entrenched in the almost 
impenetrable mountains and forests of the centre, 
whence they can send forth forays in every direction. 
It will be further recollected that, in 1745, 4,000 
Highlanders easily conquered all Scotland, except 
the few fortified posts garrisoned by English troops, 
although the Lowlanders were infinitely more nu- 
merous in comparison with the Celts than the British 
colonists in New Zealand are in comparison with the 

and serve as sailors whenever they get a chance ; as deep-sea fisher- 
men they have no equals. Their fondness for draughts shows mathe- 
matical capacity ; in truthfulness they possess the first of virtues. 
They are shrewd, thrifty, devoted friends, brave men. With all this, 
they die. " Can you stay the surf which beats on Wanganui shore ? " 
say the Maoris of our progress ; and of themselves, " We are gone like 
the Moa." ' 



ANALOGY OF THE SCOTCH HIGHLANDERS 351 

Maoris ; and though the Lowlanders were animated 
against their assailants by the animosities which 
spring from differences of race, language, and 
religion. In short, it is not to be denied that if the 
small British detachments which now hold some of the 
towns, and thus leave the colonial forces free to cope 
with the insurgent natives in the open field, are 
withdrawn, the main hope, under Providence, of the 
colonists in the North Island must lie in the heredi- 
tary feuds which have hitherto prevented the Maoris, 
like other races living under the tribal system, from 
acting together against the authority of the Queen. 
If the entire Maori people were to unite against us 
now, we could probably hold only the towns of 
Auckland and Wellington. So, British authority 
would have been practically annihilated if the 
British troops had been removed from Scotland 
during the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, and if the 
Hanoverian had joined the Jacobite clans. So, too, 
the English would have been driven out of all India 
(except, perhaps, the Presidency cities) in 1857, if the 
European army had been withdrawn, and if the Sikhs, 
together with the Nizam and the other loyal native 
princes, had joined the Sepoy mutineers. The late 
Primate of New Zealand, now Bishop of Lichfield 
(Dr. Selwyn), has remarked on more than one public 
occasion that there is, in the present condition of 
this Colony, nothing which is new to the student 
of the history of other countries where formidable 
aborigines had recently been brought into contact 



352 NEW ZEALAND 

with alien invaders or settlers. The social state 
of the Maori districts of New Zealand at the pre- 
sent day is analogous to that of the Celtic dis- 
tricts of Ireland down to the reign of George L, 
and of the Celtic districts of Scotland down to the 
reign of George III. In fact, it has often been 
observed with truth that those who wish to under- 
stand the present condition of the Maoris, should 
read with care the description of the Scotch High- 
landers at the end of the seventeenth century, as 
contained in the 13th chapter of Lord Macaulay's 
' History of England.' In my Despatch, No. 116, by 
this mail, I attempted a description of my visit to 
the Maori camp near Wanganui on the 17th ult. ; 
but I should have drawn a much fuller and more 
vivid picture of what I saw there, and especially of 
the meeting between Colonel Whitmore and the 
Maori chiefs, if I had simply quoted the following 
passage describing the Highlanders under Dundee : 
' All that was left to the Commander under whom 
these potentates (the Highland chiefs) condescended 
to serve, was to argue with them, to supplicate them, 
to natter them, to bribe them; and it was only 
during a short time that any human skill could 
preserve harmony by these means, for every chief 
thought himself entitled to peculiar observance, and 
it was therefore impossible to pay marked court to 
any one without disobliging the rest. The General 
found himself merely the president of a congress of 
petty kings. He was perpetually called upon to 



THEIR RESEMBLANCE TO THE MAORIS 353 

hear and to compose disputes about pedigrees, about 
precedence, about the division of spoil. His decision, 
be it what it might, must offend somebody. At any 
moment he might hear that his right wing had fired 
on his centre in pursuance of some quarrel two 
hundred years old ; or that a whole battalion had 
marched back to its native glen, because another 
battalion had been put in the post of honour. A 
Highland bard might easily have found in the history 
of the year 1689, subjects very similar to those with 
which the war of Troy furnished the great poets 
of antiquity. One day Achilles is sullen, keeps his 
tent, and announces his intention to depart with all 
his men. The next day Ajax is storming about the 
camp, and threatening to cut the throat of Ulysses.' 

It was remarked above that, in the same sense in 
which the annexation of the entire territories of the 
King of Oude was one of the causes which led to 
the Indian rebellion of 1857, so the confiscation of a 
small portion of the land of the rebel Maoris may 
have been one of the causes of the continuance of the 
Maori war, which has now raged in New Zealand, 
with little intermission, since 1860. The map, which 
I transmitted with my despatch of March 17th ult., will 
show that the confiscated land embraces but a small 
part of the surface of the North Island. Much of it, 
moreover, has been already restored. It appears to be 
admitted on all sides that forfeiture of land was a 
just punishment for rebellion, accompanied with cruel 
murders and other horrible outrages ; and that it was 

VO,L. i. A A 



354 NEW ZEALAND 

also a punishment in accordance with Maori usage, as 
well as with the laws of civilised nations. But it also 
seems to be now generally admitted that it was im- 
prudent at the present time to occupy with settlers 
distant and isolated positions, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the most hostile tribes, and of the most 
impenetrable mountains and forests. In fact, what 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies (Mr. Card- 
well) foretold in his despatch, 1 of April 26, 1866, 
to my predecessor, Sir G. Grey, has now come to 
pass. Mr. Cardwell then pointed out that ' if the 
proposed new settlements were too far advanced 
beyond the country already occupied, it might prove 
impossible to abandon them without discredit, or to 
protect them without disproportionate expense.' On 
the whole, I am disposed to concur with those who 
argue that the military settlements ought to have been 
placed mainly, if not solely, on the open and easily 
defensible Waikato plain ; and to have been protected 
by a line of posts drawn across the North Island 
(advantage being taken of the nature of the ground) 
from the sea at Aotea, or Whaingeroa, on the West 
Coast, to the sea at Tauranga, on the East Coast. A 
frontier might thus have been secured analogous to 
the old Eoman frontier between the Friths of Forth 
and Clyde. 

It is believed that in this, and in my previous 
despatches on the same subject, I have given a full 
and accurate account of the present condition of this 

1 See the Parliamentary Papers presented June 18GG, p. 127. 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO MEET THE CRISIS 355 

Colony. It remains for me to suggest what should 
be done at this crisis, the most dangerous which has 
hitherto occurred (as the Chief Justice has observed), 
in the history of New Zealand. 

It is generally hoped that the single battalion of 
Imperial troops which still garrisons four of the main 
centres of population (Auckland, Taranaki, Wan- 
ganui, and Napier), will be left here, in accordance 
with the earnest desire of the New Zealand Parliament, 
which is now pledged to pay the entire cost, More- 
over, it will be recollected that New Zealand alone 
is already paying for native purposes, defence, and 
the interest of the war loan of three millions sterling, 
nearly four hundred thousand pounds annually, that 
is, far more than the aggregate payments for similar 
purposes of all the Australian Colonies put together ; 
and that these burdens render necessary taxes at the 
rate of Ql. 5s per head of the population, double the 
rate in the United Kingdom. It is trusted that one 
battalion will be left as some equivalent for this 
expenditure. But that battalion (the 2nd, ISthEoyal 
Irish) numbers barely 750 effective officers and men, 
whereas there is good reason to believe that there are 
now as many Maoris in arms against the Crown as 
there ever were while there were 10,000 regular 
soldiers in the Colony ; and the Government has 
received repeated warnings that the Maori King will 
probably, sooner or later, give the signal for a general 
rising of the hostile tribes, and a general massacre of 
the colonists. With the utmost efforts that can be 

A A 2 



356 NEW ZEALAND 

used, my responsible advisers appear to be unable to 
raise in New Zealand a permanent force of above 
2,000 really effective men, in addition to the Militia 
and Volunteers, who are practically available only for 
the defence of their respective districts. Each private 
in the permanent force is paid 5s. per diem, and, 
with his rations, clothing, arms, &c., costs the Colony 
at least 150/. per annum. 

I am strongly inclined to agree with those who, 
from their long experience of the native character, 
believe that if a small garrison of Imperial troops, 
in addition to the colonial forces, were maintained in 
New Zealand for the next few years, as was main- 
tained here from 1846 to about 1860 during the 
interval between the first and second Maori Wars ; 
and if no further attempt were made to occupy lands 
in distant and isolated positions, or in the immediate 
neighbourhood of hostile tribes, this Colony would 
probably enjoy permanent peace and security. It 
will be remembered that the native race is rapidly 
diminishing, while the Europeans are as rapidly in- 
creasing in numbers. In 1848, only twenty years ago, 
the Maoris in the North Island exceeded 100,000 ; 
while now, in 1868, they are under 45,000. Con- 
sequently the Maori difficulty is a question of time, 
probably of the next ten years. During that period, 
every effort should be made to push roads into the 
interior. Experience has amply shown that the best 
weapons for the conquest of the Highlands of New 
Zealand in the nineteenth, as of the Highlands of 



SUMMARY OF PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 357 

Scotland in the eighteenth century, are the spade and 
the pickaxe. 

I wih 1 conclude by summing up my practical 
suggestions, with the expression of a strong convic- 
tion that permanent peace and security may be 
restored to New Zealand by adopting the following 
measures : 

a. The presence, in addition to the colonial forces, 
of one regiment of regular troops (to hold the chief 
towns, and keep up the prestige of the Imperial 
power in the eyes of the Maoris). 

b. The prohibition of fresh settlements in exposed 
and dangerous districts. 

c. A peaceful arrangement, not inconsistent with 
the suzerainty of the Queen, with Tawhiao, the chosen 
chief of the Maoris. 



In his reply to the above despatch the Secretary 
of State declared that the two latter suggestions 
were 'clearly judicious.' As it has been already 
stated, 1 it was finally arranged that the Imperial 
Treasury should guarantee a loan of one million 
sterling towards the cost of the defence of New 
Zealand by the Colonial Government, instead of 
allowing one regiment of Imperial troops to be 
retained temporarily. To negotiate this question 
with Her Majesty's Government, the Colonial Ministry 
despatched to England as Commissioners two of 
the ablest members of the Colonial Parliament, viz. 

1 See above, p. 333. 



358 NEW ZEALAND 

Messrs. Featherstone and Bell, afterwards Sir I. E. 
Featherstone, K.C.M.G., and Sir F. Dillon Bell, 
K.C.M.G. (now Agent-General for New Zealand in 
London). 1 

1 It was stated in the Colony that the Home authorities at first 
tried to persuade the Commissioners to be satisfied with the guarantee 
of half a million sterling; to which arrangement one of them was 
inclined to agree, when the other (as he reported) ' floored it ' by in- 
sisting on the guarantee of the whole million. A well-known New 
Zealand politician remarked on this point : ' Really our two Com- 
missioners represent between them the Natural History of the Colony. 
One is the Fauna (faiuner) and the other the Flora (floorer}.'' 



359 



CHAPTEE XVII. 

THE WAR BECOMES A GUERILLA THE GOVERNOR CONTINUES HIS 
OFFICIAL TOURS LAST SURVIVOR OF THE MAORIS WHO HAD 
SEEN CAPTAIN COOK VISITS OF THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH 
EXPEDITION TO THE HOT LAKES QUOTATION FROM ' GREATER 
BRITAIN.' 

AFTER the great successes of the Colonial forces and 
loyal Maori clans at Ngatapa and elsewhere, the 
war became merely an intermittent guerilla. The 
Governor continued to visit personally every district 
where his presence could be of advantage. The sub- 
joined extracts from his despatches furnish details 
and illustrations of his policy and action : 

To the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
February 20, 1869. 

My Lord Duke, 

For some time past there have been rumours of 
probable disturbances in the district of the Waira- 
rapa, which begins at a distance of about thirty-five 
miles east from Wellington. I thought it advisable 
to choose the present time to pay to this district a 
short official visit ; from which I returned yesterday. 
I was accompanied throughout my tour by Com- 
modore Lambert, commanding Her Majesty's naval 



360 NEW ZEALAND 

forces on this station ; and by Mr. Featherstone, the 
Superintendent of the Province of Wellington. 

The fertile and picturesque valley of Wairarapa 
stretches inland from Palliser Bay, and is about 
sixty-five miles in length, with a width ranging from 
fifteen to nearly forty miles. The European settlers 
amount to nearly three thousand souls ; of this number 
about eight hundred are adult males, and of these I 
found above seven hundred, in fact, almost every man 
capable of bearing arms, enrolled in the local corps 
of Militia and Volunteers ; I saw, moreover, fully 
five hundred horsemen assembled in one day at 
Greytown, the principal centre of population in the 
Wairarapa ; and I was escorted through the district 
by a strong detachment of Volunteer cavalry. The 
usual addresses of respect and welcome were pre- 
sented to me by both the Europeans and the 
Maoris. 

There is a considerable Maori population, includ- 
ing many Hau-haus, in some parts of the valley, and 
of the slopes of the surrounding mountains. At the 
usual Korero, or native meeting, I was addressed in 
loyal and pacific speeches by the principal chiefs, 
who, however, did not conceal their apprehension of 
the possible invasion of the Wairarapa by the hostile 
natives, and of the disastrous consequences which 
would ensue should Tawhiao take the field and call 
the entire Maori race to arms against the English. 
There can be no doubt but that the natives generally 
are still watching the progress of events with gloomy 



LAST MAORI WHO HAD SEEN COOK 361 

irresolution, and that very much depends on the 
success of the negotiations recently entered upon by 
my Government with the view of securing at least 
the neutrality of the so-called Maori King. 

Meanwhile the settlers in the Wairarapa, as in 
most other parts of this island, seem to be now fully 
prepared to defend, in case of need, their lives and 
homes. Nearly every able-bodied man in the valley 
is armed and drilled; while a redoubt and block- 
house have been erected in a central position as a 
place of refuge for the women and children in the 
event of an outbreak. 

I may take this opportunity of mentioning that, 
on my journey back from the Wairarapa, I visited 
at his kdinga (or village), about twenty miles from 
Wellington, the famous Ngatiawa chief, Taringa 
Kuri, the last survivor of those who had seen 
Captain Cook on one of his later voyages to New 
Zealand. The first English settlers in this country 
state that Taringa Kuri was a very old man on 
their first arrival here thirty years ago ; and his 
age is now generally believed to exceed one hundred 
years. He is extremely feeble, but, in common 
with his people, he expressed much gratification at 
my visit. 1 

1 Taringa Kuri died in the autumn of 1871 ; and by a singular 
coincidence two other leading chiefs, also closely connected with the 
early colonisation of New Zealand, Tamati Waka Nene and Te Puni, 
died within the same twelvemonth. See pp. 297-300; and 427-28. 



362 NEW ZEALAND 

To the Same. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand: 
February 22, 1869. 

My Lord Duke, 

I have the honour to transmit herewith a copy 
of the last report received from Colonel Whitmore, 
respecting the progress of events on the West Coast. 
It is the opinion of the most competent judges that 
there will be a tedious guerilla warfare in that 
quarter. Titokowaru appears to have retreated to a 
strong position in the forest, whence he sends forth 
marauding parties against the settlers, and lays 
ambuscades for the escorts and foragers of the 
colonial forces, often with fatal effect. 

I regret to add that an official letter from the 
Superintendent of the Province of Taranaki reached 
Wellington yesterday, reporting the murder on the 
loth instant, by a party of Hau-haus, of the Eev. 
John Whiteley (an aged and respected Wesley an 
missionary), together with Lieutenant Grascoigne, his 
wife and three children, and two other settlers, at the 
White Cliffs, a place about thirty miles north of the 
town of New Plymouth, It is feared by many that 
these murders may be the commencement of a fresh 
outbreak in that quarter also, and there is great 
alarm felt at New Plymouth. 

A detachment of Volunteers from New Plymouth 
has proceeded to the White Cliffs, and recovered 
the bodies of some of the murdered settlers. Every 
effort in their power will be made by the Colonial 



GOVERNOR'S VISIT TO TARANAKI 363 

Government, and by the local Militia, for the pro- 
tection of the town and province of Taranaki. 

The Governor visited in person shortly afterwards 
the province of Taranaki and New Plymouth, its 
chief town, riding through the disturbed districts, 
and inspecting the posts held by the Militia and the 
native contingent. The grand physical feature of 
this part of the Colony is the shapely snow-capped 
cone of the lofty extinct volcano, called Taranaki by 
the Maoris, but named Mount Egmont by Captain 
Cook. Bishop Selwyn once remarked that the people 
of this province were ' as fond and proud of their 
mountain as if they had created it themselves.' At 
the public dinner given in his honour, Sir G. Bowen, 
in proposing ' Prosperity to Taranaki,' said, ' As 
the standing toast in Shropshire is "All round the 
Wrekin," so here it should be "All round Mount 
Egmont." ' 

To the Earl Granville, KG. 1 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
March 12, 1869. 

My Lord, 

In continuation of my despatch of February 22nd 
ult., I have now the honour to forward herewith a 
memorandum submitted to me by Mr. Eichmond, the 
Minister for the Native Department, showing the 
progress of the Maori War, and the general condition 
of native affairs at the present time. 

It is generally felt that it would be unfortunate, 

1 Lord Granville had succeeded the Duke of Buckingham as 
Colonial Minister. 



364 NEW ZEALAND 

for many obvious reasons, if the last British soldier 
should be withdrawn on the eve of the Duke of 
Edinburgh's arrival. Moreover, the feeling of the 
principal Maori chiefs naturally resembles that of 
the great Indian princes. One of the most able 
and observant of the writers on British India 1 has 
remarked that ' Hyder Ali and Eunjeet Singh, the 
Hannibal and the Mithridates of India, had often in their 
mouths the same phrase concerning the power of the 
English. They feared, they would say, not what they 
saw, but what they did not see. Jung Bahadour, the 
far-famed Mayor of the Palace of Nepaul, when the 
first dull rumour of the coming crisis began to be 
bruited, paid a visit to England on purpose to learn 
for himself what the state of the case really was, and 
returned firmly resolved not to take part against a 
power which could raise at a pinch hundreds of mil- 
lions of money and hundreds of thousands of men.' 
So the single battalion of Imperial troops still left in 
New Zealand, though it is restricted to garrisoning 
the towns, and takes no part in the fighting, still is, 
in the eyes of the Maori chiefs, a symbol of the power 
and protection of the Queen. 

In my despatch of January 7th ult,, I added : 6 In 
common with all the leading public men of this 
country, I am convinced that it is of vital importance 
to endeavour to come to a peaceful understanding, 
not inconsistent with the sovereignty of the Queen, 
with the so-called ' Maori King ' ; by which title his 

1 Sir George 0. Trevelyan, Bart., M.P. See Ca-wiijpore, p. 27. 



OPERATIONS OF COLONEL WIIITMORE 365 

adherents appear to mean nothing more than a great 
chieftain and magistrate, analogous to the semi-inde- 
pendent rajahs of British India. All feel that it would 
have been more satisfactory if Tawhiao could have 
been brought to submission while there was in New 
Zealand, in addition to the colonial forces, an army of 
ten thousand British soldiers ; but all agree that since 
his conquest was found impracticable then, it would be 
worse than folly to attempt it now, by the unaided 
efforts of the colonial forces alone.' 

There can be little doubt but that the Maori 
King is himself disposed to peaceful counsels ; still 
he, like several of the Indian princes in 1857, when 
placed in a somewhat similar position, may ulti- 
mately have to yield to the violence of the barbarous 
warriors and fanatical Hau-liau prophets by whom he 
is surrounded. 

To the Same. 

Government House, Wellington : March 20, 1869. 

Colonel Whitmore is cautiously but perseveringly 
forcing his way through the forests on the West Coast ; 
and on the loth instant, after a night march, and 
under cover of a mist, he surprised Titokowaru's 
camp, and drove him from it with some loss. The 
small force under Colonel Whitmore's immediate com- 
mand is gradually acquiring discipline, confidence, and 
skill in bush fighting ; but it will be recollected that, 
while the enemy is stronger and more experienced 
than ever, the colonial troops dr> not exceed one-fifth 



366 NEW ZEALAND 

of the number of the regular soldiers lately employed 
in the same service. For it will be remembered that 
after the utmost exertions that could be used, and 
after recruiting throughout this Colony, and in Aus- 
tralia, the Colonial Government has been unable to 
raise its permanent force to above two thousand men. 

The latest intelligence from the Waikato is still 
of an uncertain character. The movements of the 
Maori King, on whom so much depends, seem as yet 
undecided. It is stated that a large meeting of the 
King natives is to be held at the end of this month of 
March ; and that it will then be finally settled whether 
they shall declare for peace or for war. 

Meanwhile intelligence has reached Wellington in 
confirmation of the report of the fresh outbreak on 
the East Coast. It appears that Te Kooti after his 
escape at the capture by Colonel Whitmore, in last 
January, of his main stronghold at Ngatapa (about 
thirty miles inland from Poverty Bay), retreated to 
the mountains of the interior, where he was joined 
by a portion of the wild and savage Urewera clan, 
the McGregors of the Maori Highlands. He has 
now made a foray against the settlements in the 
Bay of Plenty. In that quarter about five hun- 
dred Europeans of all ages and sexes are dispersed 
along a coast line of above one hundred miles ; living 
intermingled with the natives, and in their own phrase 
' under the Maori tomahawk '; just as the settlers near 
the Highland border, one hundred and fifty years 
ago, lived under the Celtic claymore. Of these five 



PUBLIC SPIRIT OF THE COLONISTS 367 

hundred souls, there are about two hundred men able 
to bear arms ; who are enrolled in the Militia, and are 
now holding the redoubts at Tauranga and Opotiki, 
to which their families have mostly fled for refuge. 
The English are supported by an equal number of the 
Arawas, a clan which has continued as loyal to the 
Crown throughout the Maori rebellions as the Camp- 
bells remained during the Scotch rebellions of 1715 
and 1745. 

Te Kooti has already captured (though after 
severe loss) a pah belonging to the friendly natives ; 
he has destroyed the settlement at Whakatane ; and 
murdered, among others, Mr. Pitcairn, an English 
surveyor, and M. Guerin, a Frenchman, long resident 
in this country, who nianfully defended his house, and 
killed several of his assailants before he succumbed to 
overpowering odds. 

The Colonial Government has sent to the assist- 
ance of the settlers in the Bay of Plenty all the men 
that can be spared from the other threatened points. 



The indirect effects of these fresh massacres were 
more reassuring than could have been anticipated. As 
Sir George Bowen wrote to Lord Granville (July 5, 
1869) : ' The truth is that (as the tone of several of my 
recent despatches will show), I have thought better, 
and not worse, of the prospects of this Colony with 
regard to the native rebellion, since the Poverty Bay 
massacre, than I thought before that catastrophe. It 



368 NEW ZEALAND 

has caused the spirit of the colonists, and of the loyal 
Maori clans, to swell up high and fierce. Moreover, 
it was believed by many of those best acquainted 
with the native character, that a bloody outbreak of 
this nature would prove the signal (as on former 
occasions) for a very extensive rising of the disaf- 
fected tribes, with the so-called Maori King at their 
head ; whereas Tawhiao and his adherents have 
abstained from active hostilities for so many months, 
that I now am inclined to hope that they will not rise 
at all.' 

In the midst of these alarms which were, however, 
subsiding, as the colonial forces acquired strength 
and discipline the ' Sailor Prince ' paid his first visit 
to New Zealand. The recent attempt of a Fenian at 
Sydney to assassinate him naturally intensified the 
sympathy and loyalty of the colonists. 

To the Earl Granville, KG. 

Government House, Auckland : June 7, 1869. 

My dear Lord, 

In my despatches by this mail, your Lordship 
will find full and detailed reports of the very suc- 
cessful visit to New Zealand of the Duke of Edin- 
burgh. After a stay of seven weeks in this Colony, 
H.E.H. took his final departure on the 1st of June, 
' a day,' as he observed, ' auspicious in the annals of 
the British navy,' and is followed by the loyal affec 
tion and hearty good will of this community, to all 



FIRST VISIT OF THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH 369 

classes of which he had endeared himself by his 
gracious tact and courtesy, and by his unaffected 
sympathy with the Colony in the difficulties against 
w T hich it has been so long struggling. He visited all the 
chief centres of population, viz. Auckland, Wellington, 
Nelson, Canterbury, and Dunedin, spread along a coast 
line of above 1,000 miles ; and his sojourn here, while 
it passed over without a single contretemps, has done 
much public good by at once rewarding and confirm- 
ing the loyalty of the friendly Maoris, by leading to 
pacific overtures from the hostile tribes, and by in- 
tensifying (if I may so speak), the personal attach- 
ment of the overwhelming majority of the colonists 
to the Queen and the Eoyal Family. We all feel 
towards the Captain of the ' Galatea ' the sentiment of 

Horace : l 

Sis licet felix ubicunque mavis, 
Et memor nostri, GALATEA, vivas ! 

The Duke was good enough to say, and to show by 
his manner, that he ' felt quite at home ' with Lady 
Bowen and myself during the seven weeks that he 
spent under our roof. He exerted himself zealously to 
entertain the society invited to Government House, 
bringing his stage scenery on shore from the Galatea/ 
and having it put up in the ball-room under his own 
superintendence. Lord Charles Beresford and others 
of his officers gave us capital private theatricals, 
the Duke himself leading his orchestra. As you are 
doubtless aware, he is an accomplished musician, 

1 Carm. III. 27. 
VOL. I. B B 



370 NEW ZEALAND 

and an excellent mimic and raconteur, when lie finds 
himself among people he knows well and likes. He 
had not so much shooting as I had hoped to give 
him ; for Commodore Lambert took advantage of his 
being on the station to hold several naval courts- 
martial ; and His Eoyal Highness will never allow 
anything whatsoever to interfere with his professional 
duties. 

If the Duke is charming as a guest, he is, if pos- 
sible, still more charming as a host. He took me 
with him in the ' Galatea ' on his visit to the south- 
ern provinces. It was observed that he gave the 
Governor all the honours as the colonial representa- 
tive of the Queen, and seemed to regard himself, while 
afloat, simply as a captain in Her Majesty's navy 
serving in the waters of my Government. While 
keeping up strict discipline, he is beloved by his offi- 
cers and men, who would follow him anywhere and 
everywhere. Commodore Lambert and the other 
senior officers here consider the Duke to be above the 
average of officers of his own age as a practical sea- 
man, while there are few men in the Eoyal Navy who 
know more about steam machinery, naval construc- 
tion, and what may be called the scientific part of the 
profession. Moreover, H.E.H. never forgets that, as 
Master of the Trinity House, he is, in a sense, the 
head of the mercantile marine of England ; and, as 
such, he is always anxious to promote in every way 
the interests of trade and commerce. He has made 
valuable practical suggestions for the improvement, 



SECOND VISIT OF THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH 371 

lighting, and defence of several of the harbours of 
New Zealand. 



Writing at a later period of the Duke of Edin- 
burgh's second visit to New Zealand, in 1870, Sir 
George Bowen reported to the Secretary of State 
His Eoyal Highness' expedition to the celebrated 
Hot Lakes : 

Government House, Auckland, New Zealand : 
December 26, 1870. 

My Lord, 

I have the honour to report that on the 12th 
instant, His Eoyal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, 
accompanied by myself and by several officers of 
II. M.S. ' Galatea ' (including Lord Charles Beresford), 
left Auckland in the Colonial Government steamer 
' Luna,' on a visit to the Lake District on the East 
Coast of this Island. On the following morning we 
landed at Tauranga, the principal port in the Bay 
of Plenty, where His Koyal Highness was enthusi- 
astically welcomed by 700 chiefs and warriors of 
the clans of the Arawas and Ngaiterangis. 

From Tauranga we proceeded to Maketu, the 
principal kainga, or settlement, of the Arawas, and 
celebrated in Maori tradition as the spot at which 
their ancestors, some twenty generations back, first 
landed in New Zealand. No Europeans have as yet 
settled in the inland districts of this portion of New 
Zealand ; but His Eoyal Highness was as safe among 
the Arawas in their own country as he would be 

B IJ 2 



372 NEW ZEALAND 

among the Gordons in Aberdeenshire. We were, 
however, attended by a guard of honour, consisting 
of a strong escort of the clansmen in arms for the 
Queen. The Duke of Edinburgh and his officers 
were much interested by the many striking scenes 
and incidents of life in a Maori camp, especially by 
the war songs, chanted by the Araw r as around the 
watch-fires which they kindled every night in front 
of our tents. On the other hand, the native warriors 
were delighted by His Eoyal Highness' power of 
enduring fatigue ; by his good horsemanship and 
swimming ; by the skill and vigour with which he 
paddled his canoe across their lakes ; and by his 
constantly wearing the kilt, which is the favourite 
dress of the Maori as of the Scotch Highlanders. 

I shall not detain your Lordship with an account 
of the hot lakes, solfataras, and geysers of this 
Island, for they have been fully described by other 
writers. Suffice it to say that, on the 14th instant, 
we rode from Maketu to Ohinemutu, the principal 
inland settlement of the Arawas, a distance of nearly 
forty miles ; the road leading us along the shores of 
the beautiful Lakes Eotoiti and Eotorua. It will be 
remembered that (as I reported at the time) this road 
was spontaneously made by the Arawas, the chiefs 
and clansmen labouring together, for the use of the 
Duke of Edinburgh more than two years ago, when 
his visit was first expected. On the 15th instant, 
after swimming in the tepid waters of the solfataras, 
and inspecting the principal geysers, we rode over 



EXPEDITION TO THE HOT LAKES 373 

the hills to Lake Tarawera, which we crossed on the 
following day in native canoes, encamping for the 
night on the famous ' terraces ' of Lake Eotomahana. 1 
After examining the wonders around, we returned 
on a subsequent day to our previous camp at Ohine- 
mutu, where we spent quietly Sunday the 18th 
instant. The Eev. S. Spencer, a missionary clergy- 
man resident at Maketu, who had accompanied our 
party, read the service of the Church of England 
in the open air on the shore of Lake Eotorua. It 
was a calm and beautiful day, and the scene was 
highly picturesque and suggestive ; the little knot of 
Englishmen surrounding the ' Son of the Queen,' and 
the large congregation of Maoris repeating the 
responses and joining in the hymns of our Church 
in their own sonorous language ; amid some of the 
finest prospects of lake and mountain, and near some 
of the most wonderful natural phenomena in the 
world ; in the very heart, moreover, of the native 
districts of New Zealand, and of the country most 
renowned in Maori song and legend ; and on a spot 
where, in the memory of men still living, human 
victims were sacrificed, and cannibal feasts were 
held. 

On the 19th we rode back from Ohinemutu to 
Maketu ; and thence returned by sea to Auckland. 



1 The fairy-like ' Pink,' and ' White ' Terraces were unfortunately 
destroyed by the terrible earthquake of 188(5. 



374 NEW ZEALAND 

The following despatch relates the progress of 
events, and quotes a graphic description from ' Greater 
Britain ' : 

To the Earl Granville, K.G. 

Government House, Wellington : September 19, 1869. 

My Lord, 

Te Kooti has again attacked the friendly natives 
near the central lake of Taupo, and there have been 
several skirmishes in that quarter. Eeinfor cements 
from the armed const abulary and from the native 
contingent have been sent up from Napier on the 
East, and from Wanganui on the West Coast. 
Titokowaru, with the remnant of his band, is sup- 
posed to be still in the dense forests near the base 
of Mount Egmont, not far from Taranaki, where it is 
believed that he is seeking aid from Wiremu Kingi te 
Eangitaki, the William King of Waitara, who began 
the present war in 1860. In short, the hostile clans 
are now planting their crops, and endeavouring to 
recruit their stores of ammunition. They have 
been hitherto supplied, to a large extent, by rene- 
gade European dealers. But some emissaries of the 
rebels were lately captured in the Waikato ; and 
it is hoped that the organised police which the 
Colonial Government is now creating may be able 
to stop effectually the illegal sale of arms and gun- 
powder. The Maoris have a proverb similar to that 
of old respecting the ' time when Kings go to war.' 
Like the Eed Indians of North America, whom, as it 



LOYAL SPEECH OF KAWANA I1UNIA 375 

lias been often observed, they closely resemble in 
many respects, the Maoris are accustomed to renew 
hostilities in the late summer, when their crops have 
been gathered. Fresh raids on the settlements may 
then be expected in New Zealand as in the Western 
States of North America ; but such partial outbreaks 
can be dealt with by the colonial forces and by the 
loyal clans. I remarked in a previous despatch 
that the part of ' Greater Britain ' which relates to 
New Zealand is admirably true and graphic : and I 
would venture to request attention to a typical Maori 
speech therein recorded : l ' my guests ! ' said Kawana 
Hunia of the Ngatiapas, ' when ye return to our great 
Queen, tell her that we will fight for her again as we 
have fought before. 

' She is our Queen as well as your Queen Queen 
of Maoris and Queen of Pakeha. 

' Should wars arise, we will take up our rifles, 
and march whithersoever she shall direct. 

' You have heard of the King movement. I was 
a Kingite, but that did not prevent me fighting for 
the Queen I and my chiefs. 

' My cousin, Wiremu, went to England, and saw 
our Queen. He returned 

' When you landed in this island, he was already 
dead. 

6 He died fighting for our Queen. 

' As he died, we will die, if need be I and all 
my chiefs. This do you tell our Queen. 

1 See Greater Britain, Part II. chap. 4. 



376 NEW ZEALAND 

1 1 have said.' 

This passage, spoken as Hunia spoke it, was one 
of noble eloquence and singular rhetorical art. The 
few first words about Wiremu were spoken in a half 
indifferent way ; but there was a long pause before 
and after the statement that he was dead, and a sink- 
ing of the voice when he related how Wiremu had 
died, followed by a burst of sudden fire in the ' as he 
died, we will die I and all my chiefs.' 



I may observe that speeches to a similar effect 
have often been addressed to me by the loyal Maoris. 



377 



CHAPTEE XVIII. 

FURTHER VISITS TO THE MAORIS KAIPARA THE NORTHERN 
CLANS MAORI CHURCH AT OHAIAWAI PRESENTATION OP 
SWORDS OF HONOUR LETTERS TO LORD KIMBERLEY LORD 
DUFFERIN AND LORD KIMBERLEY. 

THE fire of war was gradually dying out, but to pre- 
vent its embers from being rekindled, the Governor 
continued his visits to the chief Maori clans. The 
following extract from a despatch describes his official 
tour in the district of Kaipara. 

To the Earl GranviUe, K.G. 

Government House, Auckland : October 25, 1869. 

My Lord, . . . 

Kaipara is a large inlet of the sea on the West 
Coast of the North Island, into which run several 
rivers, all navigable for many miles by vessels of 
considerable tonnage. On the banks of these streams 
there are forests of the Kauri pine (Dammar a 
Australia) and other valuable timber trees ; while 
there is also an amount of fertile soil which would 
support a large agricultural population. As yet, 
however, the Europeans who have settled in the 
Kaipara district do not exceed one thousand (in- 
cluding women and children), while the Maoris, once 



378 NEW ZEALAND 

numerous along these beautiful rivers, have now 
dwindled down to little more than seven hundred. 
With the exception of some Ngapuhis on the Wairoa, 
they are the remnant of the clan of the Ngatiwhatuas, 
to whom the country around the present site of 
Auckland formerly belonged, and who have always 
been firmly attached to the English. The Ngatiwha- 
tuas occupied the country lying between the two 
most powerful and warlike clans in New Zealand, the 
Ngapuhis and the Waikatos, who were constantly at 
war with each other, and generally chose the inter- 
vening territory for their battle-ground. To quote 
from Sir W. Fox : l ' As these invasions were annual, 
the position of the Ngatiwhatuas became something 
worse than that of Belgium used to be among the 
belligerents of Europe. In short, as they told me 
on one occasion, ' if you English had not come, they 
would have eaten us up between them.' When we 
did come, the Ngatiwh&tuas pressed on our accep- 
tance the district where Auckland stands, and by 
getting us to occupy the intervening tract, they 
obtained the best possible security against the 
renewal of the raids through their own country, 
which had kept it in a continual state of desolation 
and alarm.' 

Here it may be observed, in passing, that it 
seems to be generally forgotten in England that the 
colonisation of New Zealand, while it has led to 
temporary wars between the settlers and the natives 

1 War in New Zealand, p. 26. 



BENEFITS OF ENGLISH COLONISATION 379 

in some parts of the North Island, has at the same 
time stopped the savage and internecine strife which 
formerly raged throughout the country among the 
Maoris themselves. During the last quarter of a 
century the influence and mediation of the Colonial 
Government have repeatedly prevented bloody strug- 
gles between the rival clans, and have thus signally 
promoted the cause of humanity. The principal 
chiefs of the Kaipara receive among them about five 
thousand pounds annually for the sale and rent of 
their lands, and for licences to cut timber and pro- 
cure Kauri gum a valuable article of export from 
the north of this island. They are thus enabled to 
live in comfort, and to hire European mechanics and 
labourers "to build them good houses and boats, and 
to cultivate their farms and gardens. 

We spent Sunday the 17th inst. at the kainga of 
the influential chief, Arama Karaka, who has been 
educated by the missionaries ; and we attended Divine 
Service at his house. Surrounded by his children and 
clansmen, with their wives and families, he read 
prayers in Maori, and afterwards delivered extempore 
an excellent address from the text, ' Fear God and 
honour the king ' ; enforcing the duties of obedience 
to the law and the civil magistrate. Nothing could be 
more impressive than the devout manner in which 
the responses were made and the hymns sung by the 
entire congregation in their own sonorous language. 

It so happens that I am the first Governor that 
has ever visited Kaipara; and this fact alone was 



380 NEW ZEALAND 

sufficient to secure me a warm welcome from the 
natives of the soil. The following is a full and literal 
translation of the speech of one of the chiefs, and 
conveys the sentiments expressed in similar terms 
by the rest : ' Welcome, Governor ! salutations, 
Father ! from all our tribe. Welcome to your 
children at Kaipara. You are the first Governor 
that has ever visited Kaipara. We welcome you 
even as that bird so beloved by the Maoris, the 
kotuku (i.e. the white crane of the Southern Seas, 
rarely seen in New Zealand), which visits us but once 
in a lifetime. This our country of Kaipara has 
always been held as tapu (i.e. forbidden ground) by 
former Governors, but now you have made it acces- 
sible to all. The former Governors have treated it 
as an abode of slaves ; but you have treated it as an 
abode of chieftains (Eangatira Kainga). And yet 
we have held fast the keys of our rivers, and refused 
to open them to Heke, the fierce enemy of the Pakeha, 
when he desired to advance through our tribe and 
destroy Auckland. 1 And now, Ngatiwhatuas ! my 
second sight (takiri) was true. I saw in my visions 
the Governor arrive among us ; and lo ! he is here. 
Hearken, spirits of our forefathers, of Tinana, and 
of all the mighty dead [calling on the names of departed 
chiefs] , hearken ! The Governor at last is here . Gover- 
nor ! we Maoris are passing away, even like the waning 
moon ; there is little now to welcome you but the 
everlasting hills and the ever-flowing rivers. [A tvaiata, 

1 i.e. during the first Maori War in 1845-8. 



ENTHUSIASTIC WELCOME AT KAIPARA 381 

or traditional song of welcome, was then chanted.] 
We hail you, Governor ! whose face our forefathers 
yearned to see in the days that are gone. The 
hearts of us, the remnant of our people, the scattered 
sheep of the Maori fold, have long been dark, but 
they are now light. We rejoice that you have brought 
hither the mana (i.e. sovereign grace and power) of 
Queen Victoria, to support and protect us. Evil 
men from among the Hau-haus have tried to tempt and 
mislead us ; but now we shall hold fast unto death 
the sovereignty of the Queen. There are two things 
to which we shall cleave, the law of God, and the 
law of the Queen. If any man among us shall be 
guilty of any crime, he shall be given up to the 
law, even though he should be the son of a chief. 
The rest of our island has been filled with raids, and 
burnings, and blood ; with the screams of evil birds 
of prey, with the howling winds of war and murder ; 
but here, in Kaipara, there is the voice of peace, calm, 
and sunshine.' [Another waiata was then sung.] 

My visit to the North is stated to have been 
opportune, for Hau-hau emissaries have lately endea- 
voured to persuade or terrify into joining the rebel- 
lion the hitherto loyal or neutral clans, which had 
begun to feel themselves neglected. 



The firm but conciliatory policy adopted by Sir 
George Bowen and his Government towards the Maoris 
gradually brought about a much improved condition 
of affairs. As the Governor reported: 



382 NEW ZEALAND 

To the Same. 

November 25, 1869. 

It will be recollected that, on my first visit to the 
Waikato, I caused the tomb of his father, Potatau te 
Whero Whero, the first King of the Maoris, at Ngarua- 
wahia, the old Maori capital, to be repaired ; and I 
have been assured that this act produced a very 
favourable impression upon the mind of Tawhiao. 
Subsequent friendly overtures and negotiations, the 
success of the colonial forces against Te Kooti and 
Titokowaru in the field, and the moral support afforded 
to the Colony by two Queen's ships on the coast, have 
combined to keep the ' Maori King ' and the clans 
that adhere to him, from open hostility, though (as it 
has been truly said) ' they have long been hanging 
on the central mountains of this island like a 
thunder-cloud, ready to burst at any moment on the 
English settlements.' 

The general policy recommended by me in my 
former despatches was pronounced to be 'clearly 
judicious,' and was formally approved and sanc- 
tioned by your Lordship. 1 It was also adopted (as 
we have seen) by the Colonial Government. At 
the beginning of the present month. Mr. McLean, the 
Minister for Native Affairs, was permitted to cross 
the Aukdli, or ' pale,' and held a very satisfactory 
conference with the principal chiefs who have per- 

1 See Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand, February 
26, and May 21, 1869. (Parliamentary Papers}. 



FRIENDLY CONFERENCES WITH NATIVE CHIEFS 383 

sisted during many years past in active or sullen 
hostility in particular, with Tamati Ngapora, the 
uncle and chief councillor of King Tawhiao, and 
with Eewi Maniapoto, the formidable warrior who 
commanded the Maoris against the British troops 
under General Cameron at Eangariri, Orakau, and 
throughout the Waikato campaigns of ] 863 and 1864. 
Mr. McLean is convinced that Eewi was sincere 
when he said that their recent interview was the 
' streak of light before the dawn, which would soon 
spread,' and that ere long King Tawhiao himself will 
consent to meet the Governor at a formal conference, 
when the foundations of permanent peace and tran- 
quillity will be laid. Meanwhile, there is little doubt 
that we need be no longer apprehensive of a general 
rising of the hostile Maoris. The only favour which 
Tamati Ngapora and Eewi asked was that their 
relative Te Hura, and a few other natives still con- 
fined at Auckland, under a sentence of the Supreme 
Court, for their participation in the outbreak on the 
East Coast in 1865, should be released and given up 
to them ; and to this request I readily consented. 
In return, the chiefs of the ' King party ' undertook 
to be answerable for the future good conduct of these 
men, and to assist the Government and the loyal clans 
in putting down murder and brigandage. The Maoris 
rarely fail to perform promises made at their public 
Koreros, or meetings. 



384 NEW ZEALAND 

In April 1870, the Governor paid another visit to 
the northern tribes of the Ngapuhis and Earawas ; 

To the Same. 

Government House, Auckland : May 26, 1870. 

My Lord, 

I have the honour to transmit herewith a brief but 
accurate summary of my recent official visit to the 
great Maori clans of the North, viz. the Ngapuhis 
and the Earawas. This account was written by a 
professional reporter connected with the colonial 
press, who took down in shorthand the substance of 
the speeches delivered by myself and by Mr. McLean 
(the Minister for Native Affairs), as also by the prin- 
cipal chiefs at the koreros, or general assemblies, of 
their tribes, held to welcome me. 

It wall be observed that the Maoris appeared 
highly pleased at seeing the representative of the 
Queen visiting their kaingas, or villages ; and that I 
was everywhere received by them with strong and 
repeated assurances of their loyalty to the Crown, 
and of their good-will towards their British fellow- 
subjects. These feelings were expressed with equal 
warmth by the chiefs who fought against the English 
in the first Maori War (1845-8), and by Tamati 
Waka Nene and the other chiefs whose influence 
induced their countrymen to cede the sovereignty 
of New Zealand to the Queen by the Treaty of 
Waitangi, in 1840, and who have since supported 
Her Majesty's authority against their disaffected 



EUROPEAN^ AND MAORIS IN NORTHERN DISTRICTS 385 

countrymen with constant devotion and gallantry. 
Cavalcades of mounted chiefs met and escorted me 
through each district ; while, on my arrival at each 
kainga, I was received by the assembled clansmen 
with shouts and chants of welcome, and with the 
striking war dances of the Maoris, their traditional 
equivalent for military guards of honour. 

The Statistics of New Zealand for 1867 1 show 
that when the last census was taken in the December 
of that year, the population of the long, narrow 
peninsula which stretches north of the city of Auck- 
land was estimated to consist of nine thousand Euro- 
peans, and about the same number of Maoris. There 
has been little change during the past two years in 
the relative proportion of the two races in this part of 
the Colony. It is to be borne in mind, however, that 
the Europeans are chiefly settled in the country of 
the Ngatiwhatuas, that is, in the southern half of 
the peninsula ; while in the country of the Ngapuhis 
and of the Earawas, that is, in the northern half of 
the peninsula (comprising the districts of the Bay of 
Islands, Hokianga, and Mongonui), the Maoris are 
still by far the most numerous. In these last named 
districts they probably outnumber the Europeans in 
the aggregate by four to one ; while in the extensive 
region watered by the Hokianga Kiver and its tribu- 
taries, it is estimated that there are now fully two 
thousand natives and only one hundred Europeans. 

1 Any good map of! New Zealand will show all the places referred 
to in this despatch. 

VOL. I. C C 



386 NEW ZEALAND 

Under these circumstances, it is not to be denied 
that, in the phrase addressed to me by one of the 
principal settlers in the north, ' the English there are 
living under the Maori tomahawk ' ; for their few and 
scattered homesteads are entirely at the mercy of the 
populous Jcaingas and pahs (native villages and forts) 
in their neighbourhood. However, notwithstanding 

indeed partly (perhaps) in consequence of the 

weakness of the colonists in this quarter, perfect 
mutual confidence and good-will exist between them 
and the Maoris. It will be remembered that the first 
Maori war was waged with a portion of the Ngapuhi 
clan under the chiefs Heke l and Kawiti ; while the 
remainder of that tribe, under Tamati Waka Nene, 
fought in support of the sovereignty of the Queen 
and in alliance with the English troops. Even during 
that war the settlers were never molested by the 
hostile section of the Ngapuhis, who indeed prided 
themselves on carrying on the contest in a most 
chivalrous manner. It has been often repeated, for 
instance, how, when Heke captured a convoy of 
cattle on its way to the English camp, he not only 
allowed it to proceed, but actually sent some of his 
warriors to assist in driving the sheep and oxen 
through a difficult pass in the hills ; observing that 

1 Heke has been dead for many years, but I was hospitably enter- 
tained at a feast given in my honour by his widow, the daughter of 
Hongi ; who, in right both of her father and her husband, is regarded 
by the Ngapuhis as a great chieftainess. The elder Kawiti is also dead, 
but his son, Maihi Kawiti, who fought against the English in the first 
war, and lost two brothers in action with our troops, came to welcome 
me, and afterwards returned with me to Auckland. 



INTERMARRIAGES OF SETTLERS WITH MAORIS 387 

lie knew that English soldiers could not live, like 
Maoris, on yams and fern-root ; that they could not 
fight unless they were well fed on beef and mutton ; 
and that he had no wish to take them at a disad- 
vantage ; for, in that case, their defeat would reflect 
no honour on his arms. 

A main cause of the friendly feelings existing 
between the natives and the colonists in the north 
is doubtless the fact that several of the leading 
settlers in early times, gentlemen of character and 
education, married the daughters of Maori chiefs ; 
and that their children are now regarded as adopted 
members of their mothers' tribe, and thus entitled to 
its respect and protection. Again, a powerful in- 
fluence has been exercised by the families of some of 
the early missionaries, born in the northern districts, 
and intimately acquainted with the language and the 
customs of the people among whom they have lived 
from their childhood. The result of these combining 
influences is shown by the language of the address 
presented to me by the English settlers, and by the 
speeches of the Maori chiefs. 

The settlers said : ' May it please your Excel- 
lency, We, the European inhabitants of the Wai- 
mate and its vicinity, beg to offer you a cordial 
welcome to our district. Most of us are sons of the 
soil, few of whom have seen our fatherland ; but we 
assure your Excellency that we glory in being an 
integral part of the British nation ; while in attach- 
ment to the throne and person of our gracious 

c c 2 



388 NEW ZEALAND 

Sovereign, and in veneration for the British Constitu- 
tion, we yield to none of Her Majesty's subjects. 

- Your Excellency will be pleased to learn that 
from our earliest days we have always lived with our 
fellow subjects of the Maori race on terms of perfect 
amity. We gladly avail ourselves of this opportunity 
of bearing testimony to their loyalty to Her Majesty's 
Government ; and we have every confidence that it 
will be maintained.' 

On the other hand, the speeches of the Maori 
chiefs of the North were full of assurances of their 
devoted loyalty to the Queen ; of their affection for 
their European neighbours ; and of their obedience 
to the law. It is a significant fact that the only two 
petitions which they made to me were: (1) That 
towns should be founded in their districts, so that 
more Europeans might come to live among them, 
and trade with them ; and (2) that gaols should 
be built in the north, 6 for the punishment of the 
evil doers of both races.' The Resident Magistrates 
find small difficulty in carrying out the law in this 
part of the island, though they have no armed force 
at their disposal, and could do little without the 
support of the native chiefs. Mohi Tawhai (the 
principal chief of Hokianga) welcomed me in the 
following terms on my arrival at his river: 
4 Welcome, Governor ! Behold your canoe now 
floating in the waters of Hokianga. 1 It is not now 

1 This is the Maori form of placing a river at the disposal of the 
Governor. 



LOYAL SPEECHES OF MAORI CHIEFS 389 

only that we liave joined the Queen. We were 
devoted to her in former years, and still remain so. 
Welcome, Governor ! and bring peace to us your 
children, that your laws may be a garment to spread 
over us, and that we may live under the shelter of 
your laws.' The other chiefs everywhere spoke to 
the same effect ; and their sentiments may be said to 
be summed up by Tiopira in the following terms : 
' Welcome, Governor ! in times of peace and quiet- 
ness. I have only one word for you : Love, Love, 

Love. All we want is peace and good-will 

There is nothing we desire but that we should be all 
as one with the Europeans and the Government. 
Salutations to you, Governor ! ' 

That these professions are sincere has been 
abundantly proved by those of the northern Maoris 
who have so freely shed their blood for the Queen, 
and without whose support the English (in all proba- 
bility) could hardly have held their ground in New 
Zealand during the first Maori War. And there are 
two eminently suggestive facts to record with respect 
to the altered feelings of those who fought against 
the Crown in that contest : 

(a) It will be remembered that the object of the 
first Maori War (1845-8), as also, indeed, mainly of 
the second War which began in 1860, was to dispute 
the sovereignty of the Queen as recognised by the 
Treaty of Waitangi. Heke and Kawiti, at the head 
of a portion of the Ngapuhis, commenced the first 
war by cutting down the flagstaff at Kororareka in 



390 NEW ZEALAND 

the Bay of Islands, for they regarded it as the 
symbol of the supremacy of the Crown. At the 
conclusion of the hostilities in the north it was not 
thought prudent (as I am informed) to replace this 
flagstaff; but a few years ago, Maihi Kawiti and 
others of our old enemies spontaneously re-erected 
it at their own expense and with their own labour ; 
at the same time tendering to the Government a large 
grant of their land as a sign of permanent peace and 
good-will. 

(b) When I visited, during my recent tour, the 
pah at Ohaiawai, in the attack on which, in July, 
1 845, the British troops l suffered a severe repulse, 
with heavy loss both in officers and men, I was much 
gratified to find that the Maoris who then fought 
against us had voluntarily, and entirely at their own 
cost, erected a pretty church among the now decayed 
palisades and rifle-pits ; and that they had reserved 
the whole of the once fortified area as a cemetery, 
the natives who fell during the struggle having 
already been interred therein. When the Bishop of 
Auckland shall have consecrated this new burial- 
ground, the Maoris intend to remove into it the 
remains of our soldiers who now lie in unmarked 
graves in the neighbouring forest, and to erect a 
monument over them ; so that, as an aged Chief, 

1 Consisting of detachments of the 58th, 96th, and 99th regiments 
and of seamen and marines from the men-of-war on the coast. An 
excellent account of the first Maori War, based on the Parliamentary 
Papers and official records, will be found in chapters 8 and 9 of Dr. 
Thomson's Story of Neiv Zealand, published in London, 1859. 



MAORI CHURCH AT OIIAIAWAI 391 

formerly conspicuous among our enemies, said to me, 
' the brave warriors of both races, the white skin 
and the brown, now that all strife between them is 
.forgotten, may sleep side by side until the end of 
the world.' I question if there be a more touching 
episode in the annals of the warfare of even civilised 
nations in either ancient or modern times. 

It is, of course, well known that the Ngapuhis 
have always been the most powerful tribe in New 
Zealand, and that, about forty-five years ago, under 
their chief, Hongi Hika (who had been to England 
to request George IV. to assume the protectorate 
of New Zealand, and had been graciously received 
there), they invaded and overran the country of the 
Waikatos, whom they defeated with great slaughter. 
Both in their public speeches at the Koreros, and in 
their more private conferences with myself and Mr. 
McLean, the leading Ngapuhi chiefs condemned in 
emphatic language the conduct of the ' King of the 
Waikatos ' (as they somewhat contemptuously style 
Tawhiao) in renouncing his allegiance to the Queen, 
and in virtually relapsing into heathenism by his adop- 
tion of the Hau-hau creed. This general sentiment 
was explained in one of the Maori speeches : * Wel- 
come, Governor ! I rise to tell you that myself 
and my tribe are attached to the Queen and to the 
.Government. I wish you to have no doubts respect- 
ing our loyalty. Other tribes will speak for them- 
selves. I speak on behalf of my own tribe. Do not 
suppose that I sympathise in ' any way with the 



392 NEW ZEALAND 

Waikato king. What has he done for me ? No- 
thing at all. We are of one skin and of one blood, but 
our thoughts differ. The ancient trees of the forest 
[alluding to the chiefs of former days] have disap- 
peared ; we are a young people, growing up in their 
stead. From my youth up I have experienced no- 
thing but kindness from the Queen. [The chief here 
took from his pocket a sovereign.] I hold iu my 
hand the image of the Queen. It was this increased 
my civilisation, and supplied me with food and cloth- 
ing. Had it not been for this [i.e. for the progress of 
civilisation under the sovereignty of the Queen], I 
should have no food nor clothing. Why, then, should 
I recognise the Waikato king, or sympathise with 
him ? I adhere to the law of the Queen.' 

At the same time, the Ngapuhis signified their 
entire concurrence with the policy shadowed forth in 
several of my despatches, and adopted by the Colonial 
Government ; i.e. 'to make a peaceful arrangement, 
not inconsistent with the sovereignty of the Queen,' 
with Tawhiao and his adherents ; and to leave him 
undisturbed so long as he confines himself to his own 
immediate territory. While the Ngapuhis are willing 
to give their mediation and good offices (if requested 
by the Colonial Government) to maintain tranquillity, 
they assured me and Mr. McLean that if Tawhiao and 
his Waikatos should hereafter attack the English set- 
tlements, ' the only feeling of the Ngapuhis, in the 
event of such violation of peace, would be to go in a 
body, and fight on behalf of the Government.' 



MAORIS AT A BALL AT GOVERNMENT HOUSE 393 

Mr. Maning (the author of ' Old New Zealand,' 
and now one of the Judges of the Native Land 
Court), who has lived among the Ngapuhis for forty 
years, assures me that they could still bring into 
the field ' fully two thousand picked warriors.' In 
his opinion, the Ngapuhis, unlike the rest of the 
Maoris, are not materially decreasing in numbers. 
He thinks, indeed, that, in the district of Hokianga, 
they have positively increased of late years. He 
ascribes this satisfactory result mainly to their im- 
proved and civilised habits of life ; and to their 
general use of good food and clothing, which the sale 
of their timber, flax, and kauri gum enables them to 
procure from the English traders settled among them. 
Moreover, several of the leading chiefs make strenu- 
ous efforts to prevent the spread of indulgence in 
spirituous liquors and of other vices, which have 
everywhere proved fatal to savage or semi-civilised 
races. 

I may here mention that the leading Maori chiefs 
of the north, together with their wives, attended the 
ball which I gave at the Government House on the 
24th instant in honour of Her Majesty's birthday. 
On that occasion, Kawiti and others of our former 
enemies were observed sitting near the widows of the 
Colonels who commanded the 58th and 96th regi- 
ments in the first Maori War, and in friendly conver- 
sation with several retired officers of those corps who 
have settled in the Colony. 1 

1 When one of the formerly hostile Maori chiefs was told that the 



394 NEW ZEALAND 

On the whole, so far as any certainty can be 
said to exist respecting a country circumstanced as 
is New Zealand, and respecting such a race as the 
Maoris the colonial authorities feel a confident 
assurance that permanent tranquillity will be main- 
tained in the north, and that they may rely not 
only on the friendship, but also, in case of need, on 
the active support of the Ngapuhis, the most power- 
ful native tribe. All those best acquainted with the 
Maoris believe that my visits to the principal clans 
have produced a good effect, and that the general 
sentiments of the natives were truly expressed in the 
waiata, or chant of welcome, with which I was 
received at Hokianga : ' Lo ! now the Governor has 
at length arrived. My heart has longed to see him, 
whom our tribes, far and near, have united to 
acknowledge and recognise in terms of friendship 
and love. Welcome, Governor ! ... In days gone 
by, the laws of God and the laws of the Queen 
stood side by side. Under the shadow of those laws 
our tribes take sweet repose, free from danger 
and surprise. Now at length the Governor has ap- 
peared. We see him in person. We speak with him 
face to face. Now, Governor! this your presence 
at Hokianga will be the means of cementing in one 
bond of unity and fellowship the tribes of the 

widows of these colonels were in the ball-room, he asked to be pre- 
sented to them ; and, bowing low, thus addressed them : ' Ladies, 
when I was young I fought against your gallant husbands ; I am now 
old, and I hope that I shall ere long meet them in Paradise, for they 
were indeed noble toas (warriors).' 



PRESENTATION OF SWORDS OF HONOUR 395 

Pakeha and the tribes of the Maoris, so that they shall 
henceforth live together in peace and friendship under 
one law and under one Governor.' 



An interesting scene took place at Wellington 
on the anniversary of the Queen's accession, June 
20, 1870, in the ceremony of presenting the swords 
of honour sent out by Her Majesty as tokens of re- 
cognition of the valour and loyalty of Te Kepa, 
Eopata, Mokena, and four other loyal chiefs. The 
chiefs having advanced for the purpose of receiving 
the swords, the Governor, who was attended by his 
Ministers and Staff, said : 

4 My friends, Te Kepa, Eopata, and Mokena, 
The Queen has sent out from England swords of 
honour to be presented to you and to certain other 
Maori chiefs, in recognition of your loyalty to her 
Crown, and of your gallant services in support of her 
Government and of the cause of law and order in 
New Zealand. Her Majesty has commanded me, as 
her representative, to invest you with these swords, 
as tokens of her royal favour. I now proceed to 
perform this honourable duty on this day, June 20, 
which is the 33rd anniversary of the accession of the 
Queen, who, soon after she ascended the throne of 
England, became, through the Treaty of Waitangi, 
the Sovereign also of this country. I am glad, more- 
over, to carry out the commands of our Queen, by 
bestowing on you these marks of distinction in the 
presence of the Ministers and other chief officers of 
the Government, and of many members of the Parlki- 



396 NEW ZEALAND 

ment. And now to you, Te Kepa, I deliver this 
sword. Never shall I forget how, when I went to 
Wanganui, in November, 1868, at a time of much 
danger and distress, and called upon your tribe again 
to take arms for the Queen and the law, reminding 
you of the dying words of your great chief and near 
kinsman, Hori Kingi te Anaua ; never shall I forget, 
I say, how you, Te Kepa, sprang forward, with the 
gallant spirit of your ancestors, and declared that 
you were again ready to take the field. Since that 
day you have been almost constantly on active 
service against the enemies of the Queen ; and your 
march across this island, from Wanganui to Opotiki, 
in spite of many and great difficulties, is an exploit 
thoroughly appreciated both here and in England. 
You have been ably and bravely assisted by your 
friend Topi a Turoa, on whom also a mark of the 
approval of the Queen's Government will be hereafter 
bestowed. Te Kepa, here is your sword. It bears 
on the blade this inscription ' Given by Queen 
Victoria to Te Kepa for his unfailing loyalty and 
valour.' May you long wear it in health and honour. 
To you, Eopata and Mokena, I now present, in the 
name of the Queen, these swords, which also bear 
your names and similar inscriptions with that pre- 
sented to Te Kepa. Your tribe, the Xgatiporou, have 
rivalled the Wanganuis in loyalty to the Crown, in 
goodwill to your English neighbours, and in gallantry 
in war. Your services in many a severe conflict on 
the East Coast since 1865, as well as at Ngatapa and 
elsewhere, and your late expedition through the 
Urewera country, are well known and thoroughly 
appreciated; and I am confident that you will con- 



SPEECH OF TE KEPA RANGIIIIWIIINUI 397 

tinue your efforts, in co-operation with the other 
forces of the Government and with the other loyal 
Maori tribes, until peace shall have been permanently 
established throughout this island. Here, Eopata 
and Mokena, are your sw T ords, presented to you by 
the Queen. May you also long wear them in health 
and honour. And now, my friends, I trust that the 
ceremony of this day may be auspicious, and that, 
by the blessing of God, before another anniversary of 
the Queen's accession shall arrive, her heart may be 
gladdened with the tidings that the clouds of war and 
evil have passed away from this fair land, and that 
both races, the Pakeha and the Maori, are dwelling 
together under equal laws and in friendship and 
prosperity.' 

Te Kepa Eangihiwhinui then replied in Maori, of 
which a verbatim translation is given : Queen Vic- 
toria ! by the grace of God long may you live. May 
your children, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edin- 
burgh, and the Princesses live long. I thank Victoria, 
Queen of this world, for casting her eyes in this direc- 
tion, upon us, this dark-skinned people, this distant 
people. I thank the Queen heartily for sending 
me this proof of her love across the billows of the 
great sea. Here it is, the sickle with which evil is 
to be cut down. Your ancestors, the Kings, have been 
protected by God, and so also yourself. There you 
stand on the most sacred place of your ancestors the 
Kings of great fame of old. And now you have 
caused the sun to shine over this our island. It is 
very good that the elder and younger brother should 
live together, as they did in the Ark. Afterwards, the 
elder and the younger brother were divided. Now, 



398 NEW ZEALAND 

in this }^ear for the first time they are again united. 
I and my tribes are under the authority of the 
Queen. This was Hori Kingi's last word to me, 
and to all his tribe : ' When I am gone, remain quiet 
under the authority of the Queen : be loyal to her.' 
And to me especially he said : ' Be strong in putting 
down evil, that peace may be secured in the future.' 
Well, now that this pledge of your affection is here 
before me, I trust that peace will always be with 
you, Queen Victoria ! and with your children. 
May peace be with you, Governor Bowen! with 
Lady Bowen, and your children. May peace be with 
the Government of New Zealand. Let love be in 
your hearts. 

To the Earl of Kimberley, Secretary of State for 
the Colonies. 1 

Government House, Wellington : August 23, 1870. 

My dear Lord, 

My plan of engaging the friendly clans to fight on 
the side of law and order, and to make roads through 
their own mountains and forests, while the so-called 
Maori King and his adherents were given to under- 
stand that they will be left undisturbed so long as 
they remain quiet within their own territory, was at 
first unpopular in many quarters. Indeed, a year 
ago, my Ministers and I were attacked in a portion 
of the Press for arming the loyal clans, making a 
peaceful arrangement with Tawhiao, and for refusing to 
proclaim martial law, or (under the peculiar circum- 

1 Lord Kimberley had succeeded Lord Granville at the Colonial 
Office. 






TE KEPA AND OTHER CHIEFS 399 



stances of the Colony) to liang the Maori prisoners, 
unless proved guilty before the Supreme Court of 
murder or some other atrocity, in addition to carry- 
ing arms against the Government. But now our 
success has made the Parliament and public agree 
that we were right, and the result is almost perfect 
political quietude. 

The Maoris are certainly a most interesting race. 
As Scholars as well as Statesmen, your Lordship, Mr. 
Gladstone, and many of your colleagues would delight 
in seeing a Korero, or meeting of the natives. It is very 
Homeric. I send herewith photographs of my friends 
Te Kepa and Eopata, the chiefs who have fought so 
gallantly for the Crown since my appeal to them when 
I went to Wanganui in November 1868, at the time of 
the Poverty Bay massacre. 1 Te Kepa is a chief of very 
high birth, and can count his pedigree from the time 
when the Maoris, led by one of his ancestors, first 
landed in New Zealand about 600 years ago. He 
is very gentlemanlike in manners and appearance, and 
not darker than most Portuguese nobles. Indeed, 
if he were in a London drawing-room, people would 
ask ' Who is that distinguished foreign officer ? ' The 
Duke of Edinburgh was much struck with him. 
When he dined with me to meet the Duke, he was 
suffering from inflammation in his eyes, caught 
through exposure in the field while in arms for the 
Queen. When the Duke expressed his regret for the 
suffering which his loyalty had brought on him, he ex- 

1 See above, page 334-35. 



400 NEW ZEALAND 

claimed to the interpreter : ' Tell the Prince that I care 
not how soon I become even blind in fighting for his 
mother, now that mine eyes have seen the son of my 
Queen.' Is not this the sort of speech that Cameron 
of Lochiel might have made to Charles Edward at 
Holyrood in 1745 ? I am informed on high authority 
that the Queen was much interested and gratified by 
this incident. 1 

I have had a very arduous task here, for I have 
had to contend with a very formidable outbreak of 
the Hau-haus (i.e. of the Maoris who have renounced 
their allegiance to the Queen, and relapsed into 
heathenism), without any aid from England, though 
there were lately as many insurgent Maoris in the 
field as during the period when there was an army of 
10,000 regular troops in this country. And, more 
recently, as will be seen from the New Zealand press, 
and from the debates in the New Zealand Parliament, 

1 Another incident occurred at the dinner referred to above. Among 
the loyal Maori chiefs invited to meet the Duke of Edinburgh was one 
of the original signers of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, and who had 
ever since been a firm friend of the English. One of the Anglican 
Bishops afterwards said to the Governor : ' Do you know, sir, the 
antecedents of that old heathen ? ' ' No, my dear Bishop,' was the 
reply, ' but I do know that he brought five hundred of his clansmen 
into the field to fight for the Queen, so I invited him to meet the 
" Queen's Son." ' ' Well,' continued the Bishop, ' when I first arrived 
in New Zealand, that chief came to me and said that he wished to be 
baptized. I knew that he had two wives, so I told him that he must 
first persuade one of them to return to her family. He said he feared 
that would be difficult, but that he would see what could be done, and 
come back to me in two months. When he returned, he exclaimed, 
" Now, Missionary, you may baptize me, for I have only one wife." I 
asked, " What have you done with our dear sister, your first wife ? " 
He replied, smacking his lips, " I have eaten her I " ' 



DIFFICULTIES OVERCOME 401 

I have had to struggle with a very general spirit of 
disaffection to the Imperial Government, arising out of 
the removal of the last Imperial regiment while the 
native war was still raging, though the Colonial Parlia- 
ment had engaged to pay its entire cost. But I am 
thankful to say that I believe the worst is now over. 
The Hau-haus see that the colonists and loyal clans are 
too strong for them, and the Maoris generally believe 
that it will be more pleasant and profitable to trade 
with the English than to fight with them. On the 
other hand, the concession of the Imperial gua- 
rantee of the loan of a million sterling for colonial 
defences ; and, above all, the kindly and sympathetic 
Ian <>*u a<*e of the Secretary of State in his recent com- 

o o > 

munications, are fast causing the revival of the old 
loyalty of New Zealand. 

To the Same. 

Government House, Wellington : September 24, 1870, 

My dear Lord, 

I am very grateful for your most kind and 
encouraging letter of July 17, which reached me 
by the last mail. I read to the Colonial Ministers 
those paragraphs in which you express your sympathy 
with this Colony and your appreciation of the very 
difficult position in which I am placed, further assur- 
ing the colonists that the policy of England ' is not a 
mere selfish one, but is believed to be really the best 
for the interests of the Colony itself ' ; and that ' you 
greatly admire the promptitude and energy, worthy 

VOL. i. D D 



402 NEW ZEALAND 

of men of English descent, with which the colonists 
have recently dealt with the native difficulty.' These 
words had a most happy effect. Mr. Fox, 1 the 
Prime Minister, and others of the leading public 
men here, say that they have a grateful recollection 
of the valuable assistance which you gave twenty 
years ago to the Canterbury Association, and, some- 
what later, towards the passing of the New Zealand 
Constitution Act. The concession of Lord Granville 
about the guarantee to the loan ; his personal courtesy 
to the New Zealand Commissioners in England ; and, 
above all, the completely altered tone of the despatches 
from the Colonial Office during the last few months, 
had caused the tide of feeling here to turn ; and now 
your letter has carried it to the flood. What is the 
immediate result ? Why, that even those who four or 
five months ago were all agog for separation from 
England, and annexation to the United States, are 
now loyal again, and the Ministers asked me to in- 
clude - in the Prorogation Speech a congratulation to 
the Parliament on the cordial relations re-established 
with the mother-country ! It is national sympathy 
and not dry* logic which keeps a great Empire 

1 Now Sir "William Fox, K.C.M.G. Sir George Bowen was his 
gnest in November, 1868, at Eangitikei, some thirty miles from 
Wanganui, but only one mile from a large village of Hau-haus, who 
' plainly told Mr. Fox that they would rise and kill him and all the 
other Pakehas in the district if so ordered by King Tawhiao.' In the 
following year Sir G. Bowen was again the guest of Sir W. Fox, when 
the Governor and his Prime Minister rode together from Wanganui to 
Taranaki through the country recently laid waste by Titokowaru, but 
where they were loyally received by Hone Pihama, and other chiefs 
formerly in rebellion. 



LORD DUFFERIX AND LORD KI.MBERLEY 403 

together ; and, whatever may be the future destiny 
of the British Colonies, all would allow it to be a 
grave misfortune to permit the separation to be so 
precipitated, or matters so to ' drift,' as to produce 
in Australasia the bitter and lasting rancour against 
England so long prevalent in America. 



In a recent letter (1889) to an English Statesman, 
Sir G. Bowen wrote as follows : 

'I have always retained a deep sense of the 
steady support which I received from Lord Kimberley 
on all occasions, and especially during the manifold 
difficulties which I had to encounter while Governor 
of New Zealand. Other Governors have expressed a 
similar feeling. Above all, the greatest of our living 
Proconsuls, the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava, once 
made to me this striking remark : " While Lord 
Kimberley was Secretary of State I always felt, in 
difficult times, like a man fighting with a strong wall 
at his back." 



T) D 2 



404 NEW ZEALAND 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

FINAL CLOSE OF THE TEN YEARS' WAR THE GOVERNOR'S RIDE 
THROUGH THE INTERIOR OF THE NORTH ISLAND FROM 
WELLINGTON TO AUCKLAND SUBMISSION OF THE FORMER 
REBELS ALBERT VICTOR POMARE LETTER TO SIR T. M. 
BIDDULPH MAORI MEMBERS IN THE COLONIAL PARLIAMENT. 

THE just and politic measures of the Government 
and Parliament, and the gallantry of the colonial 
forces, both English and^ native, finally brought 
to a close, towards the end of 1870, the Maori 
war, which had lasted as long as the war of Troy - 
for ten years since 1860. As it was remarked 
at the time : ' a judicious mixture of firmness and 
conciliation has at length subdued those formidable 
foemen : 

Quos neque Tydides nee Larissceus Achilles, 
Non anni domuere decem, non mille carince, : 1 

That is, whom neither Generals Cameron and Chute, 
with their army of 10,000 regular troops, nor the 
strong squadron of men-of-war, with its naval brigade 
on shore, had succeeded in conquering during the 
war of the last ten years,' 

Subjoined are reports of the Governor's visits to 
the lately disturbed districts : 

1 Virgil, Mn. II. 197. 



FIXAL CLOSE OF THE TEN YEARS' WAR 405 
To the Earl of Kimberley. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
December 12, 1871. 

My Lord, 

I have the honour to report that I proceeded by 
sea to Wanganui on November 27th ult., and re- 
turned thence to Wellington overland on the 5th 
instant. 

The immediate cause of this expedition was the 
invitation of the provincial and municipal authorities, 
and also of the Maori chiefs of the district, that I 
should open the iron bridge which has now been 
completed over the river Wanganui. This is an im- 
portant public work, being only about one hundred 
and twenty feet shorter than London Bridge. It 
was designed by the eminent civil engineer, Mr. 
George Eobert Stephenson ; and the materials were 
chiefly constructed in England, but they were put 
together and erected on the spot by a colonial con- 
tractor. 

It will be recollected that Wanganui is one of the 
earliest European settlements in New Zealand, dating 
from 1842. Situated near the mouth of the principal 
river, and in the centre of the most fertile districts in 
the western portion of the Province of Wellington, it 
would have made rapid progress had it not been for 
the almost constant Maori wars and disturbances 
which have frequently threatened its very existence. 
However, the town, situated on the right bank of the 
navigable river Wanganui, and about four miles from 



406 NEW ZEALAND 

the sea, already contains nearly four thousand 
European inhabitants ; and, now that permanent 
tranquillity appears to have been established, it has 
every prospect of a successful future. On the left 
bank, nearly opposite the town, is Putiki, the prin- 
cipal kainga of the great Maori clan of the Wanga- 
nuis, of which Te Kepa is the leading chief. 

In my reply to the address of the settlers, I spoke 
as follows : ' This, gentlemen, is my third visit to 
Wanganui. I have not forgotten that, in the address 
presented to me on the occasion of my first visit, in 
November, 1868, you expressed your regret that I 
" should have arrived among you at a time when a 
native insurrection was raging within a few miles of 
this town, and when your hearts were saddened by 
the loss of no inconsiderable number of your fellow 
settlers, who had gallantly shed their blood in the 
defence of the throne and of their adopted country." 
Permit me now to congratulate you 011 the very 
striking improvement which has taken place in the 
condition and prospects of your town and district 
during the brief period of the last three years. In 
November, 1868, a formidable rebellion had broken 
out in your immediate neighbourhood, and the rebels, 
after devastating the whole country to the west, 
had advanced to within ten miles of your suburbs. 
Under these circumstances, I came among you my- 
self, having been assured that my presence at that 
perilous crisis would prove of public advantage, espe- 
cially in stimulating the zeal of your Maori allies, 



TRANQUILLITY AND CONFIDENCE ESTABLISHED 407 

who, indeed, headed by the gallant Te Kepa, took 
up arms at my call. 

' My second visit to Wanganui was in September, 
1869, when I rode overland from this town to Patea. 
All pressing danger had then passed away, but there 
still existed a general feeling of insecurity. Now, on 
my third visit, I find that the wisdom and firmness of 
the Legislature, ably seconded by the gallantry of our 
local forces, both European and Native, and by the 
public spirit of the population at large, have esta- 
blished what I trust will prove permanent tranquillity 
and confidence. The settlements laid waste by the 
rebels have been reoccupied and extended ; and a 
public coach is now running from Wanganui to 
Taranaki,' through the country which four years ago 
could not be safely traversed even by a very large 
force of Imperial and Colonial troops. The facts to 
which I have referred are well known to all who now 
hear me ; but it seems expedient to place them on 
record for the benefit of those at a distance who are 
deeply interested in the welfare of New Zealand.' 

The address of the natives was read on the bridge 
by the gallant Te Kepa, surrounded by the chiefs 
and clansmen of his tribe. He wore his uniform as 
a major in the Colonial Militia, and the sword of 
honour presented to him by the Queen. During 
my stay at Wanganui, on this as on former occasions, 
I paid a special visit to the Maoris at their own 
kainga of Putiki, and was again received with the 
customary war dance and chants of welcome. In 



408 NEW ZEALAND 

the Korero which followed, and which was attended 
by several chiefs recently in arms against the Crown, 
all the speeches were of the most loyal and peaceful 
character ; and I was assured that I might always 
rely on the active support, alike in peace and in war, 
of the Maori clans which have already fought so long 
and so bravely for the Queen. 

The Maoris asked permission to row Lady Bowen 
and myself, together with my family and suite, in 
their war-canoes up the beautiful Wanganui Eiver. 
Except in the immediate neighbourhood of the town, 
no Europeans have as yet settled on its banks, but 
they are studded with picturesque native villages, 
at each of which the Governor and his party were 
greeted with shouts and songs of welcome. At night 
we encamped under tents at one or other of these 
kaingas, our Maori hosts gathering for us the flower- 
ing shrubs of their country, which form a soft, elastic, 
and fragrant couch. The scenery of the upper part 
of the Wanganui Eiver resembles in many of its 
features that of the Ehine between Cologne and 
Mannheim. The old towns and castles are, of course, 
wanting here, but the vegetation of Germany is far 
surpassed by the magnificent and almost tropical 
luxuriance of the New Zealand forests. Nothing can 
be more striking and suggestive than the sight of a 
fleet of Maori war-canoes, such as that which conveyed 
and escorted us. The prow and stern of each canoe 
ends in a highly curving peak, carved in fantastic 
shapes, gay with streaming pennons of divers colours, 



VOYAGE UP TOE WANGANUI RIVER 409 

and profusely decorated with the feathers of the kiwi 
(Apteryx) and albatross. Each canoe is rowed by 
from twenty to fifty kilted warriors, while in the 
midst stands a chief, with the spear (taieka) and 
greenstone sceptre (mere punamu] of his rank, guid- 
ing and encouraging his clansmen by voice and gesture, 
and marking the time for the rhythmical stroke of the 
paddles and for the wild chants with which it is 
accompanied. 1 

Although all is now calm and peaceful on the 
Wanganui Eiver, it will be recollected that much 
sharp fighting took place on its banks in both the 
first and second Maori Wars, and especially in the 
years 1864 and 1865. In the early part of the 
former year a large party of Hau-haus from the in- 
terior attempted to descend the river, with the object 
of sacking and burning the town ; but they were 
met and utterly defeated by the loyal Maoris in the 
fiercely contested battle of Moutoa (May 14, 1864). 
A handsome monument has been erected in the 
market-place of Wanganui by the Provincial Govern- 
ment of Wellington, to the memory of the Maoris 
who fell at Moutoa. 2 

On my return last week overland from Wanganui 
to Wellington, I found everything tranquil and pros- 
perous, where, on my previous journey through the 

1 A sketch of a M-aori war-canoe is given in the frontispiece to Sir 
George Grey's Polynesian Mythology. 

2 A full account of the fighting near Wanganui in 1864 and 18G5 will 
be found in Sir W. Fox's War in Ne^v Zealand, chaps. 9 and 14, and 
in the Parliamentary Papers of those years. 



410 NEW ZEALAND 

same districts in November, 1868, all was confusion 
and terror. The colonists are everywhere improving 
their homesteads and steadily extending their farms ; 
while the Maoris, who were recently on the point of 
coming to blows among themselves respecting the 
ownership of some land at Horowhenua, near Otaki, 
have listened to the advice and exhortations of myself 
and of Mr. McLean, and agreed to submit their pre- 
tensions to arbitration. 



The above and some shorter tours were followed 
by Sir G. Bowen's ride through the interior of the 
North Island, which was regarded at the time as 
another turning-point in the history of the Colony. 
He reported (April 1, 1872): 

' I propose to ride across the centre of the North 
Island, from Wellington to Auckland, by Napier, the 
great central lake of Taupo, the Hot Lakes, and the 
Waikato. This journey will probably occupy from a 
fortnight to three weeks, and much of it will neces- 
sarily be of a very rough nature, as lying beyond the 
limits to which colonisation has hitherto extended. 
But it is expected by those who know the Maoris 
best, that a visit from the representative of the 
Queen to the native tribes of the central interior will 
be productive of much political advantage ; while 
confidence in England as to the permanent tranquillity 
of New Zealand will be confirmed when it is known 
that the Governor has himself crossed in safety so 
many of the recently hostile and disaffected districts.' 



GOVERNOR'S RIDE THROUGH THE NORTH ISLAND 411 

The following letters give some description of this 
anxious but very important journey : 

To E. G. W. Herbert, Esq., Permanent Under Secretary 
of State for the Colonies. 

Lake of Taupo, New Zealand : April 9, 1872. 

My clear Herbert, 

I wrote to you from Wellington on the eve of my 
departure on my overland journey to Auckland 
through the centre of this island and the heart of the 
native districts. Many persons, although all agree- 
ing on the great importance of the Governor under- 
taking this expedition, felt anxious about its diffi- 
culties and dangers ; and, as I told you, I was not 
myself without some presentiment of evil. But this 
day I have the great happiness of writing officially to 
Lord Kimberley from the shores of the great central 
lake of Taupo ; which was as little known to the 
first settlers of New Zealand thirty years ago as the 
great lakes in the interior of Africa are now known 
to the Europeans resident at Alexandria and the 
Cape of Good Hope. Moreover, until within the last 
few months, the natives of these central districts were 
devoted to the so-called Maori King, and (with the 
single exception of the Chief Poihipi, the friend and 
guide of the late Lt. Meade l ) they were hostile to 
the Queen and to all white men. In 1869, they joined 
the rebel leader Te Kooti, when there was much 
hard fighting at Tokano and elsewhere (as described 

1 See the excellent account of his adventures in A Hide through 
Neiv Zealand, by Lt. the Hon. H. Meade, R.N. 



412 NEW ZEALAND 

in my despatches at the time), between the insur- 
gents and the colonial forces, and the loyal clans 
led by the gallant Te Kepa. Last night I slept at 
Opepe, ten miles from my present quarters ; where 
in June, 1869, a detachment of the colonial forces 
was surprised and slaughtered by Te Kooti ; and I 
have been received with shouts of joy and welcome in 
the country where Lt. Meade had literally (as he says 
in his book) 4 to ride for his life.' The chiefs and 
tribes so lately in arms against the Queen, assure me 
that they are now convinced of the good intentions 
towards them of my Government, and that their true 
interest is to live in peace and harmony with the 
colonists. They are quite clamorous to be employed 
on the roads which are gradually but surely creeping 
up from the coast into their mountain fastnesses, 
and which will soon render all future rebellions 
practically impossible. Several chiefs have taken con- 
tracts for making, by the labour of their clansmen, 
the road of ninety miles from the port of Napier to 
Lake Taupo. Half of it is already finished ; and, 
strange and incredible as such a statement would 
have been only two years ago, it will be completed 
within six months from this date ; and a coach, 
subsidised by the Government, will then run twice 
a week into the heart of the (lately) rebel coun- 
try. The Lake of Taupo is of about the same size 
(200 square miles of water) with the Lake of Geneva, 
which it much resembles. From the hut in which I 
am now writing, there is a glorious view across its 



THE GOVERNOR AT LAKE TAUPO 413 

waters to the burning mountain of Tongariro (6,200 
feet) and the peak of Euapehu (9,200 feet high), 
both covered with snow, and glittering in the bright 
sunshine and pellucid air. To-morrow I cross over to 
Tokano, the scene of the fiercely contested battle of 
October, 1869, but where our late enemies are now 
assembled to give me an enthusiastic welcome. They 
like seeing the Governor coming among them with 
only one aide-de-camp, two officers of the Colonial 
Government, and a few mounted orderlies. There is 
nothing in Italy finer than the scenery through which 
we have been riding during the last few days. On 
our return from Tokano, we shall continue our ride 
overland to Auckland, a ride of about a fortnight now, 
but which will be a drive of four or five days before 
long. 1 The Maoris are waiting outside for a Korero 
with the Governor, so I must conclude. 

P.S. The speeches of the Maori chiefs were quite 
enthusiastically loyal. They placed their villages, 
their lands, their arms, everything they have, at the 
disposal of the Queen, and of the Governor, a vendre 
et a pendre, in the sentiment of the old French 
saying. 

To the Earl of Kimberley. 

Lake of Taupo, New Zealand : April 12, 1872. 

My dear Lord, 

My last despatches will have informed your 
Lordship of my intended journey across the centre 

1 Now, in 1889, railways run over most of the country through 
which Sir G. Bowen rode in 1872. 



414 NEW Z RAT. AND 

of tliis island ; to which great importance is attached 
on public grounds ; and also of my successful 
arrival at the great central lake (or as the Maoris 
call it, ' Sea ' Moana) of Taupo. 

On the 9th ultimo I wrote that, after an enthu- 
siastic reception by the Maoris at the north end of 
the lake, one of whom, Poihipi, is among the few 
survivors of the chiefs who signed, in 1840, the 
treaty of Waitangi, ceding the sovereignty of New 
Zealand to the British Crown, I was about to cross 
over to Tokano at the south end, where a large 
number of those lately in arms against the Queen 
were assembled to give their submission. I received 
a still more enthusiastic greeting from these ex-rebels, 
who assured me that they had returned to Christian- 
ity as well as to their allegiance to the Queen, a fact 
which they wished to prove by quoting largely 
(though not at all in a profane tone or manner) 
from Scripture ; stating, for example, that they 
should be admitted to favour ' like the labourers 
who came in at the eleventh hour,' and hoping that 
the Government would act on the principle of the 
text, ' that there is more joy in Heaven over one 
sinner that repenteth, than over ninety-and-nine just 
persons who need no repentance.' Herman Merivale 
says somewhere that colonists bear no malice, how- 
ever fierce their temporary quarrels, against 'Downing 
Street,' as they always call the Colonial Office ; and 
really Maori rebels seem to be equally forgiving. 
One chief, who was our guide at the south end 



REQUESTS OF MAORI CHIEFS 415 

of the Lake, had lost an eye and a hand in fighting 
against our forces ; and one old chieftainess, who 
was almost too affectionate in her welcome to me, 
had lost a brother and two sons in the war. I 
addressed the assembled warriors at some length, 
fully explaining the gracious intentions of my 
Government ; and I was answered in very loyal 
speeches. The chiefs said that they had only the 
following requests to make : 1. To have ' Queen's 
flags ' (i.e. Union Jacks) to hoist in all their Pahs, 
instead of the rebel, or Hau-hau, flags, which they 
have everywhere destroyed. 2. That a township 
might be founded on the shores of the Lake, and 
called ' Bowen,' after my name. 3. That they might 
be employed in making roads through their own 
country. 4. That the Government would place a 
steamer on the lake, so that there might be easy 
access to all their settlements for the officers of 
Government, and for colonists desirous to lease or 
buy portions of their land. It will be easily under- 
stood that no objection was made on my part to any 
of these requests. 

I rode from Tokano to the beautiful Lake 
Eotoaira at the foot of the burning mountain of 
Tongariro. This is, speaking geographically, one of 
the most interesting spots in New Zealand, for here 
nearly all the principal rivers of the North Island 
have their sources within a few miles of each other : 
the Waikato flowing to the north, the Wangamii to 
the south, and so forth. I was reminded of that 



416 NEW ZEALAND 

famous pass in Pindus, whence flow the Achelous, 
the Peneus, the Haliacmon, and the other chief rivers 
of Northern Greece, and where Aristseus 

Omnia sub magnd labentia flumina terrd 
Spectabat diversa locis. 1 

From the south end of the Lake of Taupo 
stretches away a vast extent of rich and beautiful 
plains and valleys at present almost without a single 
inhabitant of any race. But now that peace is firmly 
established, the sheep-farmers are already in treaty 
with the native owners for leases enabling them to 
depasture stock. As I rode along in the shadow of 
the mighty Tongariro with one of the Maori lords of 
the soil, he said that he had lived to see many 
changes, and that he still hoped to see the primeval 
forests felled ; the fair plains and valleys before us 
dotted with tens of thousands of sheep and cattle ; 
English steamers rushing over the lakes ; English 
towns and villages springing up on the banks of the 
rivers ; so that the sale and rents of his domains 
might enable him to spend his old age in comfort, 
and to educate his children in the language and 
learning of the English. I thought of Longfellow's 

' Hiawatha : ' 

I beheld too in that vision 
All the secrets of the future, 
Of the distant days that shall be. 
I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded nations. 
All the land was full of people, 

1 Virgil, Georg, IV. 3GC. 



IMPORTANT RESULTS OP GOVERNOR'S JOURNEY 417 

Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes, 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys, 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder. 



From Lake Taupo Sir G. Bowen continued his ride 
through the territories of the native clans to Auckland. 
On May 15, 1872, he wrote to Lord Kimberley : 

' I have now the satisfaction of reporting that the 
second half was as prosperous as the first half of my 
expedition ; and that I reached Auckland on the 
24th ultimo, at the end of what has been truly called 
" an important and memorable journey." All those 
who are best acquainted with the Maoris and with 
this country generally agree with the opinions ex- 
pressed in the annexed leading article of one of the 
principal journals of New Zealand : 

' " The tour overland through the extensive tract 
of country chiefly owned and occupied by the native 
tribes of New Zealand, which has just been accom- 
plished so successfully by His Excellency Governor 
Sir G. F. Bowen, will go farther to reassure the 
people of England with respect to the satisfactory 
settlement of the native difficulty than a thousand 
arguments and ex parte statements on the subject. 
Throughout the entire distance traversed by His 
Excellency and the few attendants who accompanied 
him from Wellington northward till they reached the 

VOL. i. E E 



418 NEW ZEALAND 

Upper Waikato, the most cheerful demonstrations 
of welcome and good-will were everywhere accorded 
to the Queen's representative. Not only by the in- 
fluential chiefs who remained firm in their allegiance 
to the European cause in days gone by, when the 
Colony stood so much in need of their assistance, but 
by many who were at one time prominent leaders 
among the most determined of our enemies, the same 
hearty desire was expressed that the past should be 
forgotten, and that all occasion for differences between 
the races should be carefully guarded against for the 
future." ' 

The Earl of Kimberley to Sir G. Bowen. 

Downing Street : August 21, 1872. 

Sir, 

I have to acknowledge your despatch of the 9th 
April, written from the Lake of Taupo, in the course 
of your expedition from Wellington to Auckland, 
and your further despatch of the 15th of May, an- 
nouncing the completion of your journey. 

I have much pleasure in congratulating you upon 
the success of this expedition, and upon the satis- 
factory evidences which you received at each place 
of the intentions and disposition of the Maoris. 

These despatches afford striking confirmation of 
the success of the native policy adopted by your 
Government. 

The following letter will be read with special 
interest : 



ALBERT VICTOR POMARE 419 

To Major-General Sir T. M. Biddulph, K.C.B., 
Private Secretary to the Queen. 

Wellington : August 12, 1872. 

My dear Sir, 

In your last letter to me, you were good enough 
to say you would like to hear occasionally about the 
welfare and progress of Albert Victor Pomare, 1 the 
Maori boy whom the Queen supports at the Orphan 
Home near Auckland. I was lately there, and made 
it my business to visit this interesting child at his 
school, and to see him elsewhere. He is in excellent 
health and seems quite happy. The matron and 
teachers of the Orphan Home, as also Lady Martin 
(the wife of the late Chief Justice), Mrs. Cowie (the 
wife of the Bishop of Auckland), and other ladies 
who visit and manage it, all speak in high terms of 
the good conduct and good disposition of the little 
Albert, and of his general progress. All recommend 
that he should remain where he is for at least two 
years more ; and I entirely concur in this view. He 
is very grateful to his royal .benefactress ; and, as 
I mentioned in a former letter, the great clan of 
the Ngapuhis, to which he belongs (and which is as 
powerful in New Zealand as the Campbells are in 
Scotland), has a loyal and dutiful sense of Her 
Majesty's bounty to a child of the clan. 

It appears from your last letter, that you take an 
interest in the progress of affairs in New Zealand ; 
and, indeed (if I mistake not), some members of 

1 The orphan son of a loyal Maori chief. 



420 NEW ZEALAND 1 

your family took an active part in the foundation of 
this Colony. Accordingly, I venture to send you a 
brief account of my late journey from Wellington to 
Auckland, across the central Highlands, and through 
the recently hostile districts. This account was 
drawn up from notes taken at the time by one of 
the officers of the Government who accompanied 
me. 

My journey overland is considered by all the best 
judges to be a fresh turning point in the history of 
this Colony, and to afford the best proof of the 
establishment of permanent tranquillity. Soon after 
my arrival in New Zealand in 1868, I pointed out in 
my early despatches to the Secretary of State (many 
of which have been presented to the Imperial Parlia- 
ment) that the state of the Maori Highlands at the 
present day closely resembles in many respects that 
of the Scotch Highlands one hundred and fifty years 
ago. The Maori clans were lately divided into the 
loyal subjects of the Queen, on one side, and, on the 
other, the followers of the so-called 'Maori King' a 
sort of Polynesian ' Lord of the Isles ' just as the 
Scotch clans were formerly divided into Hanoverians 
and Jacobites. I saw that the policy which gradually 
pacified the Scotch Highlands would prove to be the 
proper policy for this country also ; and it has been 
adopted by the Colonial Government and Parliament. 
We are steadily pursuing the system of Marshal 
Wade in opening up the country by roads, and of 
Lord Chatham, in employing the disaffected clans on 



'UNION JACK' HOISTED OVER LATELY REBEL PAHS 421 

public works, and in regiments and companies raised 
for the Crown. About three thousand Maoris, most 
of whom were lately in arms against us, are now 
garrisoning posts for the Government, or are working 
on the roads, which open up their own mountains 
and forests, and will soon render rebellion impossible 
in the future. Everywhere in the recently hostile 
country I was received as the representative of the 
Queen with the most loyal and cordial respect ; and 
saw the ' Union Jack,' the symbol of submission to 
the authority of Her Majesty, hoisted by the natives 
themselves over the pahs (i.e. fortified Maori villages) 
where the rebel flag had floated for several years. 
There was one very striking scene of this nature. 
One pah in the interior of this island is held by an 
old chief, who had the reputation of being a sullen 
and obstinate rebel ; and as my route lay about lialf- 
a-mile from it, I was advised by the loyal chiefs to 
pass it by without a visit, However, when my little 
cavalcade of five or six horsemen came in sight on 
the brow of the nearest hill, we saw the ' Union 
Jack' run up at the flag-staff; while from the tree- 
ferns, palms, and all the beautiful and semi-tropical 
underwood of the New Zealand forests around us, 
a number of the clansmen sprang up, not in mute 
defiance like the clansmen of Eoclerick Dim, in the 
famous scene of the ' Lady of the Lake,' but with 
the soft musical tones of the Haere Mai, the Maori 
chant of welcome. Soon afterwards, the old chief 
himself came forward, and welcomed me to his 



422 NEW ZEALAND 

country with that dignified courtesy which Maoris 
and Eed Indians know so well how to assume. 

In fact, the feeling in favour of a native king is 
fast dying out here, just as Jacobitism died out in 
Scotland a hundred years ago. And as the Far- 
quharsons, Mackenzies, and other Highland clans, 
once Jacobite, are now enthusiastically attached to 
the House of Hanover, so many of the Maori tribes, 
once 'Hau-hau,' or rebel, are now loyally (in their 
own phrase) ' reposing under the shadow of the 
Queen.' 

Anthony Trollope is now visiting New Zealand. 
It is to be wished that he may do for the Maoris 
what Walter Scott did for the Highlanders, and 
Fenimore Cooper for the Eed Indians. He might 
find here materials for several novels, which would 
preserve the memory of a very interesting race. I 
visited again on my recent tour the famous Hot 
Lakes and springs (resembling the geysers of Iceland) 
which I visited in 1870 with the Duke of Edinburgh. 
His Eoyal Highness has left a most favourable im- 
pression behind him in New Zealand, and is regarded 
with affectionate respect alike by the colonists and 
by the natives, who often ask after the ' son of the 
Queen.' I may here mention that (as I have officially 
reported to Lord Kimberley) the intelligence of the 
illness of the Prince of Wales called forth throughout 
New Zealand a general sympathy, which proves (if, 
indeed, any proof were wanting) the strength of the 
loyal attachment of all classes in this community to 



SYMPATHY WITH THE PRINCE OF WALES 423 

the Crown and to the Eoyal Family. I appointed by 
proclamation a day of general thanksgiving for his 
Eoyal Highness's recovery ; and it was observed as in 
England. It was everywhere kept as a close holiday ; 
and appropriate services were held in the churches 
of all the religious communions, and attended by 
crowded congregations. I added in my official de- 
spatch to Lord Kimberley : 

' It has been remarked here that in the old French 
Monarchy the children of the Sovereign were called 
the children of France (les enfans de France) ; and 
that although the English people do not use the same 
graceful phrase, they feel thoroughly the sentiment 
which it expresses. It has been my agreeable duty 
to report in several previous despatches, the enthu- 
siastic welcome with which the Duke of Edinburgh 
was received in New Zealand on his visits in 1869 
and in 1870 ; and I now assure your Lordship, that 
it has been truly observed in the public press that 
there is scarcely a household in this Colony in which 
the illness of the Prince of Wales was not deplored 
almost as would be that of an honoured relative.' 



To the Earl of Kimberley. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
September 7, 1872. 

My Lord, 

I have now the honour to forward a translation of 
the report, sent to the Colonial Government by the 



424 NEW ZEALAND 

Maoris present, of a great native meeting held in last 
July at one of the places lately visited by me, viz. 
Mataahu, near the East Cape, the kainga, or settle- 
ment, of Eopata te Wahawaha, the principal warrior 
of the powerful clan of the Ngatiporos, and one of the 
six chiefs to whom the Queen has presented swords of 
honour. 

The main object of this meeting was to erect, with 
great ceremony, a flagstaff, and to hoist on it the 
' Queen's flag ' i.e. the Union Jack in token of the 
permanent establishment of peace, and of the return 
of the entire native population of the East Coast from 
rebellion to their allegiance to the Crown, and from 
the Hau-hau fanaticism to Christianity. There were 
also carried by the representatives of the several clans 
other banners bearing devices symbolical of the 
loyalty and Christian faith of the Maori people. 

The speeches of the leading Maori chiefs present 
at the meeting will repay perusal ; especially that of 
Eopata te Wahawaha, who wore his uniform as a 
major in the Colonial Militia, and the sword of honour 
presented to him by the Queen for his long-continued 
services in the field in support of Her Majesty's 
authority and the cause of law and order. He began 
in these words : 

' To all the tribes and chiefs I offer thanks be- 
cause we have all met here together to witness the 
raising of our " Power " (the flagstaff), and the sign of 
our union in this our great security, and to enable me 
to show you these swords, which you have not before 



SPEECH OF ROPATA TE WAIIAWAHA 425 

had an opportunity of seeing. These swords are a 
mark of honour from the Queen for your steadfast 
loyalty to her ; a token of her love and approbation 
conferred upon you for your bravery in putting down 
the evil and upholding the good ; and this flag also is 
a token of the support afforded you by the Govern- 
ment for your bravery in suppressing evil.' 

After explaining the position* of the Maoris at the 
present time, and exhorting them to peace and union, 
he concluded his address as follows : 

'Let us all rejoice and be glad under this our 
flag (the Queen's flag), because we are able to breathe 
freely during this period of rest and security under 
the protection of this new power. Therefore, let us 
also be energetic and active in making roads in our 
districts, erecting schools for our children, building 
churches, and promoting Christianity ; and let us 
also hold on to the law as a protecting fence round 
about us. 

' Now I have explained to you, ye people, the 
objects of our present assembling together, and which 
may be condensed under two heads : First, the 
command of Christ to deny ourselves, take up our 
cross, and follow Him. We shall then be His children 
indeed, and co-heirs with Him in His kingdom. Tak- 
ing up the cross, we should pray always, both in 
prosperity and in adversity. 

4 Secondly ; this is our power and strength (mana) 
which waves above us [i.e. the British flag]. If we 
do good we shall by it be increased and exalted ; but 



426 NEW ZEALAND 

if we do evil that is, if we return to Hau-hau prac- 
tices and principles, or take up arms without due 
legal authority we shall be crushed entirely. 

'God preserve the Queen, and you, her people, 
and take you under His divine protection.' 

It will be further seen that the ceremony ended 
by the natives opening a subscription among them- 
selves for the erection of a new school-house for their 
children. 

The admission of Maori members into the Colonial 
Parliament an important political measure always 
strongly advocated by Sir Gr. Bowen is referred to 
in the subjoined despatch : 

To the Same. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
October 21, 1872. 

My Lord, 

In my despatch of September 20th ultimo, and 
on previous occasions, I have reported that the ex- 
periment of admitting Maori members to the House 
of Eepresentatives had proved completely successful, 
and that it had been decided to admit them also to 
the Executive and Legislative Councils ; a resolution 
approved by all parties, both within and without the 
Legislature. 

As your Lordship is aware, the Maoris in the 
House of Kepresentatives are elected by their country- 
men ; but as the members of the Executive and Legis- 
lative Councils are nominated by the Governor, the 



MAORI MEMBERS IN THE COLONIAL PARLIAMENT 427 

selection from among the principal Maori clans and 
chiefs was a matter of delicacy, requiring careful con- 
sideration. With the advice of my Ministers, I have 
now summoned to the Executive Council two of the 
leading Maori members of the House of Kepresenta- 
tives ; and to the Legislative Council 

(1) Mokena Kohere, of Waiapu, in the province 
of Auckland, a chief of high rank and commanding 
influence in the great clan of the Ngatiporos, and 
who was recently presented by Her Majesty with a 
sword of honour for his long and gallant services in 
fighting for the Crown during the second Maori War. 

(2) Wiremu Tako Ngatata, of Waikanae in the 
province of Wellington, the foremost chief of the clan 
of the Ngatiawas. When the first English colonists, 
under the auspices of the New Zealand Company, 
arrived in this country in 1840, they found this chief 
living in a pah on what is now the site of the city of 
Wellington. Together with his friend and relative, 
the celebrated Te Puni (whose death was recently 
lamented by both races), 1 Wiremu Tako Ngatata 

1 Sir G. Bowen reported (December 24, 1870) that ' the Government 
ordered a public funeral for Te Puni. Several of the colonial Ministers 
and other leading settlers of all political parties were pall-bearers, to- 
gether with the principal clansmen of the deceased ; the Bishop of 
Wellington read the Burial Service of the Church of England ; Mr. 
McLean, the Minister for Native Affairs, delivered an eloquent address 
in Maori ; and the Volunteer Rifles and Artillery fired the customary 
military salutes over the grave of the old warrior. Several of the 
colonial journals have made appropriate comments on the death of 
Te Puni. The subjoined extract will suffice to show the general 
sentiment : " The old settlers of Wellington did themselves honour in 
paying the last mark of respect to Te Puni ; and the Government 



428 NEW ZEALAND 

cordially welcomed the early settlers, made over to 
them large grants of land, and protected them from 
the attacks of the hostile natives. I have already 
borne my testimony to the assistance which he afforded 
to me personally at the very critical period of the 
dangerous outbreak on the West Coast of this island 
in 1868. 

Both of the above-mentioned chiefs are universally 
recognised as good representatives of their race. 
They have taken their seats in the Legislative Council, 
and have already begun to show, like their country- 
men in the other Chamber, an intelligent and active 
interest in the debates, and in the general business of 
the Parliament. 

A Government interpreter is always present in 
both Houses to translate the speeches of the Maori 

deserves thanks for assistance, without which it would have been im- 
possible to carry out the "arrangements for the funeral in so satisfactory 
a manner. The frank acknowledgment of. Te Puni's claims upon the 
gratitude of the colonists, and the manner in which they were alluded 
to by Mr. McLean, must have 'had a very gratifying effect "on the 
Maoris who were present, and may exercise a salutary influence in 
other places. The ceremony in itself was striking and suggestive ; 
vigorous civilisation laying the head of decaying barbarism in the earth 
gently and with reverence ; not (as is usual in the case of the aborigines 
of other countries) with rude and careless contempt. Te Puni's burial 
in European fashion, with Europeans standing round his grave, and 
European guns firing over it, is typical of the not distant tune when 
all the savage powers of obstruction yet latent among the Maoris will 
be buried in a similar manner, and the work of colonisation will proceed 
uninterrupted. It also suggests the thought of another hour, sooner or 
later to arrive, when the last Maori will be laid to his rest by European 
hands ; and his race, so remarkable for its chequered character of 
good and evil so much that is noble and striking, and so much that 
is savage and revolting will remain only in the history and traditions 
of the past." ' 



MAORIS IN PARLIAMENTARY DEBATE 429 

members sentence by sentence. They rarely speak, 
except on questions of land tenure, native laws and 
customs, and other subjects with which they are per- 
fectly acquainted ; and they are always heard with 
respect and attention by their English colleagues. 

There can be no doubt that the admission of 
Maoris to the Executive Council and to the Parlia- 
ment has been felt by them as a proof that they 
are now regarded as having equal rights with the 
colonists. It was a most salutary measure. 



430 NEW ZEALAND 



CHAPTEE XX. 

OFFICIAL TOURS IN THE SOUTH ISLAND CANTERBURY JOHN 
ROBERT GODLEY THE 'CANTERBURY PILGRIMS' OTAGO 
HOKITIKA SOUTHERN ALPS FJORDS OF NEW ZEALAND 
MILFORD SOUND LAKE WAKATIPU. 

THE complete termination of the Maori disturbances 
in the North Island enabled the Governor to make 
some lengthened official tours in the South Island, 
which contains the great majority of the English 
settlers, but only a few hundred natives. Hitherto 
he had been unable to absent himself from the scene 
of hostilities, except during his brief voyage with the 
Duke of Edinburgh. 

We subjoin some extracts from the Governor's 
reports of his Southern tours : 

To the Earl of Kimberley. 

' As the local journals observe : " A heartier or 
more universal demonstration could not have been 
made ' y ; and I may add, that the good taste was 
equally conspicuous with the warmth of the welcome 
accorded to me by the Superintendents, by the Pro- 
vincial Governments, and by all classes of the com- 
munity. 

6 It will be seen that, in replying to an address 
presented to me in Canterbury, I spoke as follows : 



PROVINCE OF CANTERBURY 

" I thank you heartily for the welcome which your 
loyalty to our Sovereign has induced you to accord 
to me as Her Majesty's representative on my arrival 
in this great Province. 

' " I am fully conscious that your cordial greetings 
are paid to me in my official character, and that I 
can have as yet but little claim to the personal 
regard of the people of Canterbury, unless, indeed, it 
be as an early friend of one whose memory will for 
ever be held in high honour and affection among you ; 
I mean John Eobert Godley. Nearly twenty years 
have now elapsed since I first discussed with him his 
schemes for the foundation of this settlement, which 
he even then called the work of his life. You all 
know how well he performed that work. I will only 
add that it would have cheered his gallant spirit, in 
his sufferings from failing health, if he could have 
foreseen the rapid but solid progress, almost without 
precedent elsewhere, which you have achieved." 

'It will be recollected that several of the New 
Zealand settlements, and especially Canterbury, were, 
in the words of Mr. Merivale, 1 " founded under good 
auspices, and in a spirit of enthusiasm unequalled in 
modern colonial enterprise, which carries the mind 
back to the days of Ealeigh and his adventurous 
contemporaries." 2 In much of the society, in many of 

1 Colonisation and Colonies, p. 128. 

2 We may here quote a story often told : It will be remembered 
that the late Mr. Gibbon Wakefield took a very active part in the first 
colonisation of New Zealand ; and that it was his policy to utilise the 
religious movements at home to help in creating new settlements at the 
Antipodes. Thus the ' High Church ' movement in England was used 



432 NEW ZEALAND 

the fine public buildings of Canterbury, and in all 
that truly English tone and aspect of the community, 
which strike every visitor, the character of its first 
foimders may still be traced ; while the remarkable 
progress of the settlement is a proof of the energy 
and perseverance with which they and their suc- 
cessors have turned to account the natural advantages 
of a region comparatively free from forest, and where 
the expense of clearing and of first communications 
was comparatively small ; containing also wide and 
fertile plains, singularly adapted to pastoral enterprise, 
and adjacent to districts eminently suitable for agri- 
cultural occupation. 1 

' I was everywhere most hospitably entertained at 
the houses of the leading settlers, many of whom have 
acquired very large estates in freehold ; and although 
colonisation in this part of the country dates from 
only twelve or fifteen years back, they already live 
in good houses, surrounded by all the comforts and 

to found Canterbury ; while the ' Free Kirk ' movement in Scotland was 
used to found Otago. So advantage was taken of a dispute among the 
Independents to induce a number of them to emigrate to a district named 
Albertland. Mr. Gibbon Wakefield even conceived the idea of establish- 
ing a separate settlement of Jews ; for it was recorded in the early annals 
of the Colony that ' at this period one single Hebrew was painfully 
making his way among the Scotch at Otago.' Accordingly, Mr. Wake- 
field consulted an eminent Hebrew merchant about his proposed ex- 
periment. ' Would it not be a good thing to have a settlement of Jews in 
New Zealand ? ' * Oh, capital,' was the reply ; ' but how about the 
Christians ? ' ' Well, we have a settlement of Hig-h Church people at 
Canterbury, and of Free Kirk people at Otagc ; why should not the Jews 
found a settlement of their own? ' 'What, without any Christians! 
No, Mr. Wakefield, that will never do ; we could not Uve.' 

1 The first settlers in Canterbury, who arrived in 1851, are known 
as the Canterbury Pilgrims. 



GOVERNOR'S SPEECH AT GREYMOUTH 433 

nearly all the luxuries enjc^ed by country gentlemen 
in England. Not only have the best breeds of cattle 
and sheep been imported, but the acclimatisation of 
English deer, pheasants, partridges, and other game, 
together with thrushes, blackbirds, and other singing 
birds, is also rapidly progressing. It will be recol- 
lected that the native difficulty does not exist in the 
Middle Island/ . . . 

' At the end of my tour, I spoke as follows : 
"Thus I close at Greymouth my present official 
journey through the greater portion of this Island 
from Invercargill to Dunedin, from Dunedin to Christ- 
church, and from Christchurch to Westland. I hope 
to return next summer, and then to visit Nelson and 
Marlborough, and those parts of the southern Pro- 
vinces which my limited time would not allow me to 
see during the past three months. These tours enable 
the Governor to make himself personally acquainted 
with the varies resources of the Colony over which 
he presides, and thus to make known authoritatively 
in the mother-country the vast field which it offers 
for emigration and for the investment of capital. 
Moreover, I have often been told that as the Queen 
is the connecting link between the provinces of the 
Empire, so the Governor is regarded as the connecting 
link between the several provinces of New Zealand. 
Certainly in the southern settlements during my 
present tour, as in the northern settlements during 
previous tours, the colonists of all political parties, 
and of all social classes, have gathered round me with 

VOL. I. F F 



434 NEW ZEALAND 

simple and spontaneous loyalty, but with no abate- 
ment of the manly and intelligent independence of 
the colonial character, to assure me of their devoted 
attachment to our Sovereign and to the British 
Empire, and of their respect and esteem for myself. 
Such demonstrations, while most satisfactory on 
public grounds, cannot .fail to be gratifying to me 
personally, and encouraging to every public officer 
who may hereafter fill my place, for they are a prac- 
tical proof that if he will only perform his duty 
towards both the Crown and the Colony with firm- 
ness and honesty, his fellow countrymen, the people 
of New Zealand, will be sure to rally round him." : 



We here give an extract from the despatch describ- 
ing Sir G. Bowen's visit with Commodore Stirling in 
H.M.S. ' Clio ' to the far-famed Sounds, or Fjords, of 
the West Coast : 

' These arms of the Great Southern Ocean, 
cleaving their way through the massive sea-wall of 
steep and rugged cliffs, reach far into the wild 
solitudes of the lofty mountains which form the 
cordillera or " dividing range " of the South Island. 
These mountains attain their highest elevation further 
north in Mount Cook, a snowy peak rising 13,200 feet 
above the sea-level, and visible in clear weather at a 
distance of more than a hundred miles to the mariner 
approaching New Zealand ; thus forming a noble 
monument of the illustrious navigator who first recom- 
mended the planting of an English settlement in this 



FJOKDS OF NEW ZEALAND MILFORD SOUND 435 

country. Though Milford Sound far surpasses the 
others in wild magnificence of scenery, these inlets 
have many features in common. To quote Admiral 
Eichards : "A view of the surrounding country from 
the summit of one of the mountains bordering the 
coast, of from 4,000 to 5,000 feet in elevation, is per- 
haps one of the most grand and magnificent spectacles 
it is possible to imagine ; and standing on such an 
elevation rising over the south side of Caswell's Sound, 
Cook's description of this region was forcibly recalled 
to mind. He says : 'A prospect more rude and craggy 
is rarely to be met with, for inland appeared nothing 
but the summits of mountains of a stupendous height, 
and consisting of rocks that are totally barren and 
naked, except where they are covered with snow.' 
We could only compare the scene around us as far as 
the eye could reach, north to Milford Sound, south 
to Dusky Bay, and eastward inland for a distance of 
sixty miles, to a vast sea of mountains of every 
possible variety of shape and ruggedness ; the clouds 
and mist floated far beneath us, and the harbour 
appeared no more than an insignificant stream." 

' The following extract from Dr. Hector's account 
of Milford Sound shows the probable mode of its 
formation : " Three miles from the entrance of the 
Sound it becomes contracted to the width of half a 
mile, and its sides rise perpendicularly from the 
water's edge, for from 2,000 to 5,000 feet, and then 
slope at a high angle to peaks covered with perpetual 
snow. The scenery is quite equal to the finest that 



4oG NEW ZEALAND 

can be enjoyed by the most difficult and toilsome 
journeys into the Alps of the interior ; and the effect 
is greatly enhanced, as well as the access made more 
easy, by the incursion of the sea, as it were, into 
these alpine solitudes. The sea, in fact, now occupies 
a chasm that was in past ages ploughed by an 
immense glacier ; and it is through the natural pro- 
gress of events by which the mountain mass has been 
reduced in altitude, that the ice-stream has been 
replaced by the waters of the ocean. The evidence 
of this change may be seen at a glance. The lateral 
valleys join the main one at various elevations, but 
are all sharply cut off by the precipitous wall of the 
Sound, the erosion of which was no doubt continued 
by a great central glacier long after the subordinate 
and tributary glaciers had ceased to exist. The 
precipices exhibit the marks of ice-action with great 
distinctness, and descend quite abruptly to a depth 
of 800 to 1,200 feet below the water-level. Towards 
its head the Sound becomes more expanded, and 
receives several large valleys that preserve the same 
character, but radiate in different directions into the 
highest ranges. At the time that these valleys were 
filled with glaciers, a great ' ice lake ' must have 
existed in the upper and expanded portion of the 
Sound, from which the only outlet would be through 
the chasm which forms its lower part." : 

4 On account of the great depth of water in these 
inlets, and of the sudden storms of wind rushing down 
from the mountains above, vessels are generally 



MILFORD SOUND 437 

obliged also to moor to trees or pinnacles of rock, 
whenever they reach a cove in which an anchor can 
be dropped. Accordingly, while we ware in Milford 
Sound the " Clio " lay only a few yards from the shore, 
and moored head and stern to huge trunks of trees. 
Immediately above rose Pembroke Peak to the height 
of above 7,000 feet, covered with perpetual snow, 
and with a glacier reaching down to within 2,000 
feet of the sea. The lower slopes of the mountains 
around are covered with fine trees, and with the 
luxuriant and evergreen foliage of the tree-fern and 
the other .beautiful undergrowth of the New Zealand 
forests. Two permanent waterfalls l of great volume, 
one 700 and the other 540 feet in height, add 
picturesque beauty to the gloomy and desolate 
grandeur of the upper part of Milford Sound, 
During a storm of wind and rain which prevailed 
during three days of our stay there, avalanches were 
frequently heard thundering down from the snow- 
fields above ; while a multitude of foaming cascades 
poured over the face of the lower precipices, bringing 
down with them masses of rock and trunks of trees. 
In a word, Milford Sound combines the dark forests 
and winding channels of the Fjords of Norway with 
the snowy peaks and glaciers of Switzerland.' 2 



1 Since named the ' Bowen ' and ' Stirling ' Falls. 

2 In the summer of 1889, Sir G. Bowen visited Norway and the 
' Land of the Midnight Sun,' proceeding as far as the North Cape, and 
satisfied himself that the Fjords of Norway are not so grand as those 
of New Zealand, and especially as Milford Sound. 



438 NEW ZEALAND 

To the Earl of Kimlerley. 

Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand : January 7, 1873. 

The residence of my family and myself in Dunedin 
during the past fortnight has been a source of con- 
stant satisfaction and pleasure to us, not only from 
the heartiness of our reception on our arrival here, 
not only from the public balls and other festivities 
given in our honour, not only from the marks of 
respect and esteem showered upon us by all classes of 
the community, but still more from the universal 
aspect of great and growing prosperity by which we 
are here surrounded. 

It will be remembered that Otago was originally 
an almost purely Scotch settlement. On the 1st 
instant, I was invited to the annual meeting and 
games of the Caledonian Society, when an address 
of welcome was presented to me in the presence of 
above six thousand spectators. 

My reply was as follows : 

' Gentlemen, I thank you for this address, which 
is very gratifying to me, in the first place on account 
of your expressions of loyalty to our gracious Sove- 
reign ; and, secondly, on account of the assurance of 
your good will to Lady Bowen and myself. I have 
read with much pleasure the constitution and rules 
of the Caledonian Society of Otago, and cordially 
sympathise with its objects, which have been carried 
out here with so much energy and perseverance. 



RAPID PROGRESS OF OTAGO 439 

Indeed, it is hardly too much to say that this 
province itself was originally one great Caledonian 
Society. It is certainly a noble monument of the 
industry and enterprise of its founders. The 
official statistics prove the rapid strides with which 
it has advanced since the first difficulties inseparable 
from a new settlement were surmounted. It appears 
that the population of Otago, which in 1860 was in 
round numbers under 25,000, is now above 75,000 ; 
that the public revenue from all sources, actually 
raised in the province, which in 1860 was under 
100,000/., now exceeds half a million sterling ; that 
the trade (including exports and imports) has risen 
in value during the interval between 1860 and 1872, 
from less- than 400, OOO/. to nearly three millions ; and 
that the increase in live stock and cultivation during 
the same period has been more than fivefold. Nor is 
it less satisfactory to observe the steady progress of 
education. In 1860 there were only twenty schools 
in this province, all of an elementary character. Now 
there are above 130 schools, including two high 
schools for boys and girls respectively, four grammar 
schools, and a school of art : while the University of 
Otago, with its able and learned professors from the 
Universities of Great Britain, crowns the noble scheme 
of public instruction. These are facts and figures 
which should be made widely known in the mother- 
country, and to which I am determined to give 
official circulation there. In this, as in the other 
provinces, a continuous stream of immigration that 



440 NEW ZEALAND 

life-blood of a new country is absolutely necessary 
for the maintenance and extension of the progress 
already achieved, and for the success of the public 
works sanctioned by the Colonial and Provincial 
Legislatures. In conclusion, gentlemen, I accept, with 
much satisfaction, the honour which you propose to 
confer on me, by enrolling my name as one of the 
patrons of the Caledonian Society of Otago.' 

To the Same. 

Government House, Wellington, New Zealand : 
February 20, 1873. 

My Lord, 

In continuation of my despatch of the 7th 
January ultimo, I have the honour to report that 
I left Dunedin on the 10th ultimo, and reached 
Wellington on the 4th instant, after a rapid journey 
through a large portion of the provinces of Otago 
and Canterbury, during which I visited the goldfields 
of the former province ; its mountain lakes, exceed- 
ing in grandeur the lakes of Switzerland and Italy ; 
and the glaciers of Mount Cook, 1 the Mont Blanc 
of the Southern Alps, which, like the Andes, rise 
directly from the shore of the ocean. 

I was accompanied throughout their respective 
provinces by the Superintendents ; and I take this 
opportunity of recording my deep sense of the 
heartiness and hospitality of my reception every- 

1 Mount Cook reaches 13,200 feet above the sea-level. Its simiruit 
was recently ascended for the first time by Mr. Green, a member of 
the Alpine Club, assisted by two Swiss guides. 



THE OTAGO GOLDFIELDS 441 

where, by the local authorities and by all classes of 
the community. Among the numerous addresses of 
welcome were two from the Chinese gold-diggers, 
' who take this opportunity of declaring their loyalty 
to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria, and 
their appreciation of the happiness which they have 
experienced during the time they have resided under 
British rule ; and for the consideration and protection 
afforded them in their various pursuits, by the justice 
and equity of the laws which here exist, and by the 
way in which they are administered.' 

The pressing affairs of the North Island had 
prevented me from visiting the southern goldfields 
at an earlier period of my administration ; and the 
miners, together with the rest of the population, 
were aware that I was on the eve of my final de- 
parture from New Zealand. In short, I was a man 
whom they had never seen before, whom they knew 
they would never see again, and who had enjoyed no 
opportunity of rendering them any special services ; 
and yet in every district and township I was most 
cordially greeted as the representative of the Queen. 
Such demonstrations cannot fail to be satisfactory on 
public grounds ; for in these self-governing Colonies the 
Governor is regarded as the main visible link of union 
with the Throne, the mother-country, and the Empire 
at large, and the marks of respect paid to him are 
intended as proofs of national loyalty and patriotism. 

It is of course impossible to give, within the 
compass of a despatch, any adequate description of 



442 NEW ZEALAND 

the goldfields of this Colony. I would, however, 
refer to the concise and accurate account contributed 
by Dr. Hector, F.E.S., to the ' Transactions of the 
New Zealand Institute,' Vol. II., pages 361-374. The 
official returns show that the aggregate value of the 
gold hitherto exported from New Zealand exceeds 
in value twenty-six millions sterling ; and that the 
annual production averages between two and three 
millions sterling. 

Gold-mining has now become a settled industry 
in this country. The miners have very generally 
brought their wives and families with them, pur- 
chased land, and made for themselves comfortable 
homes. The good order which is everywhere main- 
tained amid the temptations of so exciting a pursuit 
is above all praise. 

Agriculture is fast progressing on the plains of 
Canterbury, and in the valleys and lowlands of 
Otago. Long-woolled sheep of several kinds, and 
the best breeds of cattle, have also been imported in 
large numbers, and thrive admirably. The hills and 
uplands of both provinces are still occupied chiefly 
by flocks of the merino sheep, which find there a 
climate and country resembling, in many respects, 
their original home in Castile and Estremadura. 

It is a journey of about two hundred and twenty 
miles from Dunedin to the great inland lake of 
Wakatipu, which is fifty-two miles long, with a 
breadth averaging from two to five miles. It is 1,070 
feet above the sea level, and is surrounded by lofty 



LAKE WAKATIPU 443 

mountain ranges capped with perpetual snow, and 
rising precipitously from the water. Lakes Wanaka 
and Hawea, and the other mountain lakes of Otago, 
are mostly similar in physical formation and in 
grandeur of scenery. 

It is a remarkable fact that Lake Wakatipu was 
not known to the colonists at Dunedin and elsewhere 
on the sea coast of Otago before 1860. There was a 
tradition among the Maoris of the existence of a vast 
mysterious lake in the interior ; but an enterprising 
settler (Mr. William Gilbert Eees) was the first 
European who reached its shores, in the January of 
the above-mentioned year. Already there are two 
flourishing townships (Queenstown and Kingstown) 
on Lake Wakatipu, and steamers ply regularly on its 
waters. The mountains and lakes of this part of 
New Zealand are becoming the resort of an annually 
increasing number of tourists from the neighbouring 
Colonies. In fact, they will soon be for Australasia 
what Switzerland is for Europe. 

After leaving Otago, I crossed the Eiver Waitaki 
into Canterbury, and travelled to the foot of the 
glaciers on the western side of Mount Cook. The 
distance is about one hundred and ten miles from the 
seaport town of Timaru ; the first seventy miles 
that is, as far as Lake Tekapo can be traversed in 
a carriage, and the remainder on horseback. We 
encamped for two days in a tent close to the great 
Tasman glacier, which Dr. Hochstetter l describes as 

1 Hochstetter's New Zealand, chap. 21. 



444 NEW ZEALAND 

' surpassing in magnitude by far those of the Hima- 
layas and European Alps,' and which is said to be 
the largest in any temperate region of the world 
with the exception of some glaciers recently disco- 
vered in Thibet. Moreover, the semi-tropical luxu- 
riance of the foliage is another feature in which the 
Alps of New Zealand far surpass the mountain 
ranges of Europe. 1 

1 We may here quote on this subject the opinion of the author of 
Greater Britain (Part II.) : ' The peculiarity which makes the New 
Zealand scenery the most beautiful in the world to those who like 
more green than California has to show, is that here alone can you find 
semi-tropical vegetation growing close up to the eternal snows. The 
latitude and the great moisture of the climate bring the glaciers very 
low into the valleys ; and the absence of ah 1 true winter, coupled with 
the rain-fall, causes the growth of palm-like ferns upon the ice-river's 
very edge. The glaciers of Mount Cook are the longest in the world, 
except those at the sources of the Indus, but close about them have 
been found tree ferns of thirty and forty feet in height. It is not till 
you enter the mountains that you escape the moisture of the coast, and 
quit for the scenery of the Alps the scenery of fairy land.' And again, 
of the view from Hokitika at sunrise, it is said : ' A hundred miles of 
the Southern Alps stood out upon a pale blue sky in curves of gloomy 
white that were just beginning to blush with pink, but ended to the 
southward in a cone of fire that stood up from the ocean ; it was the 
snow-dome of Mount Cook struck by the rising sun. The evergreen 
bush, flaming with the crimson of the rata-blooms, hung upon the 
mountain side, and covered the plain to the very margin of the narrow 
sands with a dense jungle. It was one of those sights that haunt men 
for years.' 



445 



CHAPTEE XXI. 

PROMOTION TO VICTORIA THE NEW ZEALAND UNIVERSITY 
FOUNDATION OF THE ' BOWEN PRIZE ' THE GOVERNOR'S 
SPEECH AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE RAILWAY SYSTEM IN 
THE NORTH ISLAND FAREWELL VISITS APPROVAL OF HER 
MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT. 

As Sir George Bo wen's term of office in New Zealand 
drew towards its close, he received a signal mark of 
approbation by his appointment to what is often 
called the ' blue ribbon ' of Colonial Governments, 
that of "Victoria. Lord Kimberley announced the 
promotion in the subjoined despatch : 

Downing Street : November 21, 1872. 

Sir, I have the satisfaction of informing you that 
the Queen has been pleased to mark her sense of the 
success and ability with which you have administered 
the Government of New Zealand by appointing you, 
upon my recommendation, to the Government of 
Victoria, which is about to become vacant by the 
retirement of Viscount Canterbury on the expiration 
of his term of office. 

Sir G. Bowen announced the name of his suc- 
cessor (the Eight Hon. Sir James Fergusson, G.C.M.G.) 
in a speech to the Scotch at Otago, in the following 
terms : 



446 NEW ZEALAND 

' Permit me to congratulate you on the nationality 
of the gentleman appointed to succeed me in New 
Zealand on my promotion to the Governorship of 
Victoria. Sir James Fergusson has many personal 
as well as official claims to your respect and confidence. 
He is a soldier, who has seen active service in the 
Crimea, and was wounded at Inkerman. He is a 
Statesman, who has for several years been a member 
of the House of Commons, and has filled more than 
one administrative office of importance. Finally, he 
is a Governor of large ability and experience, whose 
manifold qualifications and accomplishments will not 
be the less popular in this community because they 
are united in a Scotchman.' 



The restoration of peace enabled the Government 
and Parliament to give their attention to two impor- 
tant objects ; viz. the establishment of the New 
Zealand University ; and the commencement of a 
system of railways in the North as well as in the 
South Island. Sir George Bo wen had the satisfaction 
of inaugurating both these schemes before his de- 
parture. On February 24, 1873, he reported : 

To the Earl of Kimberley. 
My Lord, 

I have the honour to transmit herewith, for your 
Lordship's information, copies of the letters which 
have passed between the Chancellor of the University 
of New Zealand and myself, respecting the foundation 



THE NEW ZEALAND UNIVERSITY 447 

by me in that University of an annual prize, to be 
called ' The Bowen Prize,' for the best English essay 
on a subject to be determined upon every year under 
Regulations of the Council and Senate, or of the 
Council alone. 

It will be seen that (in the words of my letter), 
' I am desirous to connect my name in this manner 
with the Colony of which I have been Governor 
during an important and critical period of its history. 
I yield to no permanent colonist in affection for 
New Zealand, and in lively interest in its progress 
and welfare.' 

The Chancellor (Mr. Tancred), in accepting my 
gift, writes as follows : 

' Permit me, as the Council is not now in session, 
to take upon myself the grateful duty of expressing 
my appreciation of your Excellency's kindness and 
liberality in making so valuable a provision for the 
encouragement of learning. I feel assured that in 
thus tendering my warmest thanks for this proof of 
regard not only to this University, but, through it, 
to all in the country who are interested in the culti- 
vation of the mind, I am only anticipating the action 
of the Council. 

' Such an evidence on the part of your Excel- 
lency of good-will to the Council, and of the well- 
known interest which your Excellency has always 
taken in the cause which it is our duty to advance, 
will, I feel sure, keep your name in the grateful 
remembrance not only of the present generation, but. 



448 NEW ZEALAND 

of those who in future times, when New Zealand 
shall have become a great nation, shall wish to recall 
to memory their earliest benefactors.' l 



With regard to the railways, we subjoin the 
reply of the Governor to the address presented to 
him at Wellington when he ' turned the first sod ' of 
the first railway in the North Island. Now (in 
1889), railroads extend over both Islands. 

' Gentlemen, 

' I thank you for your address ; and I assure you 
that it affords me sincere pleasure to perform the 
duty which I have been requested to undertake this 
day. Invitations to the Governor to inaugurate rail- 
ways and other great public works and institutions 
cannot fail to be satisfactory and gratifying, for it is 
well known that such invitations are intended simply 
as marks of loyal homage to the Queen, and that they 
in no wise identify Her Majesty's representative with 
any of those differences of opinion which here, as in 
all other free countries, must be expected to arise 
upon every subject of public importance. 

'The commencement of the general scheme of 
public works and immigration, which has been sanc- 
tioned both by the present and by the late Parliament 

1 There has not been space to reproduce any of the speeches of Sir 
George Bowen in New Zealand respecting the promotion of education, 
science, and literature, nor of his addresses at the meetings of the New 
Zealand Institute, which will be found in the Transactions of that body. 



THE GOVERNOR'S SPEECH ON RAILWAYS 449 

of this Colony and which we celebrate this day is 

indeed a memorable event in the history of New 
Zealand. It appears to be acknowledged on all sides 
that the two most urgent needs of this entire country 
are the improvements of our internal communica- 
tions, and the settlement of our land, which now 
maintains a scattered population of less than three 
hundred thousand, but which, according to Hoch- 
stetter and other eminent authorities, could easily 
support twelve millions of people. It will be within 
the recollection of many who now hear me that a few 
years ago the Imperial Government despatched an 
able and experienced engineer to the United States 
of America, to report on the railway system there 
adopted, with special reference to the pressing re- 
quirements of our own Colonies. His principal con- 
clusions were : 

6 " (1.) A railway would appear to be the best road 
for arterial lines of communication in a new country. 

' " (2.) In making railways in a new country, bear- 
ing in mind the high rate of interest which money 
commands, the outlay for construction should be as 
small as possible, consistent with safety and economy 
of working ; the object being to devote the money to 
be spent to extending the mileage and opening up 
the country, rather than to making any solid works, 
or to obtaining high speeds." 

' The decision of all questions of this nature must, 
of course, rest, so far as New Zealand is concerned, 
with the practical wisdom of the Colonial Parliament. 

VOL. i. G a 



450 NEW ZEALAND 

Meanwhile, let us thankfully acknowledge that the 
application of the steam-engine to the various arts in 
the nineteenth, is as important as the invention of the 
printing-press in the fifteenth century. It has been 
said, without any exaggeration, that what printing 
did for the development of the intellectual faculties, 
steam is doing in the promotion of the material wel- 
fare of our race ; that within the last hundred years 
engineering science has trebled the mechanical power, 
and far more than trebled the resources of mankind ; 
while it has reduced the dimensions of the globe, as 
measured by time, to less than one-fourth of what 
they were even in the days of the last generation. 

' I earnestly hope that the ceremony of this 
day will prove auspicious to all concerned. May 
the public works now inaugurated throughout this 
country realise the hopes of the Ministers and Par- 
liaments that undertook them ; may they reward the 
skill and enterprise of the contractors and engineers ; 
may they help to consolidate friendly relations be- 
tween the Colonists and the Maoris ; in a word, may 
they, under the favour of Divine Providence, endure 
throughout the great future of New Zealand as a 
source of permanent and ever-increasing prosperity. 

' Finally, let me again, as on a previous occasion 
of a like nature, address a few words of friendly sym- 
pathy to the artisans and working men, who will 
soon erect in our several Provinces structures scarcely 
more honourable to the heads that have planned 
than to the hands that will execute them. I trust 



REWARDS OF INDUSTRY IN NEW ZEALAND 451 

that thousands of the men employed on our railways 
will ultimately become permanent settlers on the 
broad and fertile lands of this Colony, and that their 
success will cause them to be joined by tens of thou- 
sands from the old home. I am confident that the 
new comers will emulate their fellow colonists in that 
respect for law arid order which is one of the most 
prominent characteristics of our race. Let them 
recollect, moreover, that it is from their ranks that 
have sprung, the Boltons and Arkwrights, the 
Telfords and Stephensons, and most of the chieftains 
of art and industry 

" Of the railway and the steamship, and the thoughts that shake 
mankind." l 

Let them remember also that under the expansive 
freedom of our colonial institutions, even more 
surely than in the parent isles, Britain opens for all 
her sons a noble prospect of success and honour to 
genius combined with energy and with virtue. Only 
let it never be forgotten that what is needed here is 
not so much a new society, but rather the old society 
in a new country. On the broad and deep founda- 
tions of British principles, British feelings, and British 
institutions, let the fabric of the material prosperity 
of New Zealand be erected,- and over it let the spire 
of education, learning, and religion be raised towards 
heaven.' 

1 Tennyson, Locksley Hall. 



452 NEW ZEALAND 

The addresses at the Governor's farewell meeting 
with the Maoris of the Waikato deserve to be re- 
corded. The official despatch of March 15, 1873, 
reports : 

On the llth instant I proceeded to Ngaruawahia, 
whither I was accompanied by the Chief Justice, Sir 
George Arney (who will on my departure become 
the Administrator of the Government pending the 
arrival of my successor), by Mr. McLean, the Minister 
for Native Affairs, by the Superintendent of the 
Province of Auckland, and by other functionaries and 
officers of Government. This was my fourth visit to 
the Waikato, which I have fully described in previous 
despatches. 1 

On my arrival at Ngaruawahia, I was received 
with loud chants and songs at once of welcome 
and farewell, by the most numerous assemblage of 
Maoris which has been known for many years past. 
The loyal chiefs and clans were fully represented ; 
and there was also a large number of Hau-haus, 
recently in arms against the Queen, but whose leaders 
now laid at my feet the embroidered mats which are 
the recognised token of submission and peace. 

The terms of my official address to the Maoris 
on this interesting and important occasion were, of 
course, carefully concerted beforehand with Mr. 
McLean, the Minister for Native Affairs. In common 
with other leading men of all parties, Mr. McLean 
had, during the last session of the Colonial Parlia- 

1 See above, pp. 300-316. 



FAEEWELL VISITS AND ADDRESSES 453 

ment, expressed the opinion that, since tranquillity 
appeared to have been permanently established, the 
time had come to take into consideration the pro- 
priety of proclaiming ere long an amnesty for all 
past offences of a political character committed by 
the Maoris. I entirely concur with this view. As 
your Lordship is already aware, no Maori now re- 
mains under confinement for any political offence ; 
but the arrangements deemed necessary by Mr. 
McLean prior to the proclamation of a general 
amnesty have not yet been completed. It will be a 
happy circumstance if my successor in the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand should find himself in a posi- 
tion to inaugurate his administration by the per- 
formance of this act of grace. 1 

The following is a translation of the address from 
the assembled Maoris : 

This is a farewell address to you, Father, our 
Governor ! Welcome, loving parent the Governor 
of the chiefs and tribes of Waikato ! before you leave 
for the place which has been appointed for you by 
our gracious Queen. We are very sad on account of 
your departure. We will not forget what you said 
on your first visit to Waikato in May, 1868, that the 
Maoris and Europeans should bury their animosities 
in Potatau's tomb. There have been many troubles 
and evil deeds done in Waikato, but you have not 
been hasty to take action; you have been patient, 
and have not forgotten your word. The administra- 

1 A general amnesty was proclaimed shortly afterwards. 



454 NEW ZEALAND 

tion by you during your term of office of the affairs 
of this Colony has been very just. You have not 
caused any evil ; the evil has been done by other 
Governors before you. You and your advisers have 
been energetic in the suppression- of evil. You 
leave us free from any blame ; and we pray God 
to conduct you, Lady Bowen, and your family, safely 
to the place whither you are sent by the Queen. 

The next address of welcome was presented by 
a great Chief a kinsman of the Maori king. The 
following is a translation : 

Friend, the Governor ! salutations to you. Wel- 
come to Waikato, before you depart, to see these 
tribes of yours, and your friends the chiefs of this 
portion of the great and noble tribe of Waikato, who 
live in this island. They have been justly punished 
for their offences. Although there are living many 
who did evil, there are many who have remained 
quiet up to the present time ; and we are still 
dwelling together with our European friends as 
brothers on this river Waikato. When you first 
came here as a perfect stranger to see us, you 
paid your respects to the tomb of your friend, our 
great chief, Te Whero Whero, who lies in his grave 
at Ngaruawahia. You then made an important 
statement, namely, that the animosities of the Maoris 
and the Pakehas should be buried in the grave 
of that old chief. Your word has been fulfilled. 
I, his kinsman, and these chiefs, are carrying 
out what he said when he was living. Although 

o o 

others of his family may have gone astray, I have 
adhered to what he said, and am still doing so. Do 



ADDRESSES AT NGARUAWAHIA 455 

not think that this tribe is the only one that has 
done evil in this island ; all the tribes have taken 
part in what has resulted in the destruction of my 
people and loss of my land. Although this tribe of 
yours may have been forgotten by the Government, 
and others may have been favoured, we, the chiefs, 
will never forget your words. I shall bequeath them 
to my children, for it was I who strengthened your 
hands at the commencement of the great fighting in 
this island. I had no grievance against any other 
tribe. I fought against my own people for the sup- 
pression of evil. I am sorry that you did not see 
the other portion of my tribe and my relatives. 
Welcome, Governor ! welcome. Farewell to you 
and your lady, and your children. Go to your new 
Government under the authority and love of our 
Queen, the mother of our future King, who was pro- 
tected by God and brought safely through his severe 
illness. We are very glad, and feel honoured on 
account of the visit to us of his brother (the Duke of 
Edinburgh), the descendant of great chiefs. Go, 
my father ! in peace to your new home. May God 
protect you, and keep you in health. 

The speech of the Governor in reply to the Maori 
addresses is thus reported : 

' my friends, chiefs and people of all the tribes 
whom I now see before me ! salutations to you all. 
When I first arrived in New Zealand, five years ago, I 
came among you at Ngaruawahia, and you received 
me with a hearty welcome, as you have also done now. 
Then as now, we met near the tomb of Potatau te 



456 NEW ZEALAND 

Whero Whero, a noble chief of the olden time, who 
never made war against the Queen, but was ever 
loyal to the Crown and friendly to the Europeans. 
Thereupon both races, the English and the Maoris, 
delighted to honour him. Five years ago, standing 
on this spot, I said that the two races should bury 
any remaining animosities in the tomb of Potatau, 
and my word has proved true ; you have buried your 
hatreds. The two races now live in peace and friend- 
ship together. So too I said on my first visit that 
the Europeans and the Maoris should grow into one 
people, even as the rivers Waipa and Waikato mingle 
their waters at Ngaruawahia, the old Maori capital ; 
and has not this been so ? Do not Europeans and 
Maoris sit together in the Councils which govern this 
country ; in the Executive, in the Legislative Coun- 
cil, and in the House of Eepresentatives ? The vote 
of each Maori is equal to the vote of each European 
in framing the laws which govern both races. 

This is my fourth visit to the Waikato, and I 
should have been glad to have seen more of Potatau's 
descendants. I have given every proof of my desire to 
do so. And now, my friends, I have come to bid you 
farewell. Wherever I go I shall always cherish my 
love for you and for the glorious country which you 
share with your English friends and fellow-subjects. 
I am about to become Governor of the neighbouring 
Colony of Victoria ; but I shall not there be far from 
you, and I shall always watch your progress with affec- 
tionate interest. My parting advice to you is to give 



THE GOVERNOR'S FAREWELL TO THE MAORIS 457 

your aid in support of the law, and also of the schools 
which the Government is establishing throughout 
these islands for the education of your children. 
There they will learn to be good citizens, and by 
acquiring the language and arts of the English, 
they will be able to take their part in the public 
affairs of the Colony, and to assist in developing its 
resources. I am very glad to leave on my departure 
this Colony prosperous and tranquil. On his visit 
to New Zealand the Queen's son, the Duke of Edin- 
burgh, expressed his hope that the clouds of war 
would soon pass away, and the sun of peace would 
shine forth; and this is now so. The Colonial 
Government have recognised the establishment of 
peace. Already all Maoris who were in confinement 
for political offences have been set at liberty by me ; 
not one remains in prison. And hearken, my 
friends ! to these words. So soon as the necessary 
arrangements can be made, it is proposed to proclaim, 
in the name of the Queen, a general amnesty for past 
acts of rebellion and other political offences. It is 
hoped that this act of grace will further cement the 
friendly relations now happily existing between the 
two races. Finally, my friends ! remember that 
the law is the best and most impartial arbiter for 
adjusting all the differences that may arise among 
the Maoris themselves, or between Maoris and Euro- 
peans. The law is no respecter of persons ; it pro- 
tects the weak as well as the strong ; and you will 
find it your best shield and guide in future. It is my 



458 NEW ZEALAND 

earnest advice that you should devote your attention 
henceforward to the arts of peaceful industry, and re- 
establish the name of Waikato as a country supply- 
ing the markets of the towns with grain, fruit, and 
other produce. Thus you will secure for yourselves 
and for your families the comforts enjoyed by the 
Europeans. And now, once more, my friends ! 
farewell. May Heaven pour its choicest blessings 
upon you. Be assured that my successor, Sir James 
Fergusson, will feel the same sympathy for the Maoris 
that I have always felt ; as will also the Chief Justice, 
Sir George Arney, who will administer the Govern- 
ment immediately after my departure and until the 
arrival of the new Governor. Once more, farewell ! ' 



To the Earl of Kimberley. 

Bay of Islands, New Zealand : March 19, 1873. 

My Lord, 

I have the honour to report that I took my final 
departure from Auckland yesterday afternoon. My 
family and I were accompanied to the place of 
embarkation by the principal public functionaries 
and local authorities, by the public bodies, by the 
friendly societies, and by many thousands of all 
classes of the community. The demonstrations of 
regard for us, and of regret at our departure, were 
very lively and affecting. 

This morning the steamer which is conveying me 
to Melbourne, stopped for a few hours (as had been 



CLOSE OF SIR G. BOWEN'S GOVERNMENT 469 

previously arranged) at the Bay of Islands, to en- 
able me to unveil the monument erected by the 
Colonial Government over the grave of Tamati Waka 
Nene. The ceremony was performed in the presence 
of the chiefs and clansmen of the Ngapuhi and of the 
other Maori tribes of the north ; and of a large con- 
course of the leading colonists, who had assembled 
to pay honour to the memory of their firm friend and 
gallant ally. It is an interesting fact that my last 
despatch from New Zealand should be dated from 
the Bay of Islands, which has filled so prominent 
a place in the early annals of this country ; and that 
my last public act here should be a mark of respect 
to the memory of the Maori chief who was mainly in- 
strumental in procuring the cession of the sovereignty 
of these islands to the British Crown. 



So ended Sir George Bowen's memorable govern- 
ment of New Zealand at the most critical period in 
the history of that great Colony. We have seen that, 
under his auspices, and through the policy which he 
recommended and supported, and which was ably 
carried out by Sir Donald McLean and other 
Ministers, 1 there was established between the two 
races a peace which has not since been seriously dis- 

1 Sir G. Bowen's despatches and letters bear frequent testimony to 
the ability and public spirit of the members of his successive Ministries 
in New Zealand, without distinction of party. Of Sir Donald McLean 
he wrote : ' Himself born a Scotch Highlander, he thoroughly understood 
the principles and feelings of clanship, and thus exercised a powerful 
influence over the Maoris, whose language he spoke as fluently as his 
native Gaelic.' 



460 NEW ZEALAND 

turbed. All danger lias now (1889) passed away, 
seeing that the Europeans in New Zealand are already 
a fast increasing population of 620,000, while the 
Maoris are a dwindling people of little over 40,000. 

Her Majesty's Government thus for the second 
time expressed its sense of Sir George Bowen's ser- 
vices in New Zealand : 



The Earl of Kimberley to the Ojficer administering the 
Government of New Zealand. 

Downing Street : May 31, 1873. 

Sir, 

I have read with interest Sir George Bowen's 
account of his parting interview with the northern 
Maoris at Ngaruawahia, as affording a further proof 
of the friendly relations which exist between the 
English settlers and natives in the Waikato, and of 
the satisfactory condition of native affairs. 

I have to add that Her Majesty's Government 
are fully sensible of the success and ability with 
which Sir George Bowen administered the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand. 



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Hurlbert. FRANCE AND HER RE- 
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G. HUTCHINSON. 

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Huth. THE MARRIAGE OF NEAR 
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By W. POLE, F.R.S. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Pollock.^ NINE MEN'S MORRICE : 
Stories Collected and Re-collected. By 
WALTER HERRIES POLLOCK. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

Porter. THE HISTORY OF THE CORPS 
OF ROYAL ENGINEERS. By Major- 
General WHITWORTH PORTER, R.E. 
2 vols. 8vo. 36-5-. 

Prendergast. IRELAND, from the 

Restoration to th*e Revolution, 1660- 
1690. By JOHN P. PRENDERGAST. 8vo. 55. 

Proctor. WORKS BY R. A. PROCTOR. 
OLD AND NEW ASTRONOMY. 12 
Parts, 2s. 6d. each. Supplementary Sec- 
tion, is. Complete in I vol. 4to. 36*. 
[/ course of publication. 

THE ORBS AROUND Us ; a Series of 
Essays on the Moon and Planets, Meteors 
and Comets. With Chart and Diagrams, 
crown 8vo. $s. 

OTHER WORLDS THAN OURS ; The 

Plurality of Worlds Studied under the 
Light of Recent Scientific Researches. 
With 14 Illustrations, crown 8vo. $s. 

THE MOON ; her Motions, Aspects, 
Scenery, and Physical Condition. With 
Plates, Charts, Woodcuts, &c. Cr. 8vo. 5*. 

UNIVERSE OF STARS; Presenting 
Researches into and New Views respect- 
ing the Constitution of the Heavens. 
With 22 Charts and 22 Diagrams, 8vo 
los. 6d. 

LARGER STAR ATLAS for the Library, 

in 12 Circular Maps, with Introduction 
and 2 Index Pages. Folio, 15^. or Maps 
only, 12s. 6d. 
THE STUDENT'S ATLAS. In Twelve 

Circular Maps on a Uniform Projection 
and one Scale, with Two Index Maps. 
With a letterpress Introduction illustrated 
by several cuts. 8vo. 5-r. 
NEW STAR ATLAS for the Library, 
the School, and the Observatory, in 12 
Circular Maps. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

[Continued on next page. 



18 



CATALOGUE OP GENERAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 



Proctor. WORKS BY R. A. PROCTOR, 

Continued, 

LIGHT SCIENCE FOR LEISURE HOURS; 
Familiar Essays on Scientific Subjects. 
3 vols. crown 8vo. 5-r. each. 

CHANCE AND LUCK ; a Discussion of 
the Laws of Luck, Coincidences, Wagers, 
Lotteries, and the Fallacies of Gambling 
&c. Crown 8vo. 2s. boards ; 2s. 6d. cloth. 

STUDIES OF VENUS- TRANSITS ; an 
Investigation of the Circumstances of the 
Transits of Venus in 1874 and 1882. 
With 7 Diagrams and 10 Plates. 8vo. $s. 

How TO PLAY WHIST: WITH THE 
LAWS AND ETIQUETTE OP WHIST. 
Crown 8vo. y. 6^. 

HOME WHIST: an Easy Guide to 
Correct Play. i6mo. is. 

THE POETRY OF ASTRONOMY. A 
Series of Familiar Essays. Crown 8vo. $s. 

THE STARS IN THEIR SEASONS 
An Easy Guide to a Knowledge of the 
Star Groups, in 12 Large Maps. Im- 
perial 8vo. 5-r. 

STAR PRIMER. Showing the Starry 
Sky Week by Week, in 24 Hourly Maps. 
Crown 4to. 2s. 6d. 

THE SEASONS PICTURED IN 48 SUN- 
VIEWS OF THE EARTH, and 24 Zodiacal 
Maps, &c. Demy 4to. $s. 

STRENGTH AND HAPPINESS. Crown 
8vo. 5j. 

STRENGTH: How to get Strong and 
keep Strong, with Chapters on Rowing 
and Swimming, Fat, Age, and the 
Waist. With 9 Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. 2s. 

ROUGH WAYS MADE SMOOTH. Fami- 
liar Essays on Scientific Subjects. Crown 
8vo. 5-r. 

OUR PLACE AMONG INFINITIES. A 

Series of Essays contrasting our Little 
Abode in Space and Time with the Infi- 
nities Around us. Crown 8vo. $s. 

THE EXPANSE OF HE A VEN. Essays 
on the Wonders of the Firmament. Crown 
8vo. 5j. 

THE GREAT PYRAMID, OBSERVA- 
TORY, TOMB, AND TEMPLE. With Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo. 5-r. 

PLEASANT WA YS IN SCIENCE. Crown 
8vo. 5.r. 

MYTHS AND MARVELS OF ASTRO- 
NOMY. Crown 8vo. 5-r. 

NA TURE STUDIES. By GRANT ALLEN, 
A. WILSON, T. FOSTER, E. CLODD, and 
R. A. PROCTOR. Crown 8vo. $s. 

LEISURE READINGS. By E. CLODD, 
A.WILSON, T. FOSTER, A. C. RANYARD, 
and R. A. PROCTOR. Crown 8vo. s. 



Prothero. THE PIONEERS AND 
PROGRESS OF ENGLISH FARMING. By 
ROWLAND E. PROTHERO. Crown 8vo. 

Pryce. THE ANCIENT BRITISH 
CHURCH: an Historical Essay. By JOHN 
PRYCE, M. A. Canon of Bangor. Crown 
8vo. 6s. 

Quain's Elements of Anatomy. 

The Ninth Edition. Re-edited by ALLEN 
THOMSON, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. S. L. & E. 
EDWARD ALBERT SCHAFER, F.R.S. and 
GEORGE DANCER THANE. With up- 
wards of 1,000 Illustrations engraved on 
Wood, of which many are Coloured. 
2 vols. 8vo. iSs. each. 

Quain. A DICTIONARY OF MEDI- 
CINE. By Various Writers. Edited by R. 
QUAIN, M.D. F.R.S. &c. With 138 
Woodcuts. Medium 8vo. 31.?. 6d. cloth, 
or 4OJ. half-russia j to be had also in 
2 vols. 345-. cloth. 

Rawlinson. THE HISTORY OF 
PHCENICIA. By GEORGE RAWLINSON, 
M.A. Canon of Canterbury, &c. With 
numerous Illustrations. 8vo. 24^. 

Reader. WORKS BY EMILY E. 

READER. 
ECHOES OF THOUGHT: a Medley of 

Verse. Fcp. 8vo. 5^, cloth, gilt top. 
THE GHOST OF BRANKINSHAW and 
other Tales. With 9 Full-page Illustra- 
tions. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. cloth extra, gilt 
edges. 

VOICES FROM FLOWER-LAND, in 
Original Couplets. A Birthday-Book and 
Language of Flowers. i6mo. is.6d. limp 
cloth ; 2s. 6d. roan, gilt edges, or in vege- 
table vellum, gilt top. 

FAIRY PRINCE FOLLOW- MY- LEAD ; 
or, the MAGIC BRACELET. Illustrated 
by WM. READER. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
gilt edges; or $s. 6d. vegetable vellum, 
gilt edges* 

Reeve. COOKERY AND HOUSE- 
KEEPING. By Mrs. HENRY REEVE. With 
8 Coloured Plates and 37 Woodcuts. 
Crown 8vo. $s. 

Rendle and Norman. THE INNS 

OF OLD SOUTHWARD, and their Associ- 
ations. By W T ILLI AM RENDLE, F. R. C. S. 
Author of ' Old Southwark and its People, ' 
and PHILIP NORMAN, F.S.A. With 
numerous Illustrations. Royal 8vo. 28^. 

Reply (A) to Dr. Lightfoot's 

Essays. By the Author of ' Super- 
natural Religion.' I vol. 8vo. 6s. 

Rich. A DICTIONARY OF ROMAN 
AND GREEK ANTIQUITIES. With 2,000 
Woodcuts. By A. RICH, B.A. Cr. 8vo. 



PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO. 



Richardson. WORKS BY BENJAMIN 

WARD RICHARDSON^ M.D. 
THE HEALTH OF NA TIONS : a Review 
of the Works Economical, Educational, 
Sanitary, and Administrative of EDWIN 
CHADWICK, C.B. With a Biographical 
Dissertation by BENJAMIN WARD RICH- 
ARDSON, M.D. F.R.S. 2 vols. 8vo. 28^. 

THE COMMONHEALTH : a Series of 
Essays on Health and Felicity for Every- 
Day Readers. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE SON OF A STAR : a Romance of 
the Second Century. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Riley. ATHOS; or, the Mountain of 
the Monks. By ATHELSTAN RILEY, 
M.A. F.R.G.S. With Map and 29 
Illustrations. 8vo. zis. 

Riley. OLD-FASHIONED ROSES. 
Verses and Sonnets. By J. W. RILEY. 
Fcp. 8vo. 5-y. 

Rivers. WORKS BY THOMAS RIVERS. 
THE ORCHARD-HOUSE. With 25 

Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 5.?. 

THE MINIATURE FRUIT GARDEN ; 
or, the Culture of Pyramidal and Bush 
Fruit Trees, with Instructions for Root 
Pruning. With 32 Illustrations. Fcp. 
8vo. ^s. 

Roberts. GREEK THE LANGUAGE 
OP CHRIST AND His APOSTLES. By 
ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D. 8vo. iSs. 

Robinson. THE NEW ARCADIA, 

and other Poems. By A. MARY F. 
ROBINSON. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Roget. THESAURUS OF ENGLISH 
WORDS AND PHRASES, Classified and 
Arranged so as to facilitate the Expression 
of Ideas and assist in Literary Com- 
position. By PETER M. ROGET. Crown 
8vo. los. 6d. 

Ronalds. THE FLY- FISHER } s 
ENTOMOLOGY. By ALFRED RONALDS. 
With 20 Coloured Plates. 8vo. 14*. 

Russell. A LIFE OF LORD JOHN 
RUSSELL (EARL RUSSELL, K.G.). By 
SPENCER WALPOLE, Author of 'A 
History of England from 1815.' With 
2 Portraits. 2 vols. 8vo. 36^. 

Schafer. THE ESSENTIALS OF 
HISTOLOGY, DESCRIPTIVE AND PRACTI- 
CAL. For the use of Students. By E. 
A. SCHAFER, F.R.S. With 281 Illus- 
trations. 8vo. 6s. or Interleaved with 
Drawing Paper, Ss. 6d. 



Schellen. SPECTRUM ANALYSIS 
IN ITS APPLICATION TO TERRESTRIAL 
SUBSTANCES, and the Physical Constitu- 
tion of the Heavenly Bodies. By Dr. 
H. SCHELLEN. Translated by JANE and 
CAROLINE LASSELL. Edited by Capt. 
W. DE W. ABNEY. With 14 Plates 
(including Angstrom's and Cornu's Maps) 
and 291 Woodcuts. 8vo. 31*. 6d. 

Scott. WEATHER CHARTS AND 
STORM WARNINGS. By ROBERT H. 
SCOTT, M.A. F.R.S. With numerous 
Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Seebohm. WORKS BY FREDERIC 
SEEBOHM. 

THE OXFORD REFORMERS JOHN 
COLET, ERASMUS, AN-D THOMAS MORE; 
a History of their Fellow- Work. 8vo. 1 4*. 

THE ENGLISH VILLAGE COMMUNITY 
Examined in its Relations to the Manorial 
and Tribal Systems, &c, 13 Maps and 
Plates. 8vo. i6j. 

THE ERA OF THE PROTEST ANT REVO- 
LUTION. With Map. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Sennett. THE MARINE STEAM- 
ENGINE ; a Treatise for the use of Engi- 
neering Students and Officers of the 
Royal Navy. By RICHARD SENNETT, 
Engineer-in-Chief of the Royal Navy. 
With 244 Illustrations. 8vo. zis. 

Sewell. STORIES AND TALES. 

By ELIZABETH M. SEWELL. Crown 8vo. 

is. 6d. each, cloth plain ; 2s. 6d. each, 

cloth extra, gilt edges : 
Amy Herbert. 
The Earl's Daughter. 
The Experience of Life. 
A Glimpse of the World 
Cleve Hall. 
Katharine Ashton. 

Shakespeare. BOWDLER'S FA- 
MILY SHAKESPEARE. Genuine Edition, 
in I vol. medium 8vo. large type, with 
36 Woodcuts, I4J. or in 6 vols. fcp. 8vo. 

2lS. 

OUTLINES OF THE LIFE OF SHAKE- 
SPEARE. By J. O. HALLIWELL-PHIL- 
LIPPS, F.R.S. 2 vols. Royal 8vo. 
i. w- 

SHAKESPEARE'S TRUE LIFE. By 
JAMES WALTER. With 400 Illustrations. 
Imp. Svo. 15-r. 

Short. SKETCH OF THE HISTORY 
OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND TO THE, 
REVOLUTION OF 1688. ByT. V. SHORT, 
D.D. Crown Svo. 'js. 6d. 



Margaret Percival. 
Laneton Parsonage. 
Ursula. 
Gertrude. 
Ivors. 



20 



CATALOGUE OF GENERAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 



Slingo and Brooker. ELECTRICAL 
ENGINEERING FOR ELECTRIC LIGHT 
ARTISANS AND STUDENTS. By W. 
SLINGO, Principal of the Telegraphists' 
School of Science, &c. and A. BROOKER, 
Instructor on Electrical Engineering at 
the Telegraphists' School of Science." 

Smith, H. F.T&E HANDBOOK FOR 
MIDWIVES. By HENRY FLY SMITH, 
M.B. Oxon. M.R.C.S. With 41 Wood- 
cuts. Crown 8vo. $s. 

Smith, J. U.THE WHITE UM- 
BRELLA IN MEXICO. With numerous 
Illustrations. By J. HOPKINSON SMITH. 
Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Smith, R. Bosworth. CAR- 
THAGE AND THE CARTHAGINIANS. By 
R. BOSWORTH SMITH, M.A. Maps, 
Plans, &c. Crown 8vo. IDS. 6d. 

Smith, R. H. GRAPHICS; or, The 

Art of Calculation by Drawing Lines, 
applied to Mathematics, Theoretical Me- 
chanics, and Engineering, including the 
Kinetics and Dynamics of Machinery, 
&c. By ROBERT H. SMITH. 

PART I. Text, with separate Atlas of 
Plates, 8vo. 15*. 

Smith, T. A MANUAL OF OPERA- 
TIVE SURGERY ON THE DEAD BODY. 
By THOMAS SMITH, Surgeon to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital. A New Edi- 
tion, re-edited by W. J. WALSHAM. 
With 46 Illustrations. 8vo. 12s. 

Southey. THE POETICAL WORKS 
OF ROBERT SOUTHEY, with the Author's 
last Corrections and Additions. Medium 
8vo. with Portrait, 14^. 

Stanley. A FAMILIAR HISTORY 
OF BIRDS. By E. STANLEY, D.D. 
Revised and enlarged, with 1 60 Wood- 
cuts. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Steel. WORKS BY J. H. STEEL, 
M.R.C.V.S. 

A TREATISE ON THE DISEASES OF 
THE DOG; being a Manual of Canine 
Pathology. Especially adapted for the 
Use of Veterinary Practitioners and 
Students. With 88 Illustrations. 8vo. 
ioj. 6d. 

A TREATISE ON THE DISEASES 
OF THE Ox; being a Manual of Bovine 
Pathology specially adapted for the use 
of Veterinary Practitioners and Students. 
With 2 Plates and 117 Woodcuts. 8vo. 
15* 

A TREATISE ON DISEASES OF THE 
SHEEP: being a Manual of Ovine Pa- 
thology for the use of Veterinary Prac- 
titioners and Students. Illustrated. 8vo. 



Stephen. ESSAYS IN ECCLESIAS- 
TICAL BIOGRAPHY. By the Right Hon. 
Sir J. STEPHEN, LL.D. Crown 8vo. 
7f. 6d. 

Stevenson. WORKS BY ROBERT 

Louis STEVENSON. 
A CHILD'S GARDEN OF VERSES. 

Small fcp. 8vo. $s. 
THE DYNAMITER. Fcp. 8vo. is. swd. 

is. 6d. cloth. 
STRANGE CASE OF DR. JEKYLL AND 

MR. HYDE. Fcp. 8vo. is. sewed j is. 6d. 

cloth. 

Stevenson and Osbourne. THE 

WRONG Box. By ROBERT Louis 
STEVENSON and LLOYD OSBOURNE. 
Crown 8vo. $s. 

Stock. DEDUCTIVE LOGIC. By 
ST. GEORGE STOCK. Fcp. 8vo. 3*. 6d. 

Stockton. THE GREAT WAR 
SYNDICATE. By FRANK R. STOCKTON, 
Author of ' Rudder Grange. ' Fcp. 8vo. 
is. sewed. 

' Stonehenge.' THE DOG IN 

HEALTH AND DISEASE. By 'STONE- 
HENCE.' With 84 Wood Engravings. 
Square crown 8vo. *js. 6d. 

Stoney. THE THEORY OF THE 
STRESSES ON GIRDERS AND SIMILAR 
STRUCTURES. With Practical Observa- 
tions on the Strength and other Properties 
of Materials. By BINDON B. STONEY, 
LL.D. F.R.S. M.I.C.E. With 5 Plates 
and 143 Illustrations. Royal 8vo. 36^. 

Sully. WORKS BY JAMES SULLY. 

OUTLINES OF PSYCHOLOGY, with 
Special Reference to the Theory of Edu- 
cation. 8vo. I2s. 6d. 

THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK OF 
PSYCHOLOGY, on the Basis of ' Outlines 
of Psychology.' Crown 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Sumner. THE BESOM MAKER, AND 
OTHER COUNTRY FOLK SONGS. Collected 
and Illustrated by HEYWOOD SUMNER. 
With Music. 4to. 2s. 6d. boards. 

Supernatural Religion ; an In- 
quiry into the Reality of Divine Reve- 
lation. Complete Edition, thoroughly 
revised. 3 vols. 8vo. 36*. 

Swinburne. PICTURE LOGIC; an 

Attempt to Popularise the Science of 
Reasoning. By A. J. SWINBURNE, B. A. 
Post 8vo. 5*. 

Tangena Tree (The) : a True Story 

from Madagascar. By AGNES MARION. 
Crown 8vo. is. 



PUBLISHED BY MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, <&* Co. 



Thompson. WORKS BY D. GREEN- 
LEAF THOMPSON. 

THE PROBLEM OF EVIL : an Intro- 
duction to the Practical Sciences. 8vo. 

A SYSTEM OF PSYCHOLOGY. 2 vols. 

8vo. 36^. 
THE RELIGIOUS SENTIMENTS OF THE 

HUMAN MIND. 8vo. 7*. 6d. 
SOCIAL PROGRESS: an Essay. 8vo. 

7s. 6d. 

Three in Norway. By Two of 

THEM. With a Map and 59 Illustra- 
tions from Sketches by the Authors. Cr. 
8vo. 2s. boards; 2s. 6d. cloth. 

Times and Days: being Essays in 

Romance and History. . Fcp. 8vo. 5.5-. 

Todd. ON PARLIAMENTARY GO- 
VERNMENT IN ENGLAND: its Origin, 
Development, and Practical Operation. 
By ALPHEUS TODD, LL.D. C.M.G. 
Second Edition. In Two Volumes 
VOL. I. 8vo. 245-. Vol. II. 8vo. 30*. 

Tomson. THE BIRD BRIDE : a 

Volume of Ballads and Sonnets. By 
GRAHAM R. TOMSON. Fcp. 8vo. 6s. 

Trevelyan. WORKS BY THE RIGHT 
HON. SiRG. O. TREVELYAN, BART. 
THE LIFE AND LETTERS OF LORD 
MACAULAY. 

POPULAR EDITION, i vol. crown 8vo. 

2S. 6d. 

STUDENT'S EDITION, i vol. cr. 8vo. 6s. 

CABINET EDITION, 2 vols. cr. 8vo. i2s. 

LIBRARY EDITION, 2 vols. 8vo. $6s. 
THE EARLY HISTORY OF CHARLES 
JAMES Fox. Library Edition, 8vo. iSs. 
Cabinet Edition, crown 8vo. 6s. 

Trollope. NOVELS BY ANTHONY 

TROLLOPS. 
THE WARDEN. Crown 8vo. i s. boards ; 

is. 6d. cloth. 
BARCHESTER TOWERS. Crown 8vo. 

is. boards ; is. 6d. cloth. 

Tuttle. HISTORY OF PRUSSIA UNDER 
FREDERIC THE GREAT, 1740-1756. By 
HERBERT TUTTLE. With 2 Maps. 2 
vols. crown 8vo. iSs. 

Twells. COLLOQUIES ON PREACH- 
ING. By the Rev. H. TWELLS, M.A. 
Crown 8vo. $s. 

Tyndall. WORKS BY JOHN TYNDALL. 
FRAGMENTS, OF SCIENCE. 2 vols. 

crown 8vo. i6s. 

HE A TA MODE orMo TION. Cr. 8 vo. 1 25. 
[Continued above. 



Tyndall. WORKS BY JOHNTYNDALL, 

Continued. 

SOUND. With 204 Woodcuts. 

Crown 8vo. ios. 6d. 
RESEARCHES ON DIAMAGNETISM 

***p MAGNE-CRYSTALLIC ACTION. 

With 8 Plates and numerous Illustrations. 

Crown 8vo. 12s. 

ESSAYS ON THE FLOATING-MATTER 
OF THE AIR in relation to Putrefaction 
and Infection. With 24 Woodcuts. 
Crown 8vo. Js. 6d. 

LECTURES ON LIGHT, delivered in 
America in 1872 and 1873. With 57 
Diagrams. Crown 8vo. 5*. 

LESSONS IN ELECTRICITY AT THE 
ROYAL INSTITUTION, 1875-76. With 
58 Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6ct. 

NOTES OF A COURSE OF SEVEN 
LECTURES ON ELECTRICAL PHENO- 
MENA AND THEORIES, delivered at the 
Royal Institution. Crown 8vo. I s. sewed. 
is. 6d. cloth. 

NOTES OF A COURSE OF NINE LEC- 
TURES ON LIGHT, delivered at the Royal 
Institution. Crown 8vo. is. sewed is. 6d 
cloth. 

FARADAY AS A DISCOVERER. Fcp. 
8vo. 3J. 6d. 

Unwin. THE TESTING OF MATE- 
RIALS OF CONSTRUCTION: a Text-Book 
for the Engineering Laboratory. By W. 
CAWTHORNE UNWIN, F.R.S. With 5 
Plates and 141 Woodcuts. 8vo. 2is. 

Vignoles. THE LIFE OP C. B. VIG- 
NOLES, F.R. S. SOLDIER AND CIVIL 
ENGINEER. Compiled from Original 
Diaries, Letters, and Documents by his 
Son, OLINTHUS J. VIGNOLES, M.A. 
With several Original Illustrations and 
Portraits. 8vo. i6s. 

Ville. ON ARTIFICIAL MANURES, 
their Chemical Selection and Scientific 
Application to Agriculture. By GEORGES 
VILLE. Translated and edited by W. 
CROOKES. With 31 Plates. 8vo. 21 s. 

Virgil. PUBLI VERGILI MARONIS 
BUCOLICA, GEORGICA, ^NEIS ; the 
Works of VIRGIL, Latin Text, with 
English Commentary and Index. By 
B. H. KENNEDY, D.D. Cr. 8vo. ios.6d. 

THE ALNEID OF VIRGIL. Translated 
into English Verse. By JOHN CONING- 
TON, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

THE POEMS OF VIRGIL. Translated 
into English Prose. By JOHN CONING- 
TON, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 



22 



CATALOGUE OF GENERAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS 



Walker. THE CORRECT CARD ; 
or, How to Play at Whist; a Whist 
Catechism. By Major A. CAMPBELL- 
WALKER, F.R.G.S. Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Walpole. HISTORY OF ENGLAND 

FROM THE CONCLUSION OF THE GREAT 

WAR IN 1815. By SPENCER WALPOLE. 
5 vols. 8vo. Vols. I. and II. 1815-1832, 
36*. ; Vol. III. 1832-1841, i&.j Vols. IV. 
and V. 1841-1858, 365. 

Waters. PARISH REGISTERS IN 

ENGLAND: their History and Contents. 
By ROBERT E. CHESTER WATERS, B.A. 
8vo. 5J. 

Watts' DICTIONARY OF CHEMISTRY. 
Revised and entirely Re-written by H. 
FORSTER MORLEY, M.A. D.Sc. ; and 
M. M. PATTISON MUIR, M.A. F.R.S.E. 
Assisted by Eminent Contributors. To 
be published in 4 vols. 8vo. Vols. I. & II. 
A Indigo. 42J. each. 

Webb. CELESTIAL, OBJECTS FOR 
COMMON TELESCOPES. By the Rev. 
T. W. WEBB. Crown 8vo. gs. 

Wellington. LIFE OF THE DUKE 
OF WELLINGTON. By the Rev. G. R. 
GLEIG, M.A. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Wendt. PAPERS ON MARITIME 
LEGISLATION, with a Translation of the 
German Mercantile Laws relating to 
Maritime Commerce. By ERNEST EMIL 
WENDT, D.C.L. Royal 8vo. i. us. 6d. 

West. WORKS BY CHARLES WEST, 

M.D. &c. 

LECTURES ON THE DISEASES OF IN- 
FANCY AND CHILDHOOD. 8vo. iSs. 
THE MOTHER'S MANUAL OF CHIL- 
DREN'S DISEASES. Crown 8vo. zs. 6d. 

Whately. WORKS BY E. JANE 

WHAT ELY. 
ENGLISH SYNONYMS. Edited by R. 

WHATELY, D.D. Fcp. 8vo. y. 
LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE OF 
RICHARD WHATELY, D.D., late Arch- 
bishop of Dublin. With Portrait. Crown 
8vo. ioj. 6a. 

Whately. WORKS BY R. WHATELY, 

D.D. 

ELEMENTS OF LOGIC. Cr. 8vo. 4*. 6d. 
ELEMENTS OF RHETORIC. Crown 

8vo. 4^. 6d. 
LESSONS ON REASONING. Fcp. 8vo. 

is. 6d. 
BACON'S ESSAYS, with Annotations. 

8vo. ios. 6d. 



Wilcocks. THE SEA FISHERMAN. 
Comprising the Chief Methods of Hook 
and Line Fishing in the British and other 
Seas, and Remarks on Nets, Boats, and 
Boating. By J. C. WILCOCKS. Pro- 
fusely Illustrated. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Wilks. LECTURES ON PATHOLOG- 
ICAL ANATOMY. By SAMUEL WILKS, 
M.D. F.R.S. and the late WALTER 
MOXON, M.D. F.R.C.P. Third Edi- 
tion, thoroughly Revised. By SAMUEL 
WILKS, M.D. LL.D. F.R.S. 8vo. i8j. 

Williams. PULMONARY CONSUMP- 
TION ; its Etiology, Pathology, and 
Treatment. By C. J. B. WILLIAMS, M.D. 
and CHARLES THEODORE WILLIAMS, 
M.A. M.D. Oxon. With 4 Coloured 
Plates and 10 Woodcuts. 8vo. i6s. 

Williams. MANUAL OF TELE- 
GRAPHY. By W. WILLIAMS, Superin- 
tendent of Indian Government Telegraphs. 
Illustrated by 93 Engravings. 8vo. IOJ . 6d. 

Williams. THE LAND OF MY 
FATHERS : a Story of Life in Wales. By 
T. MARCHANT WILLIAMS. Cr. 8vo. 2s.6d. 

Willich. POPULAR TABLES for 

giving Information for ascertaining the 
value of Lifehold, Leasehold, and Church 
Property, the Public Funds, &c. By 
CHARLES M. WILLICH. Edited by 
H. BENCE JONES. Crown 8vo. ios. 6d. 

Willoughby. EAST AFRICA AND 
ITS BIG GAME. The Narrative of a 
Sporting Trip from Zanzibar to the 
Borders of the Masai. By Capt. Sir 
JOHN C. WILLOUGHBY, Bart. Royal 
Horse Guards. With Postscript by Sir 
ROBERT G. HARVEY, Bart. Illustrated 
by G. D. Giles and Mrs. Gordon Hake. 
Those of the latter from Photographs 
taken by the Author. Royal 8vo. 

Wilson. A MANUAL OF HEALTH- 
SCIENCE. Adapted for Use in Schools. 
By ANDREW WILSON, F.R.S.E. F.L.S. 
&c. With 74 Illustrations. Crown 8vo. 

2f. 6d. 

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DA 

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B78A2 

1889 

v.1 



Bowen, (Sir) George 
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Thirty years of colonial 
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